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I 


Jftarbarli  CoUese  librarg 


BOUGHT  WtTH  INCOMB 


HENRY  LILLIE  PIERCE 

OF  BOSTON 


9 


«        » 


TEXT-BOOK 


•'r 


SEAMANSHIP 


THE  EQUIPPING  AND   HANDLING 

y 

V  i:  s  s  \i  L  s 

Under     Sail     or     Steam 

rxiTF.D  States  Naval  Acapemy 


Rear  Admiral  S.  B,  LUCE,  l\  S.  N. 


Lii:rTi:NANF  \v"   S.    lU^XSoX,   I'.   S.   X 


LiKUTiNANi   s.  >KAi;rkv,  r.  s.  x 


NEW    YORK: 

D.     VAN      1S30STRAND     CO 

23  Murray   and  27  Wakki  x  Sikkkt 


I  vav  vjwontjk 


AfomySSK.  ?  S 


r.: 


,  v-<     ».   •     t  V    1 


L 


BOUND  OCI  if  i9l3 


Copyright^  1884^  by  D.   Van  Nostrand, 


Copyrif^ht,  iSgS^  by  D,   Van  Nosirand  C0, 


J.  K.  *  K.  B.  SMITH, 

•uccaMom  TO 
SMITH  ft  MODOUGAL, 


Preface  to  the  Fourth  Edition. 


A  NEW  edition  of  Seamanship  having  been  called  for, 
-*^^  the  work  of  revising  the  late  edition  and  preparing 
the  present  one  for  the  press,  was  undertaken  by  Lieutenant 
W.  S.  Benson,  U.  S.  N. ,  Assistant  Instructor  in  the  Depart- 
ment of  Seamanship,  Naval  Academy,  Annapolis,  under  the 
general  supervision  of  Commander  Charles  M.  Thomas, 
U.  S.  N.,  the  very  able  head  of  that  Department. 

Lieutenant  Benson's  labors  have  been  attended  with 
marked  success,  notwithstanding  the  distractions  due  to 
the  breaking  out  of  the  war  with  Spain. 

It  is  hoped  the  work,  in  its  present  form,  may  x>rove  ac- 
ceptable to  those  for  whom  it  is  intended. 

S.  B.  LUCE. 

Bear-AdiinniL  l\  S.  X. 

Newport,  R.  I.,   )  (retired.) 

August  5th,  ISUS.  S 


/ 


Revisers  Note  to  the  Edition  of  1884. 


/^  RATEFUL  acknowledgments  are  due  to  those  whose 
^-^  contributions  to  the  text  have  enhanced  the  value 
of  this  work. 

Commander  F.  V.  McNair  has  permitted  the  use  of  his 
pamphlet  on  Seamanship  Drills. 

The  chapter  on  the  Laws  of  Storms  is  taken  principally 
from  the  lecture  of  Lieutenant-Commander  Thomas  Nelson, 
Vol.  V,  Proceedings  U.  S.  Xaval  Institute. 

Chapter  XIX.  is  i)ractically  a  reprint  of  Lieutenant  D. 
Delehanty's  pamphlet  :  *'  Cadet  Midshipman's  Manual." 

Chapter  XXXV.  has  been  prepared  from  notes  furnished 
by  Lieutenant-Commander  Z.  L.  Tanner,  together  with 
data  from  the  lectures  of  Constructor  R.  H.  White,  R.  N., 
and  from  the  professional  pamphlets  of  the  German  Ad- 
miralty on  steamers  and  screw  propulsion. 

The  suggestions  made  by  Boatswain  Robert  Anderson, 
U.  S.  N.,  have  been  of  special  importance.  Getting  a  lower 
yard  on  board,  sending  down  a  lower  yard  inside  of  rigging, 
rigging  derricks,  and  carrying  out  anchors  between  two 
cutters  in  shoal  water,  are  described  from  actual  work  per- 
formed under  his  direction. 

To  Commander  Taylor,  Lieutenants  Berry,  Nazro,  and 
Holman,  U.  S.  N".,  and  to  many  other  officers,  sincere  thanks 
are  tendered  for  their  assistance  and  suggestions  in  the 
revision  of  the  proofs.  AARON  WARD, 

Lieutenant,  U,  S,  X. 


REVISER'S   NOTE. 


TN  the  present  revision  the  attempt  has  been  made  to 
-*-  eliminate  obsolete  matter  and  to  introduce  as  much 
new  material  as  the  limited  time  would  permit.  The 
general  arrangement  has  remained  unchanged. 

The  chapter  on  storms  has  been  compiled  by  Mr.  R.  L. 
Lerch,  under  direction  of  the  Hydrographer  of  the  Navy 
Department. 

The  descriptions  and  plates  of  sounding  machines, 
patent  logs,  marine  sentry,  &c.,  have  been  taken  from  the 
various  pamphlets  on  those  subjects. 

Description  and  plates  of  steam  capstan  were  obtained 
from  the  Bath  Iron  Works,  and  those  of  steam  steering 
gear  from  the  Williamson  Brothers. 

The  chapter  on  organization  is  omitted,  as  no  estab- 
lished system  has  as  yet  received  oflBcial  approval. 

W.  S.  BENSON, 
Lieiitenant,  ?".  S.  X 

IT.  S.  H.  S.  Vermont,      ) 
Xew  York,  Sept.  27,  1898.  ) 


CONTENTS. 


CBArrBR  PAOS 

I. — The  Ship — Definitions 1-  12 

II.— The  Compass— The  Lead— The  Log 18-23 

III.— Ron: 24-82 

IV.— Knotting,  Splicino,  etc 33-  49 

v.— Bum  Ks 50-54 

VL— Tackles 55-62 

VI L — Masts  and  Yards — Rudder — Mastino 63-  78 

VIIL— Standing  Rigging 74-  85 

IX.— RiocjiNG  Ship H6-130 

X.— Sails 131-143 

XI. — Purchasing  Weights 144-155 

XI I. — Stowage  and  Sources  op  Supply 156-162 

XIII.— Boats 168-198 

XIV.— Ground-Tackle 194-219 

XV. — Capstan — Steam  Windijiss — Steering  Gear 220-224 

XVI, — Mooring — Clearing  Hawse 225-232 

XVII. — Carrying  out  Anchors  by  Boats 233-239 

XVIII. — Port  Drills  with  Sails  and  Spars,  and  Miscellaneous 

Port  Kvolutions 240-272 

XIX. — International  Regulations  for  Preventing  Collisions 

AT  Sea 27:^285 

XX. — Getting  Under  Way  and  Anchoring  Under  Sail 286-298 

XXI.— The  Deck- Making  and  Taking  in  Sail 299-814 

XXII.— Working  to  Windward 815-881 

XXlll.— Wind  Baffling 832-888 

XXIV. — Two  or  more  Vessels  Communicating  at  Sea — Heaving  to 

— Filling  Away — Squalls — Man  Overboard — Sounding  889-848 

XXV. — Reefi.vg  -Turning  Out  Reefs 849-855 

XXVI.— The  Weather— Law  of  Storms 856-8T4 

XXVII. — In  a  Gale — Scudding  —  Lying-to  —  Rudder  gone — Cut- 
ting AWAY  Masts — Use  of  Oil 875-888 

XXVI 1 1. — Parting  Rigging — Shifting  Spars,  etc 8S9-8t>7 


Vin  CONTEXTS. 

CHAITEH  I'AtiK 

X\IX.— II ANDiJxr.  FoRK-AND- Afters 39iS-407 

XXX. — ILxXDLixo  Vksskls  rxDKR  Stkam 40S-4H9 

XXXI. — (1i:ttix({  ox  Shork — Lkakixcs — IIkavixo  Down ..  440-44Sf 

XXX 1 1. — UxiTEi)  JStates  Life-Savix(i  Service 450-459 


APPENDIX. 

A. — I{()PE-MAKix(i — Table  of  Dimexskins  of  Rope 4()l-40({ 

15. — ClTTIXU    AXI)    FlTTIXC    Ul/M'K    STRAPS 4()T-4(kS 

(\ — TiRXixc    IX    Old-fasiiioxei)    Dkadeyks  —  Ui'LEs    FOR    Size    of 

SiiKorns 4(J1I-472 

I).— Stavix(j   Masts  hy  Use  of  Battens 472-47;J 

K. — Tables  of  Flax  axd  Cottox  (*anvas 478-474 

F. — Maxa<jemext  of  ()i*ex  Hoats  ix  SiRF 474-47({ 

G. — Hoi'TiNE — Preparin(5  Siiip  FOR  Sea 477-4SI 

]1.__Tarrix(J  Down— S(RAPL\(i  Spars— Talntino  Ship,  etc 481-48:> 

I.  _1n  a  Tideway  Txiier  Saii 4H;{-4,Sr) 

K. — Tenimn<j  Ship  at  Anchor — Fire  Booms 4S5-4S9 

L. TiRNixo    Kxperiments  —  Methods    of    Determining    Tactical 

Diameters 49(U")07 

]\I. — Taxnkh  SorxDiNo  Machine 508-500 

X. —Ship's  Papers 5(H)-510 

(),_TeRMS  I'SED  IX  SHIPBriLI)IN(i 51 1-54*2 

'»  ..       ««   Naval  Architectcre 548-555 

P._Servi(  E  BrcLE  Calls 556-5(58 

Index ^^59-579 


T 


ir^  p 


mu. 


if'i 


:M 


CHAPTER     I  . 

THE     SHIP. 

6ENKBAL  REMARKS  ON  THE  HULL,   SPAK8,   AND  SAILS. — DEFINITIONS. 

Ships  are  usually  built  on  stocks  and  launched  on  ways, 
which  are  inclined  planes  leading  to  the  water's  edge. 
Sometimes  vessels  are  built  in  docks,  which  are  artificial 
basins  with  level  floors,  shut  off  from  outside  waters  by 
gates,  or  by  a  single  dam.  known  as  a  caisson.  These  gates 
are  water-tight  and  can  be  opened  or  closed  ;  the  dock  is 
supplied  with  means  for  pumping  out  the  water,  or  letting  it 
in.  Tlie  following  is  an  outline  of  tlie  principal  parts  of  the 
hull  of  a  wooden  ship. 

The  lowest  fore  and  aft  piece  which  forms  the  founda- 
tion of  a  ship  is  called  the  keel  (Plate  I,  No.  1).  It  is  of 
live-oak,  or  elm,  and  made  of  several  pieces,  the  joints  of 
which  are  known  as  scarphs. 

To  receive  the  edge  ot  the  first  row,  or  strake,  of  outside 
planking,  called  the  garboard  strake  (2),  the  keel  is  scored 
throughout  its  length,  the  score  being  styled  a  rabbet  (3). 

To  protect  the  main  keel  from  injury  in  grounding  there 
is  fitted  under  it  a  false  keel  (4),  bolted  on  after  the  bolts 
which  secure  the  frames  to  the  main  keel  are  clinched. 

The  forward  end  of  the  shij)  is  formed  of  the  stem  (5), 
usually  of  live-oak,  and  inclining  forward  from  the  keel. 
A  rabbet,  similar  to  the  one  scored  in  the  keel,  is  cut  into 
the  sides  of  the  stem  and  receives  the  forward  ends  of  the 
outside  planking,  which  are  called  the  fore  hood-ends. 

The  stem  is  oacked  and  strengthened  by  the  apron  ((3), 
placed  abaft  it,  and  by  the  deadwood  (7). 

Deadwood  consists  of  timbers  that  fill  the  spaces  where, 
owing  to  the  shape  of  the  vessel,  the  floor-timbers  have  to 
he  discontinued. 

Inside  of  the  forward  deadwood  and  the  apron  is  the 
stemson  (8),  a  large  knee  which  joins  the  apron  to  the 
upper  part  of  the  deadwood. 

The  after-end  of  the  ship  is  bounded  by  the  stern-post 
(9),  usually  of  live-oak,  which  stands  perpendicular  to  the 
keel  or  slightly  inclined  aft.  It  is  fitted  like  the  stem  with 
a  rabbet  on  each  side  to  receive  the  after-ends  of  the  out- 
side planking,  or  after-hoods,  and  it  is  strengthened  by  the 
introduction  of  a  stem-post  knee  (10),  inner  post  (11),  and 
the  after-dead  wood  (12).  Above  the  latter  is  the  after- 
deadwood  knee  (13). 


{ 


2  THE    SHIP. 

Screw  vessels  have  generally  two  stem-posts ;  the  after 
one,  which  carries  the  rudder,  is  called  the  rudder-post. 

The  joining  of  the  stem-post  to  the  keel  is  effected  by 
tenons  and  bolts. 

The  frames  (14)  form  the  ribs  of  the  ship.  They  stand 
mostly  at  ri^ht  angles  to  the  keel  and  each  is  formed  of 
two  parts  joined  together,  each  part  being  in  itself  made 
up  01  several  pieces.  The  lowest  portions  of  a  square 
frame  are  called  the  floor-timbers  ;  above  these  come  the 
futtocks,  then  the  long  or  short  top-pieces.  The  starboard 
andport  side  of  each  frame  form  one  continuous  piece. 

where,  owing  to  the  form  of  the  ship,  the  frames  do 
not  stand  at  right  angles  to  the  keel,  they  are  called  cant 
frames. 

The  following  parts  of  the  ship  serve  to  secure  the 
above-mentioned  portions  together  and  give  the  structure 
stiffness  and  strength:   viz.,  the    keelsons,    breast-hooks 
15^  and  stem-hooks  (16),  outer  and  inner  planking,  beams 
17)  and  diagonal  braces. 

The  main  keelson  (18)  is  a  fore  and  aft  timber  which  is 
laid  directly  over  the  keel  on  the  floor-timbers  and  may 
extend  beyond  the  latter  and  over  the  deadwood,  forward 
and  aft.  The  keelson  is  bolted  through  frames,  keel,  and 
deadwood.  There  are  usually  additional  keelsons  at  each 
side  of  the  main  keelson,  known  as  sister  keelsons  (20). 
There  are  also  boiler  or  bilge  keelsons  to  support  the 
boilers  (19).  Bilge-keels  are  exterior  keels  bolted  on  to 
the  bottom  of  the  ship  on  either  side  of,  and  parallel  to,  the 
main  keel,  and  at  some  distance  from  the  latter,  to  prevent 
rolling  in  vessels  of  certain  form. 

To  hold  the  two  sides  of  the  ship  together  in  the  for- 
ward and  after  ends,  where  the  frames  have  no  floor-tim- 
bers crossing  the  keel,  owing  to  the  form  of  the  ship,  there 
are  worked  m  knee-shaped,  horizontal  timbers,  either  with 
a  natural  curve,  or  formed  of  two  or  more  pieces  backed  by 
an  iron  or  wooden  knee.  These  curved  supports,  secured 
to  either  side  of  the  ship,  are  termed  breast-nooks  (15)  for- 
ward and  stem-hooks  (16)  aft ;  when  they  support  a  deck 
they  are  called  deck-hooks. 

The  outer  planking  of  a  ship  is  formed  of  a  number  of 
oak  planks  of  varying  thickness,  but  nearly  parallel  when 
placed  in  position  over  the  frames. 

To  check  marine  growth  on  the  bottom  of  vessels  and 
the  consequent  decrease  of  speed,  all  wooden  vessels  of  war 
are  sheathed  with  copper  from  the  keel  to  a  point  some 
distance  above  their  line  of  flotation^  or  "water-line." 

The  inner  planking  is  not  contmuous,  as  in  the  case 
of  outside  planking,  and  in  different  parts  of  the  ship 
is  called  by  different  names.  It  is  known  as  the  lim- 
ber-strakes  (21)  nearest  the  keelson.  These  strakes  ex- 
tend along  the  bottom  of  the  ship  on  either  side  of  the 
keelson.    As  the  planking  is  carried  up  the  side  beyond  the 


THE  SHIP.  3 

limber-strakes  it  is  known  as  the  ceiling  (22)  :  following  it 
up  higher  we  find  projecting  ledges,  callea  shelf -pieces, 
or  clamps,  placed  inside  the  frames  to  receive  the  deck- 
beams. 

The  deck-beams  (17),  extending  from  side  to  side  of  the 
ship,  holding  the  sides  together,  form  the  support  for  the 
decK-planking.  The  beams  are  supported  oy  posts  or 
stancnions  (23)  in  their  centre,  and  by  clami)s  at  each  end. 
They  are  jomed  to  the  sides  of  the  snip  by  iron  or  wooden 
knees,  known  as  hanging  (24),  lodging  (25),  lap  (26)^  or 
daeger  (corruption  of  diagonal)  knees,  from  their  positions 
and  form. 

The  waterways  (27)  are  timbers  set  in  the  side  over  the 
tops  of  the  deck-beams  and  bolted  to  these  and  to  the 
frames  at  the  side. 

Decks  are  of  oak,  teak,  or  yellow  pine,  and  are  spiked 
to  each  deck-beam  over  which  they  pass. 

Vessels  owe  much  of  their  strength  to  the  use  of  diagonal 
trusses  or  braces,  of  metal,  secured  inside  of  the  frame- 
timbers  and  forming  a  net-work  which  binds  the  frames 
firmly  together. 

To  the  above  outline  of  the  parts  of  the  hull  is  appended 
a  list  of  prominent  interior  fittings  and  of  the  terms  used 
in  describing  them.  As  will  be  seen,  some  apply  only  to 
wooden  ships;  and  some  to  both  wooden  and  iron  ships  alike. 

Aft.    At  or  near  the  stem  of  the  ship. 

After  passage.  Usually  a  space  in  the  after  orlop  of  frigates,  being  a  passage- 
way to  the  different  store-rooms  on  that  deck. 

Air-port.  Hole  cat  in  ship's  side  to  give  light  and  air  to  berth-deck.  Usuallj 
drenlar. 

Amidships.    In  or  near  the  middle  of  the  ship. 

Apron.  A  timber  eecnred  in  rear  of  the  stem  to  strengthen  it  at  the  joint  of 
upper  and  lower  stem-pieces. 

Athwartships.    In  the  direction  of  the  ship's  breadth. 

Bag-room.  Where  clothing-bags  of  crew  are  stored.  Usually  forward  on  the 
berth-deck  or  lauding  off  of  fore- passage. 

Ballast.  Stone  or  iron  placed  In  the  hold  to  bring  the  ship  down  to  her  proper 
Ihie  of  flotation  and  give  stability. 

Beams.    Timbers  that  extend  from  side  to  side,  supportinff  the  decks. 

Beo^blocks.  damps  bolted  to  the  bowsprit  through  which  reeve  the  fore-top- 
mast stays. 

Belaying-pin.  A  pin  of  wood  or  metal  at  the  side  of  the  vessel  or  on  the  masts, 
around  whicn  a  rope  is  fastened  or  belayed 

Bends.  The  thickest  outside  planking,  extending  from  a  little  below  the  water- 
line  to  the  lower  gun-deck  ports. 

Beith-deck.    The  sleeping  and  mess-deck  of  the  crew  and  officers  of  a  ship. 

Bibbs.  Pieces  of  timber  on  either  side  of  the  mast  to  which  the  trestle  trees 
are  secured,  and  upon  which  they  rest. 

Bilge.     The  flat  part  of  a  ship's  body  on  each  side  of  the  keel. 

Bilge-keels.  Long  pieces  of  wood  or  iron  aflixed  to  ship's  bottom  to  lessen  tho 
rolling  motion. 

Bill-board.    A  ledge  on  the  ship's  bow  to  receive  the  fluke  of  the  anchor. 

Binnacle.  The  case  mounted  on  a  stand  in  which  the  compass  is  carried  when 
in  use. 

Bitts.  Large  vertical  timbers  projecting  above  the  deck  to  secure  the  ship's 
cable,  also  vertical  posts  to  secure  the  main-tack,  main-sheet,  etc.,  accord- 
ing to  location. 


4  THE  SHIP. 

Bout-chocks.     Blocks  of  w(xxl  shaped  to  receive  the  bottoms  of  boatft,  when 

hoisted  ia. 
Bolsters.     Rounded  blocks  of  wood  filling  the  angle  between  the  treatle-tree 

and  the  mast,  to  prevent  chafing  of  the  ringing  a^rainst  the  former. 
Bolts.     Pieces  of  iron  or  other  metal   used  in   fastening  parts  of  the  ship 

togethcT. 
Booby-hatch.     A   small  hatchway,  or  the  covering  or  companion  of  such  an 

aperture. 
Boom-iron.     Iron  rings  secured  to  one  yard  or  spar,  to  support  another  spar, 

which  {jasses  through  the  iron.     Such  are  the  studaing-sail  boom-irons 

on  the  lower  and  top-sail  yards. 
Bowsprit-bed.     The  |>art  of  the  stem  on  which  the  bowsprit  rests. 
Bread-room.     The  store-nx)ms  in  which  are  kept  the  ship's  allowance  of  hard- 
bread,  etc.     Usuully  situated  in  the  after  orlop. 
Break  of  Forecastle.     Where  the  rise  of  the  forecastle  towards  the  waist  of 

the  ship,  ends.     Commonly  used  to  define  the  after  side  of  a  top-gallant 

forecastle. 
Break  of  Poop.     Where  the  rise  of  the  poop  towards  the  waist,  ends.     Com- 
monly used  in  speaking  of  the  forward  end  of  the  poop. 
Breast-hooks.     Knees,  or  an  assemblage  of  timbers,  set  in  the  bows  of  ships 

and  secured  on  cither  side  to  the  timbere  of  the  liow. 
Bridle-ports.     The  ship's  forward  gun-ports.     Through  these  ports  are  led  the 

bridles  of  tow-lines  or  warps. 
Bridge.     A  light  structure  extending  across  the  ship  above  the  spar-deck,  to 

afford  the  officer  of  the  deck  or  lookout  a  place  for  oliservation. 
Bucklers.     Shutters  used  in  closing  hawse-pipes  (hawse-bucklers),  or  filling  the 

circular  opening  of  half- ports  when  there  is  no  gun  in  the  port  (port- 

bucklersV 
Bulk-heads.    Partitions  that  divide  off  different  pirts  of  the  ship. 
Bulwarks.     The  sides  of  the  ship  above  the  upper  deck. 
Bumpkin.     A  projection  of  wood  or  iron   from  the  bow  or  quarter,  to  give 

proper  angle  for  the  lead  of  the  fore-tack  or  main-brace. 
Cabin.     The  quarters  of  the  commanding  officer  of  a  ship.    On  the  gun-deck  of 

a  ship  with  flush  spar-deck,  or  under  the  poop  {pof/p-eabin)  of  a  single- 

deeked  vessel  or  one  having  a  poop  in  addition  to  a  covered  $;un-deck. 

In  the  Iwtter  case  the  gun-deck  cabin  is  usually  occupied  by  a  flag  officer. 
Cable-tier.     Formerly  platforms  on  which  the  ship's  cables  were  coiled.    At 

present  understoiKl  to  mean   light   platforms  in  the  wings  where  spare 

rigging  is  stowed. 
Cant-frames.     Frames,  forward  and  aft,  which  are  not  at  right  angles  to  the 

central  fore  and  aft  line  of  the  vessel. 
Cap.     A  joint  fitted  over  the  heads  of  masts  to  8ui)i)ort  the  next  higher  mast, 

which  passes  through  a  hole  in  the  cap. 
Cap-shore.     A  stout  upright  which  Bup})ort8  the  forward  edge  of  the  lower  cap. 
Capstan.     A  barrel  of  wood  or  metal  that  revolves  horizontally  on  a  spindle ; 

is  used  with  capstan-bars  or  moved  round  by  steam  to  raise  heavy  weights, 

weiffh  anchor,  etc. 
Carlings  (28).     Short  timbers  running  fore  and  aft,  connecting  the  beams. 
Cat-head.      An    iron   or  wooden  projection  from  the  ship's  bow  to  raise  the 

anchor  clear  of  the  water. 
Caulking.     Filling  the  senms  of  a  ship  with  oakum  or  cotton. 
Cavil.     A  large  wooden  cleat  used  f<»r  belaying. 
Ceiling.     Portions  of  the  inside  planking  of  a  ship. 
Chains  (see  ('hannels).     C/iain  chests.     Lockers  in  the  channels  for  the  storage 

of  wash-deck  gear. 
Chain-lockers.     Receptacles  for  the  chain  cables  of  the  ship,  usually  forward 

of  the  main-mast  in  tlie  main-hold. 
Chain-pipes.      Iron  linings  of  the  hok»8  through  which  the  cables  are  led  in 

passing  from  one  deck  to  another. 
Chain-plates.     Iron  plates  for  securing  lower  dead-eyes  to  ship's  side. 
Channels.     Ledges  of  plank  projecting  from  the  side  to  give  additional  spread 

to  the  lower  shrouds. 


THE  SHIP.  5 

Chess-trees.     Pieces  of  timber  Iwltnl  in  the  top-sidos,  with  sheaves  for  fore  and 

main   sheets,  after  gxivn.  etc.      Tliose   for  the  fore  and  main  sheets  are 

known  also  as  fore  and  main  sheet  **  chocks." 
Cleats.     Pieces  of  wcx)d  with  projecting  arms,  used  for  belaying  ropes. 
Coaming.     A   raised    lK)uudary    to   hatchways,    to    keej)   water  from    getting' 

down,  etc. 
Cockpit.     A  spac;*  i>elow  the  after  hatchway  under  the  hertli-deck  ;  usually  the 

forwurd  end  of  the  after  passage. 
Compressor,      in  its  siinnlr^!  t  iiiu,  an  iron  lin-er  fitted  lulow  each  cliMin-pipe. 

Tlh"  «'liain  i>  eontrolied.  when  running  out,  l)y  beini^  jammed  i)eiwet'n  the 

compressor  arm  and  ed^e  of  the  chain-pipe. 
Counter.     The  rounding  of  the  stern  over  the  run. 
Cross-trees.     Thwartship  timbers,  suj)ported  l)y  tlie  l)il)l)s  and  trestk'-trecs  to 

sustain  the  frame  of  the  top,  constitute  tlie  U)Wcr  cross-trees.     Top-mast 

•  ross-trees  resting  on  the  top-mast   trestle-trees,  extend  the  top-gallnnr 

shrouds. 
Cutwater.     The  forward  part  of  a  ship's  l)ow.  forming  tlie  forward  edy:e  of 

t)ie  stem. 
Dagger-knee.     A  knee  which  i>  im-lincd  diu^ronally.  usually  to  clear  a  p<irt. 
Dayits.     Cranes  project intif  fnmi  the  siiip'.^  side  to  lioist  boats,  etc.  . 

Deadeye.     A    round    flattish   wooden   block  encircled   by  an   iron   sti'.ip  and 

pierced  \v'ith  holes  to  receive  a  laniard  hy  means  of  which  rigging  and 

stays  are  set  un  taut. 
Dead-^rood.     Tiuiber  built  up  on  top  of  the  keel  to  give  solid  wood  for  sup- 

lK)rting  the  heels  of  cant  frames. 
Decks.     The  different  platforms  of  ships. 

Dispensary.     Tlie  .ship's  pharinacy,  usually  placed  on  starboard  side  of  berth- 
deck  forward  of  warrant  otiicers'  rooms,  may  also  l)e  in  or  near  sick-bay. 
Dolphin-striker.     A  small  spar  ])roj«.K*ting  downward  from  below  the  Iwwsprit 

to  extend  certain  rigging  of  the  head-booms  and  keep  the  latt<T  in  ])lace. 
Eye-bolt.     A  projecting  IxvU  of  which,  the  head  is  fashioned  into  an  eye,  used 

for  hooking  tackles,  etc. 
Fid.     A  bar  of  iron  or  wood  which  pa.sses  through  a  fid-hole  in  the  heel  of  a 

mast  and  rests  on  the  trestle-trees  on  either  side. 
Fife-rail.     Rails  placed  around  each  mast,  fitted  with* belay ing-pins  to  belay  ropes. 
Fish-davit.      A  movable  piece  of  timber  or  iron  projection,  used  to  raise  the 

fluke  of  an  anchor  and  place  it  on  the  bill-board. 
Fishes.     Pieces  of  wood  or  iron   used   in   effecting    temporary  repairs   with 

injnred  masts,  yards,  etc. 
Floor-timbers.     Tunbers  of  the  frames  which  lie  directly  acro.ss  the  keel. 
Fore  and  Aft.     Lying  in  the  direction  of  the  ship's  length. 
Forecastle.     Tlie  upper-deck  of  a  man-of-war  forward  of  the  after  part  of  the 

tore-channels. 
Fore-foot.     The  forward  end  of  the  keel. 
Fore-hold.      The  forward  part  of  the  hold,  usually  e'xtendiug  from  abaft  the 

tore  passage  to  about  midway  between  fore  and  main  masts. 
Fore-passage.     A   passageway   below  the  berth -deck  leading  to  the  general 

store-room  and  with  entraJices  on   either  side  to  various  si)ecial  store 

rocjms,  sail-room,  etc. 
Fore-peak.     The  narrow  part  of  a  vessi'l's  hold  close  to  the  bow  and  under  the 

lowest  deck,  often  accessible  only  from  the  general  store-room. 
Funnel.     An  iron  band  at  a  mast-head  around  wliicli  the  rigging  fits. 
Futtock-plates.     Iron  jjlates  to  which  the  dcnideyes  of  the  topmast  rigginir 

and  futtock-shrouds  are  secured. 
Futtocks.     Timbers  of  the  frame  between  the  floors  and  top-timbers. 
Gammoning.     The  lashing  or  iron  strap  by  which  the  bowsprit  is  secured  to  the 

stem. 
Gangway.     The  spar-deck  on  each  side  of  the  booms  between  the  quarter-deck 

and  for««a8tle.     Also  an  open  space  through  the  bulwarks  as  a  passage 

way  in  and  out  of  the  ship. 
General  Store-room.     Is  situated  below  the  berth-deck  and  at  the  forward  end 

of  the  fore-pasflage. 


6  THE    SHIP. 

Gooseneck.  A  bent  nieoe  of  iron  uaed  to  connect  a  boom  to  a  mast  hj  entering 
an  eye-bolt  or  clamp,  and  capable  of  movement  at  tbe  curve. 

Grating;.     An  open  latticed  covering  for  hatches,  etc. 

Gripe.  A  piece  bolted  on  forward  of  the  stem,  forming  the  lower  end  of  the 
catwater. 

Gun-deck  A  covered  deck  of  a  man-of-war  carrying  the  whole  or  a  portion  of 
her  battery.  When  the  guns  are  carried  on  the  upper-deck,  its  name  as 
spar-deck  remains  unchanged. 

Gun-room.     Obsolete  expression  for  the  quarters  of  the  commissioned  officers. 

Gunwale.  Tlje  covering-piece  of  the  heads  of  the  timbers  in  a  small  vessel,  or 
boat. 

Half-deck.  That  part  of  the  gun-deck  between  the  main  and  mizzen  masts  on 
each  side. 

Hammock-nettinf  8.  Trough-shaped  receptacles  along  the  rail  on  either  side, 
ki  which  the  hammocks  are  stowed.  A  net- work  of  ropes  was  formerly 
used  for  this  purpose,  hence  the  term;  other  nettings  will  be  described,  as 
used. 

Hanging-knee.     Knee  placed  vertically  under  a  deck -beam. 

Hatoi.  An  o[«ning  in  a  deck,  forming  a  passage  from  one  deck  to  another, 
and  into  the  holds. 

Hawse-buckler.     A  plate  used  for  closing  the  opening  of  tbe  hawse-hole. 

Hawse-holes.     Holes  in  the  bows  of  the  ship  through  which  pasH  the  cables. 

Hawse-pipe.     Iron  lining  of  the  hawse-holes  to  take  the  chafe  of  the  cables. 

Hawse-plug.  Plugs  which  fill  the  hawse-pipes  to  prevent  the  entrance  of  water 
when  the  cables  are  unbent.  Usually  made  of  canvas  and  stuffed,  then 
termed  "jackasses." 

Head-board,  boards  placed  at  the  forward  and  after  ends  of  the  hammock- 
nettings. 

Helm.  Strictly,  the  bar  by  means  of  which  the  rudder  is  moved  from  side  to 
side.  Usually  understood  to  mean  the  rudder,  tiller,  and  wheel,  or  the 
whole  of  the  steering  arrangement. 

Hold.  The  interior  i^art  of  ship  in  which  the  stores  or  cargo,  etc.,  are  stowed. 
In  a  man-of-war  if  there  are  two  holds  the  forward  one  is  called  the  fore- 
hold  and  the  after  one.  whatever  its  position,  the  main  hold. 

Horse-block.  A  small  raised  platform  abreast  the  mizzen-mast,  for  the  use  of 
the  officer  of  the  deck  when  the  ship  is  not  supplied  with  a  bridge. 

Hounds.     A  projection  on  a  mast  for  the  trestle-trees  to  rest  upon. 

Hull.     The  main  body  of  the  ship. 

Inboard.    In  the  interior  of  the  ship,  as  distinguished  from  outboard. 

Keelson.  A  timber  in  the  interior  of  the  sliip  bolted  on  over  the  keel  and 
floor  timbers. 

Knight-heads.  Strong  uprights  on  each  side  of  the  upper  part  of  the  stem  to 
strengthen  the  bow  and  support  the  bow8i)rit. 

Ledges  (29).  Light  beams,  parallel  to  the  deck -beams  butting  on  the  clamps 
and  carlings. 

Life-rails.  Consist  of  stanchions  heeled  on  the  gunwale  or  planksheer  with 
chain  running  from  stanchion  to  stanchion.  Pipe  may  be  substituted 
for  chain. 

Light-boxes.  Frames  in  which  are  set  the  side-lights  of  a  vessel  when  under 
way. 

Limbers.  Gutters  on  each  side  of  the  keelson  to  allow  the  water  to  pass  into 
the  pump-well.     Limber-boards,  the  covering  of  the  limbers. 

Life-buoy.     An  apparatus  for  the  assistance  of  those  who  may  fall  overboard. 

Locker.  A  drawer  or  chest  that  may  be  closed  with  a  lock.  Shot  locker,  a 
compartment  in  the  hold  for  storing  shot ;  cJiain-locker,  a  similar  compart- 
ment for  the  chain-cables. 

Magazine.    The  store-room  for  the  ship's  powder. 

Main-hold.  Tliat  portion  of  the  hold  which  extends  from  a  short  distance  for- 
ward of  the  main-mast  to  the  break  of  the  orlop-deck. 

Manger.  Part  of  the  deck  divided  oflf  forward  to  prevent  any  water  from 
running  aft  that  may  enter  through  the  hawse-holes. 


THB    SHIP.  7 

Manger-boArd.    A  plank  numing  across  the  deck  a  short  dUrtanoe  abaft  the 

the  hawse-pipes,  the  after  boundary  of  the  manger. 
Mast-coat.    A  canvas-coTering  fitted  around  the  mast  and  over  the  wedges  to 

prevent  leakage  around  the  mast. 
Naval-pipe.    Same  as  chain-pipe. 

Oakam.    Old  rope  picked  to  pieces,  like  hemp,  used  in  caulkinff. 
Orlop-deck.     Usually  a  half-deck  extending  aft  from  the  main -hold,  a  distance 

depending  greatly  upon  the  shape  of  tlie  after  body. 
Outboard.    On  the  outside  of  the  ship,  in  contradistinction  to  inboard. 
Partners.    The  framing  around  a  mast-hole,  to  take  the  direct  strain  of  the 

mast  and  mast- wedges. 
Pawl.    An  iron  arm  on  a  capstan  to  keep  it  from  recoiling. 
Pin-rail.    A  railing  on  each  side  of  the  ship  abreast  of  the  masts,  fitted  with 

belaying  pins  for  securing  ropes. 
Pay.    To  pay  a  seam  is  to  pour  hot  pitch  and  tar  into  it  after  it  has  been 

caulked. 
Poop.    A  deck  raised  above  the  after  part  of  the  spar-deck,  reaching  forward  to 

the  mizzen-mast. 
Port.     An  opening  cut  in  the  side  of  the  ship  through  which  a  gun  nmy  be 

discharged. 
Port.    The  left  side  of  a  ship  looking  forward,  as  distinguislied  from  starboard. 
Pump-well.     The  part  of  ttie  bilge  upon  which  the  suction  of  the  pump  acts 

directly. 
Quarter-deck.     Usually  that  part  of  the  spar-deck  which  extends  from  the 

stem  to  the  main-mast. 
Quarter-^alleiy.     Projections  from  the  quarters  of  a  vessel. 
Rake.    The  inclination  of  a  mast,  etc.,  from  a  perpendicular  direction  to  the 

keeL 
Ridin&^-bitts.    The  bitta  around  which  the  ship's  cables  are  taken. 
Rine-bolts.     Eye-bolts  having  a  ring  through  the  eye  of  the  bolt. 
Rucmer.    The  instrument  by  which  a  ship  is  steered. 
Run.    Ttie  narrowing  of  the  after  part  of  the  ship. 
Sail-room.    Storage-room  for  spare  sails,  hammocks,  and  sail-maker's  stores. 

In  modern  ships  usually  ojiens  into  the  after-passage  ;  some  vessels  have 

forward  sail -rooms  in  fore-passage. 
Sampson-knee.     A  heavy  timber  forward  of  the  riding-bitts  which  serves  to 

strengthen  the  latter. 
Shell-room.    Storage- room  for  explosive  project! lea 
Shore.     A  post  or  timber  used  as  a  temporary  support. 

Sick-bay.    The  hospital  of  the  ship,  usually  situated  forward  on  the  berth- 
deck. 
Scuppers.    Holes  cut  through  the  waterways  and  side  to  allow  water  to  run  off 

the  decks. 
Scuttle.     A  small  circular  aperture  in  a  deck  not  intended  for  the  passage  of 

persons,  through  which  powder,  etc.,  may  be  passed  from  one  deck  to 

another. 
Sheathing;.     Usaally  understood  to  mean  a  covering  of  copper,  felt,  etc. ,  placed 

over  a  portion  of  the  ship's  surface  to  protect  it.     Copper  sheathing  covers 

the  immersed  part  of  a  ship  to  protect  it  from  marine  growth. 
Spar-deck.    The  upper  de^k  of  a  ship-of-war. 
Spirketing.    The  inside  planking  of  a  ship  extending  from  the  lower  edges  of 

the  gun-ports  to  the  waterways. 
Spirit-room.     A  name  formerly  given  to  the  paymaster's  store-room  in  the  after- 
part  of  the  after-hold,  reserved  for  stowage  of  spirits     The  name  applies 

at  present  to  the  pavmaster's  store-room  for  dry  provisions. 
Stanchions.    Uprights  placed  under  deck-beams  to  support  them  in  the  centre, 

also  called  pillars. 
Starboard.     The  right  side  of  a  ship  looking  forward,  as  distinguished  from 

port. 
Steerage.     The  quarters  of  junior  officers  and  clerks,  situated  outside  the 

ward-room  on  either  side  of  the  deck,  the  space  between  the  two  steerage- 
rooms  being  known  as  the  steerage-country. 


8  THE  SHIP. 

Stem.     The  forward  boundary  of  a  nhip,  tlio  continuation  of  the  keel  to  the 

height  of  tlu»  deck. 
Steps  of  Mast.     Places  inU>  which  the  lower  ends  or  Jials  of  lower  masts  are 

secured  or  stepped.     The  fore  and  main  masts  are  stepped  at  present  in 

iron  siepH  fittecl  over  the  main- keelson,  with  flanges  to  the  sister-keelsons. 

The  mizzen-mast  step  is  a  piece  of  timber  secured  to  the  orlop  or  berth 

deck  beams. 
Stern.     The  after-part  of  the  ship. 
Stern-post.     The  after-boundary  of  the  shij).  a  continuation  of  the  keel,  tenoned 

into  the  latter  and  secured  to  it  in  addition  by  composition  ))lates. 
Sv^eep-pieces.     Ledjres  of  wood  hinged  to  the  inner  eilgen  of  gun-yorts  to  give 

additional  facility  in  trainine:  the  iruns. 
Taffrail.     The  rail  around  a  ship's,  stern. 
Tenon.     The  end  of  one  piece  of  wood  diminished  and  cut  with  shoulders  to 

fit  in  a  hole  of  another  piece,  called  a  mortise. 
Thole-pin.     Pins  fitted  in  the  gunwale  of  a  boat,  to  be  used  with  a  royya  ring  or 

f/rommet  as  a  rowlock. 
Thwart,     A  crosrt-])iec<j  in  a  boat,  used  as  a  seat  by  the  oanunen. 
Tiller.     A  bar  of  wocxi  or  iron  whi':h  fits  into  the  rudder-head  and  by  which  the 

steering  is  eft(»cted.     (S«'e  Helm.) 
Top.     A  platform  at  the  <^yes  of  the  hiwrr   rigging,  supported  by  the  treslh'- 

trees  and  cross-tn»es;  the  top-ma.st   rigging  sei.s  up  at  each  side  of  the 

top. 
Top-gallant  Forecastle.     A  deck  raised  over  the*  forward  end  of  the  s])ar-deck 

extending  from  the  bows  nearly  or  quiti'  \o  the  fore-mast. 
Top-rim.     The  torward  edge  of  a  top,  roundel  to  prevent  chafe. 
Transom.     A  lx«am  extending  across  the  after  part  of  the  ship. 
Tree-nail.     Pin  of   hard  wo(xl  u.sed   as  a  fastening   in   the  place  of  a  metallic 

Iwlt. 
Trestle-trees.     Fore  and  aft  pieces  on  each  side  of  a  mast  resting  on  the  hounds 

to  support  the  rigging,  cross-trees,  etc. 
Truck.     A  small  wmxlen  cap  on  a  flag-stafi'  or  mast-head  with  holes  or  sheaves 

for  halliards.     A  mast-head  truck  is  also  fitted  to  receive  the  spindle  of 

the  lightning-rod. 
Ward-room.     The  quarters   of   the   commissioned   oflScers  of  a  ship,  usually 

occupying  the  after  part  of  the  berth-deck.     The  rooms  on  the  starboanl 

side  occupi<Ml    by   the  line   officers,    those  on  the  ])ort  side  by  the   staff 

officers — the  intervening  space  is  styled  the  ward-room  country. 
Warping-chock.     A  block  of  wood,  or  metal  casting,  scored  to  receive  a  tow- 
line.     Bridle-ports  arc  fitted   with  such  chocks,  which  can  be  removeil 

when  not  in  use. 
Warrant-Officers'    Rooms.     Usually  on  the  berth-deck,  two  on  each  side,  for- 
ward of  the  steemge.     The  boatswain  and  gunner  occupy  the  starboard, 

the  caqH'Uter  and  sail-maker  tlie  port  rcwms. 
Waterways.     Pieces  of  timl)er  ]>lace<l  over  the  tops  of  the  l)eams  and  secured 

to  the  l>eams  and  shi])'s  side,  tilling  the  angle  between  the  beams  and  the 

inside  of  the  franie-timlx»rs. 
Wheel.     A  wheel  to  the  axle  of  which,  culled  the  barrel.  an«  connected  the 

tiller-  or  ir/if(l-r<)\n's  by  which  the  rudder  is  niovrd  in  steerinc:. 
Weigh.     To  weigh  anything  is  to  raise  it— to  weigh  anchor. 
Whiskers.     Small  spars  projecting  on  either  side  of  the  bowsprit  from  the  bees, 

extending  the  jib  and  flying-jib  guys. 
Wings  of  the  Hold.     That  part  of  the  hold  or  orlop  which  is  nearest  to  the 

side. 
Wythe.     An  iron  fixture  on  the  end  of  a  mast  or  boom,  bearing  a  ring  through 

which  another  mast  or  lxK)m  is  rigged  out.     Pronounced  mth. 
Yoke.     A  cross-piece  of  timber  or  metal  fitted  on  the  rudder-head  when  a  tillei 

cannot  be  used. 


Plate  2 


0' 


5' 


\ I I L^_t L 


»• 


I      t 


IS* 

-I 


A- 


Beam  Arm 


n 


I 


-  •* " — '■ — '-^— 


'^IBea'm  (i) 


r.ti.TXi.T.J 


'"'--•■"■-  ' 


THE   SHIP.  9 

Plate  II  shows  a  midship  section  of  a  battle-ship  of  the 
Indiana  clasQ:  such  a  section  as  would  be  obtained  by  cut- 
ting the  ship  in  the  middle  of  its  length  by  a  vertical 
thwartship  plane.  This  exhibits  the  general  method  of 
construction  of  a  modern  war  vessel.  The  names  of  the 
various  parts  will  be  found  on  the  drawing  and  in  the  gloss- 
ary of  the  terms.  An  examination  of  this  plate  will  show 
the  difference  in  shape  of  material  used  in  iron  or  steel  ves- 
sels ;  and  in  those  constructed  of  wood. 

The  keel  (1)  consists  of  two  flat  plates  arranged  as  shown, 
the  pieces  going  to  make  up  its  length  being  joined  by  straps 
of  metal.  The  garboard  strakes  (2)  fit  in  under  the  outer 
edge  of  the  outer  keel  plate  on  each  side. 

The  vertical  keel  (3)  rests  on,  and  is  secured  to,  the  flat 
keel  as  shown.  The  keelson  plate  (4)  is  placed  on  top  of 
the  vertical  keel.  The  flat  keel  plates  are  lapped  on,  and 
secured  to,  the  stem  which  consists  of  a  casting  of  the  de- 
sired shape  of  the  bow.  Aft,  they  are  similarly  secured  to 
the  stern-post,  which  is  also  a  casting  of  the  desired  shape 
and  size. 

There  are  no  dead-woods.  The  breast  and  stern  hooks 
consist  of  angle-irons  secured  to  tlie  inside  of  the  frames 
with  horizontal  thwartship  plates  secured  to  them. 

The  frames  are  made  up,  as  shown,  of  the  outer  or  main 
frame  (5),  inner  or  reverse  frame  (6),  and  bracket  plates(  7). 
These  frames  are  angle-irons  of  the  required  size,  the  cross 
section  of  which  forms  a  Z.  In  the  extremities  of  large 
vessels  and,  throughout  in  small  vessels,  these  bracket-plates 
are  replaced  by  vertical  plates  of  the  required  length  and 
depth  called  floor  plates. 

The  beams  (8)  have  arms  at  their  ends  instead  of  knees, 
by  which  they  are  secured  to  the  frames. 

Below  the  protective  deck  the  ship  is  divided,  horizon- 
tally, by  perfectly  flat  decks  called  platforms,  most  of  which 
are  made  water-tight.  The  vertical  subdivisions  are  made 
by  bulkheads. 

By  careful  study  of  Plate  2  and  Plates  81  and  82  a  very 
good  idea  can  be  obtained  of  the  construction  of  a  modern 
war  vessel,  together  with  the  internal  subdivisions  and  ar- 
rangements. 

GLOSSARY. 

Armor.     Extra  thick  plates  placed  around  the  vital  parts  of  a  vessel  to  piv 

vent  the  entrance  of  projectiles. 
Armor-shelf.     The  horizontal  shelf  upon  which  the  armor  rests. 
Brid^^es.     The  forward  bridge,  the  after  bridge,  the  upper  bridge,  the  loivfr 

bridge,  according  to  situation.     A  connecting^  gangway  between  the  for- 

wara  and  after  bridges,  or  between  the  bridge  and  forecastle  or  poop 

deck,  is  called  the  fore  and  aft  bridge. 
tower.    An  armored  pilot  house. 


10  THE   SHIP. 

Decks.     In  a  modern  war  vessel  the  decks  are  named  as  follows  : — 

Main  deck.     The  highest  complete  deck  extending  from  stem  to  stern. 

ForecuHth  deck.     A  partial  deck,  ai>ove  the  main  deck,  forward. 

Poop  deck.     A  partial  deck  alx)ve  the  main  deck  at  the  stern. 

Upper  deck.     A  partial  deck  above  the  main  deck,  amidships  ;  when  the 
8[)ace  under  this  deck  is  not  enclosed  it  is  called  a  bridge  deck. 
Gun  deck.     A  complete  deck  between  the  main  deck  and  the  berth  deck  on 

which  guns  are  carried.     If  there  are  two  such  decks  they  are  calleil 

giitt  deck  and  lower  deck  respectively. 
Berth  deck.     The  first  deck  below  the  main  deck  used  primarily  for  bftrthinj; 

purposes  and  on  which  noguns  except  light  rapid-fire  guns  are  carried. 
Orlopideck.     A  partial  deck  between  the  berth  deck  and  protective  deck  or 

water-tight  deck. 
Protective  deck.     A  steel  deck  of  extra  strength  and  thickness  designed  for 

protective  purposes.     It  is  divided  into  middie  protective  deck,  &nd  for- 
ward (or  after)  protective  deck. 
Water-tight  deck.    A  deck  worked  in  the  same  manner  as  the  protective  deck 

but  of  much  ligliter  material,  serving  only  to  keep  water  from  getting 

behiw. 
Splinter  deck.     A  deck  worked  immediately  under  the  protective  dK*k  for 

protective  purposes. 
Deck-lights.     Small  openings  to  the  deck  for  the  admission  of  light  only. 
Deck  space.     Space  between  decks;  this  space  takes  the  name  of  the  deck 

above  which  it  is  located. 
Double  bottom.     The  space  l)etween  the  inner  and  outer  l)ottoms.    In  the  mer- 
chant service  this  is  often  called  the  water  bottom 
Inner  bottom.     The  inner  surface  of  the  double  bottom. 
Freeing  ports.     Large  openings  in  the  bulwarks  for  permitting  the  escape  of 

water. 
Man-hole.     A  small  opening  just  large  enough  to  permit  the  passage  of  a  man. 
Platforms.     Partial,  flat  decks  located  below  the  protective  deck.    Where  there 

are  two  they  are  called,  upper  platform  ana  lower  platform. 
Strake.     Applies  to  layers  of  plating. 

Torpedo  port.     Opening  in  the  ship's  side  for  the  service  of  torpedo  tubes. 
Vertical  keel.     The  vertical  plate  placed  on  the  inside  of  the  flat  keel. 
Water-tight  bulkheads.     The  internal  vertical  partitions  of  a  modern  vessel 

compo.sed  of  plates  and  made  water-tight.    They  are  designated  as  follows : 
Transverse  bulkheads.     Thwartship  partitions  placed  as  required.     The  one 

farthest  forward  is  made  specially  strong  and  called  the  collision  bulkhead. 
Splinter  or  Screen  bulkheads.     Thwartship  partitions  worked  between  the 

guns  on  battery  decks. 
Longitudinal  bulkheads.     Fore  and  aft  partitions  called  middU  line  e^r  winy 

bulkheads,  according  as  they  are  placed  in  the  middle  of  the  vessel  or  out 

toward  the  sides. 
Wood  flat.     The  wood  jdanking  in  metal  ships. 


Plate  4 


THE  SHIP. 


11 


Si>£tx*H  And  n/ig-g-ing-.  The  names  of  the  spars 
and  rigging  of  the  ship  are  given  in  the  references  to 
Plate  3. 


1. 

2. 

a 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 

8. 
9. 

la 
11. 
i«. 

18. 
14. 
16. 
16w 
17. 
1& 
19. 
». 
91. 


M. 


«7. 
SB. 

99. 

ao. 

31. 


34. 


88. 
39. 


Fore  rojal  stay. 

Flying  jib  Btoy. 

Fore  topgallant  Btay. 

Jib  etay. 

Fore  topmast  stays. 

Fore  stars. 

Fore  tacks. 

Flying  martingale. 

Martingale  stay. 

Jib  gnys. 

Jamper  gnys. 

Back  ropes. 

Bobetays. 

Plying  JI^  boom. 

Fhring  Jib  foot  ropes. 

Jib  boom. 

Jib  foot  ropes. 

Bowsprit. 

Fore  royal  track. 

**        mast. 

"  lifts, 
yard, 
backstays. 

**        braces. 
Fore  topgallant  mast  and 

Fore  topgallant  lifts, 
yard. 
'*  backstays. 

"  braces. 

Fore  topmast  and  rigging. 
Foro  topsail  lift, 
yard. 

foot  ropes. 
"  braces. 

Fore  yard. 
"■   brace. 
"    lifts. 
f?aff. 
trysail  vangs. 


tt 


40. 

4t. 
42. 
48. 
44. 
45. 

46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
SO. 

51. 
08. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
50. 

eo. 

61. 

68. 

68. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
TO. 
71. 
72. 
T8. 
74. 
75. 


REFERENCES. 

Fore  topmast  studding  sail 

booms. 
Foremast  and  rigging. 
Fore  topmast  backstays. 
Fore  8heet8. 

Main  track  and  pennant. 
Main  royal  mast  and  back- 
stay. 
■Main  royal  stay. 
llftP. 
yard. 
"  braces. 

Main  topgallant  mast  and 

Main  topgallant  lifts. 

*'  backstays. 

yard. 
"  stay. 

*'  braces. 

Main  topmast  and  rigging. 
Topsail  lifts. 
^*       jard. 
**       foot  ropes. 
'*       braces. 
Topmast  stays. 
Main    topgallant    stnnsail 

booms. 
Main  topmast  backstay. 
"     yard. 
**     foot  ropes. 
'*     mast  and  rigging. 
**     lifts. 
"•     braces. 
"     tacks. 
**     sheets. 
"     trysail  gaff, 
trysail  vangs. 
stays. 
Mizzen  royal  track. 
Royal  mast  and  rigging. 


ti 


76. 
T7. 
78. 
79. 
80. 

81. 
8S. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 

87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
93. 
98. 
94. 
96. 
96. 
97. 

Ms. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
108. 
103. 

104. 
106. 
106. 
107. 
10& 
109. 
110. 
111. 


Royal  stay. 
♦'      lifts. 
"      yard. 
'*      braces. 
Mizzen    topgallant    mast 

and  rigging. 
Mizzen  topgallani  lifts. 

**  backstays. 

"  braces. 

yard. 
*'  stay. 

Mizzen  topmast  and  rig- 

MuBzen  topmast  stay. 
"      topsail  lifts. 
**      topmast  backstays. 
"      topsail  bracc9. 

**      yard. 
**  **      root  ropes. 

cross-Jack  yard. 

foot  ropes. 
•*       Hfts. 
"       braces. 
Mizzen  mast  and  rigging. 

•*       sUy. 
Spanker  gaff. 
Peak  halliards. 
Spanker  vangs. 
Spanker  boom. 
Spanker     boom     topping 

lift. 
Jacob's  or  stern  ladder. 
Spanker  sheet. 
Cutwater. 
Port  bow. 
"     beam. 
Water  line. 
Port  quarter. 
Rudder. 


ScLilM.  The  names  of  the  sails  and  certain  running 
rigeing  of  a  ship  are  given  in  the  following  references  to 
~*la 


Plate  4. 

Nambs  of  Sails. 

1.  Flying  Jib. 

2.  Jib. 

Z.  Fore  topmast  staysail. 

4.  Fore  course  or  foresail. 

5.  Main  course  or  mainsail. 

6.  Fore  topsail. 

7.  Main  topsail, 
a  Miczen  topsaU. 

9.  Fore  topgallant  sail. 

10.  Main  tof^allant  sail. 

11.  Mizzen  topgallant  sail. 
19.  Pore  royal. 

18.  Bfain  royal. 

14.  Mizzen  royal. 

15.  Fore  trysail. 
IC  Main  trysail 
17.  Spanker. 

1&  Lower  staddlngsail. 


19.  Fore  topmast  stnddingsall. 

80.  Fore  topgiJlant  studding- 

sail. 

81.  Main  topgallant  staddlng- 

sail. 

OBAB  or  COUBSIB.  ' 

23.  Clew  Garoets. 

88.  Tacks. 

94.  Sheets. 

25.  Inner  leechline. 

86.  Outer  leechline. 

87.  Buntlines. 

88.  Bowline  bridles. 

Obab  of  Topsails,  stc. 

29.  Clewlines, 
ao.  Bowline  and  bridles. 
81.  Topgallant  clewline. 
88.  Boyal  clewline. 


;  88.  Fore  trysail  Tangs. 

84.  Peak  span. 

85.  Main  trysail  vangs. 
I  86.  Peak  span. 

87.  Spanker  vangs. 

88.  Throat  bralL 

89.  Middle  brail. 

40.  Foot  brail. 

41.  Lower  studdingsailouthaul 
48.  Lower  studdingsall  sheet. 
48.  Lower  staddlngsail   clew- 
line. 

44.  Outer  halliards. 

45.  Topmast  studdingsall  tack. 

46.  Topmast  staddlngsail 

downhanl. 

47.  T*gllt  stunsU  Uck. 

48.  Qoarter  boat. 

49.  Waist  boat. 


Xligr  of  T^essels  (compare  Plate  5).  Vessels  are 
divide<raccording[  to  their  rig  into  numerous  classes,  of 
^which  the  following  may  be  mentioned  as  the  principal 
types  usually  met  with  at  sea : 


IZ  THE   ?»HIP. 

Th^j  Whip  (\),  Three  masted,  square  rigged  on  all 
three  mastM. 

Th#^  1  f  iiT'iiiie  or  I^ai*k  (2).  Three  masted,  square 
rigged  on  forf  and  main,  fore  and  aft  rig  on  the  mizzen  mast. 

^VU4^  I  )xi.i*k«f ntine  (3).  Three  masted,  square 
rigg^'d  on  the  foremast,  fore  and  aft  rig  on  the  main  and 
my///A'X\  mastH, 

^ni#*  llf'ii^  {:*).     Two  masted,  sijuan*  rigged  on  both 

''I''li<»  Kf'lerfintiTie.  The  same  as  a  brig,  but  with- 
out a  m]uare  mainsail. 

^•1145 1  l€^i*iiiiii>hT*oclite  Bi'ig'  (0).  Two  masted, 
m|uare  rigged  op  the  foremast,  fore  and  aft  rig  on  the  main- 
rriant. 

^V\i^*-  'TopMall  Schooner  (7).  Two  masted 
Hrhooner  with  a  wjuare  fort!  topsail. 

''I''li#^  M<*lioon4»i*.  Two  masted  (8),  three  masted 
(4),  or  four  masted  fore  and  aft  rig. 

''I''h«  Hloop  (0).     One  masted,  fore  and  aft  rig. 

Note.  A  vessel  is  said  to  be  square  rigged  on  a  certain 
mast,  when  the  sails  set  on  that  mast  are  bent  to  yards, 
and  fore  and  aft  rigged  when  the  sails  are  bent  to  gaffs. 

The  topsail  yards  of  merchantmen  are  almost  invariably 
double,  the  topsail  being  in  two  parts,  the  lower  part  bent 
to  the  low(5r  topsail  yard  and  not  noisted,  the  upper  portion 
bent  to  the  upper  yard  and  hoisted,  as  in  the  case  of  a  single 
topsail.  TIhj  clews,  or  lower  comers,  of  the  upper  topsail 
are  shackled  to  the  yard  arms  of  the  lower  topsail  yard, 

Vi»hh€»1h  ol*\Vtii'5  in  the  United  States  Xavy,  are 
<;luHHifi(?d  as  follows: 

'I'hey  are  first  divi(l(Ml  into  two  principal  classes;  armored 
and  ininnnarvd,  Thc^  formta*  comprises  all  those  which  an^ 
protected  f'roni  gun  attac^k  by  thick  armor;  the  latter  includes 
all  from  wliic^li  this  protc^ction  is  absent. 

TIh»  first  class  is  subdivided  into  battleships  and  arm- 
tired  rr  in  sens.  The  foriiKT  are  either  sea-going  with  high 
freeboard  and  great  c()al  endurance,  or  roast  defense,  with 
low  f  nM'hoard,  of  which  the  monitor  ty])e  is  an  example. 

.  I  rnawed  rruisers  luive  high  speed,  great  coal  endurance, 
and  in<»dc»rately  thick  armor.  Uaarmored  ernisers  are  ^^/o- 
terled  l)y  a  heavy  protective  deck,  extending  fore  and  aft; 
or  partialltf  protected,  when  the  protective  deck  covers  only 
th(»  vital  parts  of  the  vi'ssel.  Lnarmored  vessels  of  2,000 
tons  displa(*enient  and  above  are  called  cruisers;  below  that 
sisee,  gmdnutts. 

Torpedo  boats.  Small  vessels  of  high  speed  intended, 
e.xelasivelv,  for  tiring  t<»rpedoes. 

T}}rpeifo'fH)at  Destroffers.  Torpedo  vessels  of  from  30(» 
to  1000  tons  tlisplacement,  of  great  speed,  and  fitted  with 
rapitl  fire  battery  in  addition  to  the  ordinary  outfit  of  tor- 
petlo  tubes  ami  torjHHloes. 


CHAPTER     II. 

THE    COMPASS. -THE    LEAD. -THE    LOG. 

The  Oompass.  A  piece  of  steel  which  has  been 
touched  by  a  magnet,  if  free  to  move  on  a  pivot,  will  point 
in  a  definite  direction.  To  this  direction,  as  a  standard,  all 
others  may  be  referred,  and  any  desired  course  thus  fol- 
lowed. 

The  Mariner's  Compass  is  basfed  upon  this  principle.  It 
consists  of  the  needle,  which  is  attacned  to  the  under  side 
of  a  card.  Fig.  1,  representing  the  horizon,  and  graduated 
with  the  thirty-two  **  points '"of  the  compass.  The  North 
end,  or  pole,  of  the  needle  is  fixed  under  the  North  point  of 
the  card.  The  needle  and  card  are  balanced  on  a  pivot 
fixed  vertically  in  the  compass-box,  or  bowl,  and  the  whole 
is  protected  by  a  glass  covering.  The  bowl  is  filled  with  a 
liquid  composed  of  45^  pure  alcohol  and  55^  distilled  water. 
This  mixture  remains  liquid  at  a  low  temperature  exceed- 
ing —  10''  Fahrenheit. 

As  the  North  mark  of  the  compass-card  always  points 
with  the  needle  to  the  North,  the  other  marks  will  of  course 
point  to  their  respective  parts  of  the  horizon. 

The  variation  of  the  compass  and  its  local  errors  are  not 
noticed  here,  as  they  may  be  referred  to  in  any  book  on 
Navigation. 

The  Luhher*8  Point  is  a  vertical  line  drawn  on  the  inside 
of  the  bowl  of  the  compass  to  correspond  with  the  vessel's 
head ;  the  point  of  the  card  coinciding  with  it  shows  the 
course  steered,  or  the  direction  in  which  the  ship  is 
heading. 

To  Box  tlie  Oompa^^is^  is  to  name  the  points 
in  regular  succession,  beginning  at  one  point  and  ending 
at  the  same:  thus,  commencing  with  north  and  going 
around  with  the  sun,  say  : — 

North,  South-East, 

North  by  East,  South-East  by  South, 

North  North-East,  South  South-East, 

North-East  by  North,  South  by  East, 

North-East,  South, 

North-East  bv  East,  South  by  West, 

East  North-East,  South  South-west. 

East  by  North,  South- West  by  South, 

East,  South- West, 

East  by  South,  South- West  by  West, 

East  South-East,  West  South- West, 

South-East  by  East,  West  by  South, 

13 


14  THE    COMPASS. 

West,  North-West, 

West  by  North,  North-West  by  North, 

West  North-West,  North  North-West, 

North-West  by  West,  North  by  West, 

North. 

Each  point  is  further  divided  into  half -points  and  quar- 
ter-points, and  the  fractional  points  are  named  upon  the 
same  principle  as  the  points  themselves  ;  thus  : — 

N.  i  E.  N.  E.  i  E. 

N.  i  E.  N.  E.  i  E. 

N.  I  E.  N.  E.  J  E. 

N.  by  E.  N.  E.  by  E. 

N.  by  E.  i  E.  N.  E.  by  E.  }  E. 

N.  by  E.  i  E.  N.  E.  by  E.  i  E. 

N.  by  E.  i  E.  N.  E.  by  E.  i  E. 

N.  N.  E.  E.  N.  E. 

N.  N.  E.  i  E.  E.  N.  E.  I  E. 

N.  N.  E.  i  E.  E.  N.  E.  i  E. 

N.  N.  E.  i  E.  E.  N.  E.  J  E. 

N.  E.  by  N.  E.  by  N. 

N.  E.  I  N.  E.  I  N. 

N.  E.  i  N.  E.  i  N. 

N.  E.  i  N.  E.  i  N. 

N.  E.  E.,  &c.,  &c. 

A  quarter-point  (or  half -point)  can  obviously  be  named 
with  reference  to  either  one  of  the  nearest  whole  points. 
Thus  N.  \  E.  would  be  defined  also  as  N.  by  E.  J  N.,  and 
E.  N.  E.  i  E.  would  be  recognized  as  E.  by  N.  ^  N. 

The  following  are  the  usual  rules  for  naming  quarter- 
points  : — 

1st.  From  East  or  West  to  the  nearest  whole  point,  use 
for  quarter-points  that  name  which  ends  with  the  word 
North  or  South.     Thus,  E.  i  S.,  not  E.  by  S.  J  E. 

2d.  From  N.  E.,  N.W.,  S.  E.,  or  S.  W.,  to  the  nearest 
whole  point  use  that  name  which  ends  with  the  nearest 
cardinal  point.  Thus,  N.  E.  i  N.,  not  N.  E.  by  N.  i  E.; 
N.  W.  i  W.,  not  N.  W.  by  W.  |  N. 

3d.  in  all  other  cases  use  that  name  of  the  quarter  or 
half -point  which  ends  with  the  word  East  or  West.  Thus, 
E.  S.  E.  i  E.,  not  E.  by  S.  i  S. 

A  Dumb  Compass  is  used  at  the  mast-heads,  tafifrail, 
&c.,  for  taking  relative  bearings.  It  consists  of  a  compass- 
card  painted  on  a  board  or  cut  on  a  copper  plate. 

Relative  Rearingrw.  In  referrmg  to  the  posi- 
tion of  an  object,  the  direction  of  the  wind,  &c.,with  refer- 
ence to  the  ship,  use  is  frequently  made  of  what  are  called 
relative  bearings,  instead  of  givmg  the  directions  in  com- 
pass-points. 


THE   COMPASS.  15 

i 


In  Fig.  2,  Plate  9,  a  ship  is  represented  as  heading  North. 
A  lighthouse  or  other  object  if  seen  bearing  North  would 
also  be  said  to  bear,  from  that  ship :  Ahead. 

If  seen  bearing  N.  by  E. :  One  point  on  starboard  bow. 

Bearing  N.  N.  E. :  Two  points  on  starboard  bow. 

Bearing  N.E.  by  N.:  Three  points  on  starboard  bow. 

Bearing  N.E. :  feroad  off  starboard  bow. 

Bearing  N.E.  by  E.:  Three  points  forward  of  starboard 
beam. 

Bearing  E.  N.E. :  Two  points  forward  of  starboard  beam. 

Bearing  E.  by  N. :  One  point  forward  of  starboard  beam. 

Bearing  East :  Abeam. 

Bearing  E.  by  S. :  One  point  abaft  starboard  beam. 

Bearing  E.  S.E. :  Two  points  abaft  starboard  beam. 

Bearing  S.E.  by  E. :  Three  points  abaft  starboard  beam. 

Bearing  S.E.:  feroad  off  starboard  quarter. 

Bearing  S.E.  by  S.:  Three  points  on  starboard  quarter. 

Bearing  S.  S.E. :  Two  points  on  starboard  quarter. 

Bearing  S.  by  E. :  One  point  on  starboard  quarter. 

Bearing  South :  Astern. 

And  similarly  at  N.  by  W.,  N.  N.W.,  &c.,  one  point  on 
I)ort  bow,  two  points  on  port  bow,  &c.,  &c. 

To  find  the  direction  of  the  wind,  when  ship  is  close 
hauled, — A  square-rigged  ship,  when  close  hauled,  can 
usually  lie  no  nearer  the  wind  than  six  points ;  therefore,  if 
a  ship  be  close  hauled  on  the  starboard  tack,  and  her  head 
at  North,  count  six  points  thence  to  the  right  hand,  or 
towards  East,  and  you  will  find  the  wind  at  E.  N.E.  The 
wind  then  forms  with  the  keel  an  angle  of  six  points,  so 
that  if  a  line  at  Fig.  2,  Plate  9,  represents  the  ship's  keel, 
{c\  will  be  the  yard  when  braced  up,  and  (cZ)  the  direction 
01  the  wind.  In  practice  the  yard  is  braced  up  sharper,  to 
make  the  sail  stand  to  better  advantage. 

When  the  ship  is  on  the  port  tack  with  her  head  NoVth, 
the  points  are  counted  on  the  opposite  or  left  side,  and  the 
wind  is  W.  N.  W.  If  the  ship's  nead  be  put  to  any  point  of 
the  compass,  counting  six  points  to  the  right  or  leit  hand, 
according  as  the  ship  is  on  the  starboard  or  port  tack,  will 
always  give  the  direction  of  the  wind  when  the  vessel  is 
close  hauled. 

When  the  wind  is  E.  by  N. ,  in  Fig.  2,  the  ship  is  then 
one  point  free,  because  her  head  is  seven  points  from  the 
wind.  With  the  wind  East  in  the  figure,  it  is  said  to  be  two 
points  free,  or  abeam,  as  shown  in  the  remarks  on  relative 
Searings.  If  the  wind  is  at  S.  in  the  figure,  it  is  said  to  be 
aft. 

After  learning  to  box  the  compass. with  the  sun,  go 
around  against  the  sun,  or  from  North  towards  West,  and 
practise  with  such  questions  as  the  following  :  Ship  on  the 
port  tack,  heading  S.  W.  f  W.,  how  will  she  head  on  the 
other  tack  ?    With  the  wind  at  S.  W.  and  steering  due  East, 


16  THE    LBAD. 

the  ship  is  hauled  up  two  points  and  a  half,  how  will  she 
head  ?  Close  hauled,  with  the  port  tacks  aboard,  heading 
S.  S.E.,  you  bear  up,  keeping  away  six  points,  how  will  the 
ship  head,  and  how  will  the  wind  be  with  reference  to  the 
ship's  beam  ?  Ship  heading  N.  N.E.  on  the  starboard  tack, 
a  lighthouse  is  reported  from  aloft  bearing  two  points  abaft 
the  lee  beam,  how  will  it  bear  by  compass,  &c.,  &c.  ? 

With  few  exceptions  steam  vessels  steer  entirely  by 
degrees  and  not  by  points  or  fractions  of  points.  As  tlie 
departure  for  1°  and  300  miles,  is  5.2  miles,  the  reason  for 
the  change  is  obvious. 

Compass  cards  are  now  graduated  to  degrees  as  well  as 
quarter  points,  and  the  seaman  should  be  equally  familiar 
with  both  methods  of  graduation. 

TTlie  I*elox*vxH«  This  is  a  dumb  compass  mounted 
on  the  end  of  the  bridge  or  other  convenient  place  for  taking 
bearings.  It  consists  of  an  outer  metal  ring  with  the  lub- 
ber's point  marked  on  it.  Revolving  inside  of  this  ring  is 
a  metal  plate  graduated  to  quarter  points  and  degrees,  in 
the  same  manner  as  the  ordinary  compass  card.  Over  the 
plate,  and  revolving  on  the  same  vertical  axis,  is  a  metal 
bar  furnished  with  sight  vanes,  by  which  the  bearings  are 
taken.  The  bar  has  verniers  at  its  outer  extremities  for 
reading  off  against  the  graduated  plate  below.  The  plate 
and  bar  can  be  clamped  at  will. 

THE    LEAD. 

SoTxiiclingrf*5^  to  ascertain  the  depth  of  water  on 
entering  or  leaving  a  port,  or  in  any  case  where  there  is 
supposed  to  be  less  than  twenty  fathoms  of  water,  are 
taken  by  the  hand  lead.  Fig.  3,  Plate  0,  a  quartermaster  or 
forecastle-man  being  stationed  in  the  main  chains  for  tlie 
purpose ;  the  lead  weighing  from  seven  to  fourteen  pounds, 
and  the  line  being  from  twenty  to  thirty  fathoms  in  length. 
Hand  lead  lines  are  marked  as  follows  : 

At    2  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  2  strips  of  leather. 

At    3  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  3  strips  of  leather. 

At    5  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  a  white  rag. 

At    7  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  a  red  rag. 

At  10  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  leather,  having  a  hole 
in  it. 

At  13  fathoms  from  the  lead,  as  at  3. 

At  15  fathoms  from  the  lead,  as  at  5. 

At  17  fathoms  from  the  lead,  as  at  7. 

At  20  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  2  knots. 

At  25  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  one  knot. 

At  30  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  three  knots. 

At  35  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  one  knot. 

At  40  fathoms  from  the  lead,  with  four  knots.  And  so 
on. 


THE    LEAD.  17 

These  are  known  as  the  ''marks.'"  The  numbers  omit- 
ted, as  1,  4,  C,  8,  &c.,  are  called  the  "deeps;"  and  they  are 
spoken  of  together  as  the  "  marks  and  deeps  of  the  lead 
line." 

All  lead  lines  should  be  marked  when  wet. 

Soundings  by  the  hand-lead  are  taken  while  the  vessel 
has  headway  on,  the  leadsman  throwing  the  lead  forward, 
and  getting  the  depth  as  the  vessel  passes,  while  the  line  is 
nearly  perpendicular.  He  communicates  to  the  oflScer  the 
soundings  obtained,  thus : 

If  the  depth  corresponds  with  either  of  the  above  marks, 
he  says,  "-Bv  the  mark  5  or  7.  If  the  mark  is  a  little  below 
the  surf  ace,  ne  says,  ^^Mark  under  water  5  or  7."  If  the 
depth  is  greater,  or  one  half  more  than  any  of  the  marks, 
he  says,  ^'And  a  quarter^"  or  '^And  a  half  5  or  7."  If  the 
depth  is  a  quarter  less,  he  says,  *'  Quarter  less  5  or  7."  If 
he  judges  by  the  distance  between  any  two  of  the  marks 
that  the  depth  of  water  is  4,  6,  8,  9,  11,  12,  14,  16,  18,  19,  or  21 
fathoms,  he  says,  ''By  the  deep  4,"  &c. 

On  the  hand-lead  line  there  are  nine  "marks"  and 
eleven  "deeps." 

Require  tne  soundings  to  be  given  in  a  sharp,  clear  and 
decidea  tone  of  voice.  In  steamers,  this  is  certainlv  the 
best  plan,  for  while  the  old-fashioned  "song"  is  being 
drawled  out,  the  vessel  may  run  ashore. 

Tlie  I3i:*eaNl>"barid.  oi^  l^oj^e,  generally  the 
former,  made  of  canvas,  secured  at  both  ends  to  the  rigging, 
supports  the  body  of  the  leadsman  while  heaving  the  nand- 
leaa. 

Besides  the  breast-band,  it  is  a  very  good  plan  to  have 
fitted,  in  connection  with  it,  a  tarpaulin  apron,  to  cover  the 
"leadsman"  from  the  feet  to  the  waist.  This  keeps  him 
dry  and  adds  much  to  his  comfort. 

On  going  into  the  chains  for  the  purpose  of  sounding, 
the  leaHsman  should  see  the  breast-rope  properly  secured  • 
liis  line  clear,  and  the  end  made  fast.  If  at  night,  he  should 
take  the  distance  from  the  breast-rope  to  the  water's  edge  ; 
then  at  each  cast  deduct  this  distance  from  the  mark  at 
hand  and  give  it  as  the  true  sounding. 

The  X>eep-s*ea  T^ead.  is  used  in  depths  of  over 
*25  fathoms,  and  weighs  from  50  to  ]()()  pounds. 

The  deep-sea  (pronounced  *'dipsey")  lead  is  hollowed 
out  at  the  base  to  receive  an  anniufj  of  tallow.  When  the 
lead  strikes  the  bottom,  the  tallow  becomes  coated  with  sand, 

¥Bbbles,  shells  or  other  substances  which  show  its  ^character, 
his  information,  compared  with  the  description  of  the  sea- 
bottom  given  on  the  chart,  often  proves  of  value  in  deter- 
mining the  ship's  position.  Instead  of  being  hollowed  out 
at  the  bottom,  the  deep-sea  lead  may  have  a  specimen  cup, 
of  brass,  at  the  end»  as  shown  in  Fig.  4,  Plate  (». 


iS  THK    LEAD. 

The  deep-sea  lead  line  is  from  100  to  200  fathoms  in 
length.  Up  to  20  fathoms  it  is  marked  the  same  as  the 
hand  lead  line. 

At  25  fathoms,  one  knot ; 

At  80  fathoms,  three  knots ; 

At  40  fathoms,  four  knots,  etc.,  etc.,  and  at  every  inter- 
mediate five  fathoms,  by  one  knot  or  a  small  strand.  At 
100  fathoms  the  line  is  marked  with  a  piece  of  red  bunting. 

To  Soixnd  w^itli  the  I>eep-sea  Lead. 
The  order  is  given,  Man  the  chains  and  pass  along  the  line ! 
The  men  are  ranged  outside  the  vessel  from  the  weather 
mizzen  chains  to  the  cathead.  The  line  is  passed  forward 
outside  and  clear  of  everything.  The  lead  is  sent  forward 
on  deck,  and  the  line  bent  to  it  by  the  captain  of  the  fore- 
castle. The  line  is  then  hauled  forward,  each  man  collecting 
a  coil  of  several  fathoms  in  his  hand,  commencing  forward, 
until  the  officer  thinks  there  is  line  enough  out.  It  is  then 
snatched  in  a  small  snatch-block.  Fig.  5,  Plate  (5,  secured  to 
the  after  mizzen  rigging,  or  to  the  weather  spanker  vang. 
the  remaining  part  of  it  being  coiled  down  in  a  tub  or  rack, 
or  wound  on  a  reel,  clear  for  running.  Everything  being  in 
readiness,  and  the  vessel's  headway  sufficiently  deadened, 
the  officer  orders,  Stand  by!  Heave!  The  captain  of  the 
forecastle  heaves  the  lead  as  far  forward  as  he  can,  and  at 
the  same  time  cries,  Watch-ho !  Watch  !  And  each  man,  as 
the  line  runs  out  from  his  hand,  holds  it  clear  of  the  side, 
and  repeats  the  cry,  Watch-ho!  Watch!  In  the  mean 
while,  the  line  runs  out  until  the  lead  touches  the  bottom, 
or  until  a  sufficient  quantity  has  been  run  out  to  satisfy  the 
officer  that  no  bottom  has  been  found.  The  men  then  lay 
aft  and  man  the  line!  and  walk  forward  with  it;  a  petty 
officer  being  stationed  by  it,  to  note  the  depth  of  water  by 
the  first  mark  that  comes  in. 

If  bottom  has  been  found,  it  will  instantly  be  known  by 
the  line  bringing  up  suddenlv  in  running  out,  or  by  the 
arming  on  the  lead  after  it  is  hauled  up  ;  by  which  the  na- 
ture of  the  bottom  is  known. 

In  heaving  the  deep-sea  lead,  the  men  stationed  in  the 
chains  should  be  cautioned  not  to  let  the  line  go  until  they 
feel  the  lead  take  it,  for  if  the  ship  is  in  much  shoaler  water 
than  was  anticipated,  it  is  thus  detected  at  once. 

The  I>i»ift  I^ead..    While  at  single  anchor,  it  is 

E roper  always  to  have  a  lead  somewhat  heavier  than  the 
and-lead,  say  from  fourteen  to  twenty  pounds,  over  the 
side,  and  resting  on  the  bottom,  with  a  man  to  attend  it. 
Of  course,  this  is  only  necessary  in  a  stiff  breeze,  or  at 
night.  But  in  a  vessel-of-war,  it  should  be  observed  as  a 
standing  rule,  without  regard  to  the  weather.  By  this  you 
will  have  instant  notice  if  the  vessel  parts  her  cable  or 
drags  her  anchor. 


^ 


LORD  KELVir^S  SOUNDING   MACHINE. 


THE  LEAD.  19 

The  Sir  TV^illianx  Thomson  Soixnding^ 
Misteliiiie,  Fig.  10,  Plate  7.  This  consists  of  a  V-shaped 
drum  on  which  the  wire  is  wound,  mounted  in  a  strong  frame. 
The  drum  can  revolve  independently  of  the  spindle ;  or  it 
may  be  clamped  to  it  by  means  of  friction  plates.  There  is 
a  friction  plate  on  each  side  of  the  drum.  The  one  on  the 
left  side  is  rigidly  attached  to  the  spindle.  The  one  on 
the  right  side  revolves  with  the  spindle,  but  can  slide,  in  and 
out,  on  it.  Just  out-board  of  the  friction  plate  on  the  right 
side,  and  working  on  a  threaded  portion  of  the  spindle,  is  a 
sleeve,  carrying  a  radial  arm  which  may  be  held  in  place  by 
a  hinged  catch,  on  the  right  side  of  the  frame.  Turning  the 
cranks,  [which  are  shipped  on  the  ends  of  the  spindle,]  aft. 
or  in  the  direction  for  paying  out,  the  wire,  while  the  arm  is 
fixed,  draws  the  sleeve  out,  and  releases  the  friction  plates. 
Turning  the  cranks  forward,  or  in  the  direction  for  reeling 
in,  pushes  the  sleeve  in  and  clamps  the  friction  plates  against 
the  drum.  Attached  to  the  drum  on  the  left  side  is  an  arm 
that  moves  a  pointer  on  a  dial,  and  thus  registers  the  num- 
ber of  turns  out. 

On  the  end  of  the  wire  is  a  lead  toggle,  to  which  about 
two  fathoms  of  plaited  rope  is  made  fast,  the  other  end  of 
the  rope  being  bent  to  the  lead  in  the  usual  manner.  The  lead 
weighs  about  25  pounds  and  is  hollowed  out  for  the  arming. 

There  are  two  methods  of  registering  the  depth.  By 
means  of  the  depth-recorder,  Fig.  1 2,  Plate  7,  and  by  means 
of  a  small  glass  tube,  the  inner  surface  of  which  is  covered 
with  a  chemical  substance  that  is  discolored  by  having 
water  come  in  contact  with  it.  ( )ne  end  of  this  tube  is  her- 
metically sealed,  the  other  end  is  open. 

If  using  the  depth-recorder  seize  it  to  the  rope  about  a 
fathom  from  the  lead.  If  using  the  glass  tube  take  off  the* 
depth-recorder  and  seize  in  its  place  a  brass  guard  tube. 

This  machine  is  used  almost  exclusively  for  coasting  and 
taking  soundings  in  depths  not  exceeding  100  fathoms.  The 
number  of  turns  gives  the  depth  only  approximately.  Up 
to  10,  or  12  knots  the  depth  in  fathoms  is  about  half  the 
number  of  turns  out;  above  that  speed  it  is  about  one-third. 

Tlie  clepth-recoi-clei*  is  shown  in  Fig.  12.  As 
the  lead  descends  the  increased  pressure  of  the  water  forces 
the  piston  D  up  the  tube,  while  a  spiral  spring  pulls  the 
piston  back  as  soon  as  the  pressure  ceases.  The  distance 
the  piston  is  forced  up  against  the  action  of  the  spring,  de- 
pends on  the  depth.  The  marker  C  records  the  depth.  As 
the  recorder  goes  down,  the  marker  is  pushed  along  the  pis- 
ton. When  the  recorder  is  brought  to  the  surface,  the  piston 
returns  to  its  original  po*sition ;  but  the  marker  remains  at 
the  place  on  the  scale  to  which  it  was  pushed,  and  shows 
the  depth  to  which  the  lead  has  descended. 

Between  each  cast  the  nut  A  should  be  unscrewed  to 


20  THE    LEAD. 

slacken  the  valve  B ;  and  the  recorder  should  be  turned  up^ 
side  down  to  empty  out  any  water  that  may  have  leaked  in. 

A  little  water  in  the  upper  bottle  will  not  interfere  with 
the  accuracy  of  the  indications. 

Before  each  cast  see  that  the  nut  A  is  firmlv  screwed 
up  and  that  the  marker  is  at  zero. 

Occasionally  push  a  little  grease  up  the  piston  into  the* 
tube  to  keep  the  leather  packing  in  good  order. 

To  take  a  cast :  have  one  man  at  the  crank,  and  one  at  the 
lead,  see  that  the  marker  on  the  depth-recorder  is  at  zero, 
and  that  the  arming  is  on  the  lead.  See  the  lead  clear  of  the 
side ;  sounding  wire  clear  in  the  fair  leads.  When  all  is 
ready,  give  the  order.  Let  go!  The  brakeman  gives  the 
crank  one  turn  aft,  the  catch  being  down,  and  the  arm  in  it. 

This  releases  the  drum,  allowing  it  to  revolve  freely  and 
the  wire  to  run  out.  Keep  the  finger  pin  pressing  on  the 
wire.  When  the  bottom  is  reached,  [shown  by  the  wire 
slacking  up]  give  the  order,  Stop!  The  br^fkeman  imme- 
diately gives  the  crank  one  turn  forward,  which  clamps  the 
drum  to  the  friction  plate  and  spindle,  throws  up  the  catch, 
and  reels  in  the  wire.  Watch  the  dial ;  and.  when  the  lead  is 
nearly  up,  reel  in  very  carefully  while  the  leadsman  is  clear- 
ing the  tube  and  lead. 

To  use  the  glass  tube  take  off  the  metal  recorder,  seize 
on  the  guard  tube,  open  end  up,  put  in  the  glass  tube,  open 
end  down;  put  the  top  on  the  guard  tube  and  sound  as 
already  described. 

Be  careful,  when  reeling  in,  to  keep  the  open  end  of  tlie 
glass  tube  down  until  all  water  is  out  of  it.  Apply  the 
glass  tube,  open  end  down,  to  the  scale  supplie(l  for  the 
purpose,  and  read  off  the  number  of  fathoms  shown  by  the* 
discoloration.  There  is  a  small  correction  for  the  state  of 
the  barometer  that  may  be  applied;  but  it  is  usually  too 
small  to  be  considered. 

•TameH**  Patent  Sixl>m.ai»iiie  Senti-jy^^ 
Fig.  13,  Plate  8,  is  an  automatic  apparatus  to  give  instant 
warning  of  the  approach  of  a  vessel  to  shallow  water. 

It  consists  of  the  kite  K,  called  the  Sentry,  which  is  towcMl 
astern  of  a  vessel,  the  forward  end  of  the  kite  being  slightly 
inclined  downward;  the  pressure  on  top  keeping  it  sub- 
merged to  a  uniform  depth  with  a  given  amount  of  line  out. 
Frequent  experiments  have  proved  that  at  speeds  varying 
from  5  to  13  knots  there  will  be  no  alteration  in  the  vertical 
depth  of  the  sentry. 

The  kite  is  of  wood,  slightly  over  3  feet  long,  and  weighs 
about  15  lbs.  The  line  used  is  galvanized  pianoforte  wire 
equal  to  a  strain  of  1000  lbs.  The  wire  is  wound  on  a  drum 
similar  to  the  Sir  Wm.  Thomson  Sounding  Machine.  A 
counter  on  the  left  side  of  the  machine  shows  the  vertical 
depth  at  which  the  sentry  is  towing,  also  the  amount  of 
wire  out. 


THE   LOG.  21 

Two  kites  are  supplied ;  the  black  kite  for  depths  not  ex- 
ceeding *M)  fathoms;  the  red  kite  not  exceeding  40  fathoms 
depth. 

To  use  the  machine  slow  the  vessel  to  a  speed  not  exceed- 
ing 10  knots ;  lower  the  sentry  to  the  depth  you  expect  to  run 
into,  then  go  ahead  at  any  speed  not  exceeding  13  knots,  with 
the  black  kite;  or  10  knots  with  the  red  kite.  When  the 
trigger  A  B  strikes  the  bottom,  the  catch  C  is  released, 
throwing  the  whole  strain  on  D,  thus  upsetting  the  kite  and 
causing  it  to  rise  to  the  surface.  At  the  same  time  that  the 
tension  on  the  wire  is  reduced,  one  end  of  a  crank  of  the 
machine  on  deck  is  freed,  allowing  the  other  end  to  fall 
back,  and  strike  a  gong ;  the  signal  that  bottom  has  been 
struck.  The  depth  can  be  verified  by  getting  a  cast  of  the 
lead. 

This  machine  should  be  frequently  overhauled  to  prevent 
rusting  and  should  be  carefully  examined  before  being  used. 

THE  LOG. 

Various  methods  have  been  proposed  for  measuring  the 
rate  at  which  a  ship  sails;  but  that  most  in  use  is  by  the 
Log  and  Glass. 

The  Log  is  a  flat  piece  of  thin  board,  of  a  sectoral  or 
quandrantal  form,  Figs.  (>«  and  fo,  Plate  0,  loaded,  on  the 
circular  side,  with  lead  sufficient  to  make  it  swim  upright 
in  the  water.  To  this  is  fastened  a  line,  about  150  fathoms 
long,  called  the  log-line,  which  is  divided  into  certain  spaces 
called  kuotfs,  and  is  wound  on  a  reel,  Fig.  7,  which  turns  very 
easily.  The  Glass  is  of  the  same  form  as  an  Hour-Glass, 
Fig.  8,  and  contains  such  a  quantity  of  sand  as  will  run 
through  the  hole  in  its  neck  in  twenty-eight  seconds. 

>I!ai*liing'  the  Log'-Line.  Previous  to  mark- 
ing a  new  Log-line,  it  is  soaked  in  water  for  a  few  days,  in 
order  to  get  it  in  the  condition  it  will  be  when  in  use.  From 
15  to  20  fathoms  is  allowed  for  *' stray-line,''  to  carry  the 
chip  out  of  the  eddy  of  the  ship's  wake.  The  length  of  a 
knot  is  determined  (for  the  28-second  glass)  by  the  following 
proportion,  viz. :  As  the  number  of  seconds  in  an  hour  is  to 
the  number  of  feet  in  a  sea  mile  (one-sixtieth  of  a  degree  of 
a  great  circle  of  the  earth,)  so  is  the  length  of  the  glass  to 
the  length  of  a  knot,  or, 

3.000  s  :  n,()80  ft.  =28  s  :  47.29  ft. 

:  47  feet  3  inches; 
therefore  the  length  of  the  knot  is  47  feet  :}  inches  for  the 
28-second  glass.* 

*  A  statute  mile  is  5,280  toot.  To  convort  sea  miles  into  statute  miles, 
multiply  the  former  bv  1.153.  To  convert  statute  miles  into  sea  miles,  multi- 
ply by  the  decimal  .808. 


22  THR    LOO. 

The  velocity  of  the  ship  is  estimated  in  knots  and  tenths 
of  a  knot. 

The  limit  of  stray -line  is  marked  by  a  piece  of  red  bunting 
about  six  inches  long,  and  each  length  of  47  feet  3  inches 
after  that,  by  a  piece  of  fish-line  with  one,  two,  three,  etc., 
knots  in  it,  according  to  its  number  from  the  stray-line. 

Each  length  of  47  feet  3  inches  (the  knot)  is  subdivided 
into  five  equal  parts,  and  a  small  piece  of  white  bunting 
about  two  inches  long  is  turned  into  the  line  at  every  two- 
tenths  division  thus  formed. 

Always,  before  leaving  port,  the  Navigator  has  the  line 
thoroughly  soaked  for  a  few  days,  and  then  all  the  marks 
placed  at  their  proper  distances.  He  also  compares  all  the 
sand-glasses  with  a  watch,  and  if  any  should  be  incorrect, 
he  makes  them  run  the  proper  time  by  taking  out  or  putting 
in  sand,  as  the  case  requires.  During  daylight,  especially 
in  very  damp  weather,  it  is  preferable  to  use  a  watch  rather 
than  a  sand-glass  for  noting  the  time.  Errors  of  the  glass 
due  to  moisture  are  connmionly  corrected  by  drying  it. 

Heaving-  tlie  X^og. — To  find  the  ship's  speed  is 
called  heaving  the  log,  and  is  thus  performed:  One  man 
holds  the  reel,  and  another  the  glass;  an  officer  of  the 
watch  throws  the  log  over  the  ship's  stern,  on  the  lee  side ; 
or,  on  the  side  opposite  to  the  patent  log  if  it  be  out.  When 
he  observes  the  stray  line  is  run  off,  and  the  red  rag  is  gone, 
he  cries,  Turn  ;  the  glass-holder  answers,  Twra.  Watching 
the  glass,  the  moment  it  is  run  out,  he  says.  Up!  The  reel 
being  immediately  stopped,  the  last  mark  run  oflf  shows  the 
number  of  knots,  and  the  distance  of  that  mark  from  the 
rail  is  estimated  in  tenths.  Then  the  knots  and  tenths  to- 
gether show  the  distance  the  ship  has  run  the  preceding 
hour,  if  the  wind  or  motive  power  has  been  constant.  But 
if  the  wind  has  not  been  the  same  during  the  whole  hour,  or 
interval  of  time  between  heaving  the  log,  or  if  there  has  been 
more  sail  set  or  handed,  a  proper  allowance  must  be  made. 
Sometimes,  when  the  ship  is  before  the  wind,  and  a  great  sea 
setting  after  her,  it  will  ''bring  home"  the  log.  In  such 
cases,  it  is  customary  to  allow  one  mile  in  ten,  and  less  in 
proportion  if  the  sea  be  not  so  great.  Allowance  ought 
also  to  be  made,  if  there  be  a  head  sea. 

In  heaving  the  lo^,  you  must  be  careful  to  veer  out  the 
line  as  fast  as  the  chip  will  take  it ;  for  if  it  be  left  to  turn 
the  reel  itself,  it  will  come  home  and  deceive  you  in  your 
reckoning.  You  must  also  be  careful  to  measure  the  log- 
line  pretty  often,  lest  it  stretch  and  deceive  you  in  the  dis- 
tance. Like  regard  must  be  had  that  the  glass  be  iust  28 
seconds ;  otherwise  no  accurate  accoimt  of  the  ship^s  way 
can  be  kept.  The  glass  is  much  influenced  by  the  weather, 
running  slower  in  damp  weather  than  in  dry.  The  glass 
may  be  examined  by  a  watch,  as  above  stated,  or  by  the 
following  method  :— Fasten  a  plummet  on  a  line,  and  nang 


THE   LOG.  23 

it  on  a  nail,  observing  that  the  distance  between  the  nail 
and  middle  of  the  plummet  be  39^  inches ;  then  swing  the 
plummet,  and  notice  how  often  it  swings  while  the  glass  is 
running  out,  and  that  will  be  the  number  of  seconds  meas- 
sured  by  the  glass. 

If  the  vessel's  speed  is  greater  than  four  knots  the  four- 
teen-second glass  is  used  instead  of  the  twenty-eight  second, 
and  the  nuniber  of  knots  run  out  is  doubled  to  ascertain  the 
actual  rate  of  sailing,  as  the  line  is  graduated  for  the 
twenty-eight  second  glass.  The  twenty-eight  and  fourteen 
second  glasses  are  .called  respectively  the  long  and  short 
glasses. 

In  addition  to  the  chip  log.  vessels  of  war  are  furnished 
with  *'The  Bliss  Patent  Taflfrail  Log" and  ^-^The  Negus  Im- 
proved Taflfrail  Log."  The  former  is  considered  reliable  for 
speeds  up  to  ten  or  twelve  knots,  the  latter  for  still  higher 
speeds.     The  general  features  of  both  are  the  same. 

The  :Bli»s  Patent  TafTir-ail  I^og^  (Fig.  9). 
This  is  a  mechanical.log,  consisting  of  a  rotator,  or  fly, 
which  is  towed  well  astern  of  the  vessel,  clear  of  the  eddy 
currents  ;  and  of  a  series  of  geared  wheels  arranged  in  a 
brass  cylinder  secured  to  some  convenient  place  on  board 
ship  well  aft.  The  rotator,  as  it  is  drawn  through  the 
water,  revolves  like  an  ordinary  propeller,  and  these  revo- 
lutions are  transferred  to  the  geared  wheels  by  means  of  a 
plaited  rope  about  2O0  feet  long.  The  inner  end  of  this  rope 
is  secured  to  the  outer  end  of  a  spindle,  the  inner  end  of 
which  is  an  endless  screw,  geared  into  two  small  wheels 
which  transfer  the  turns  to  three  registering  wheels.  The 
axes  of  the  registering  wheels  carry  pointers  that  register 
speed  in  knots  and  tenths,  up  to  100  knots. 

Tlie  ^TVeg-us  Improved  I^atent  TafTi^all 
(Fig.  11).  This  log  differs  from  the  one  just  described, 
in  that  the  system  of  geared  wheels  is  provided  with  a  fly 
wheel  and  a  governor.  The  governor  consists  of  a  rod  with 
a  ball  at  each  end,  the  line  being  attached  to  the  middle  of 
the  rod.  The  movement  of  the  geared  wheels  is  similar  to 
a  clock  made  with  strong  and  well  proportioned  springs. 
A  length  of  line,  varying  with  the  speed  of  the  vessel,  is 
reconunended  for  use  with  this  log. 

Both  logs  should  be  carried  on  the  weather  side  of  the 
taffrail,  and  the  works  kept  well  oiled.  The  rotator  should 
be  carefully  watched  to  see  that  it  is  not  fouled  by  sea-weed 
or  other  floating  substances.  It  must  also  be  remembered 
that  no  patent  log  of  this  description  can  register  accurately 
in  a  heavy  head  sea. 

Tlie  GrfoiMid.  X^og-  is  the  conmion  log  line  with 
a  haad-lead  attached,  and  is  used  in  tideways  and  currents, 
in  soundings,  to  ascertain  the  vessel's  speed  over  the  ground. 

The  speed  of  steamers  is  generally  estimated  from  the 
number  of  revolutions  of  the  enginea. 


CHAPTER    III. 

ROPE. 

There  are  four  varieties  of  rope  in  the  United  States 
naval  service :  that  made  of  the  fibres  of  the  hemp  plant : 
the  Manila  rope,  made  of  the  fibres  of  a  species  of  the  wila 
banana  ;  hide  rope,  made  of  strips  of  green  hide,  and  wire 
rope. 

In  some  countries,  ropes  made  of  horse  hair,  of  the 
fibrous  husk  of  the  cocoanut,  called  coir-rope,  and  of  tough 
grasses,  are  quite  common.  In  our  own  country,  rope  has 
been  made  from  fibres  of  the  flax  and  cotton  plants.  The 
metals  have  also  been  put  in  requisition,  copper-wire  rope 
being  used  for  particular  purposes,  principally  for  lightning 
conductors,  and  iron  and  steel  wire  are  in  general  use  for 
standing  rigging;  steel  wire  being  some  fifty  per  cent, 
stronger  than  iron  wire  of  the  same  size. 

Of  the  manv  vegetable  substances  that  are  adapted  to 
rope-making,  the  best  is  hemp — hemp-rope  possessing  in  a 
remarkable  degree  the  essential  qualities  of  flexibility  and 
tenacity. 

Hemp  in  its  transit  from  its  native  fields  to  the  rope- 
walk  passes  through  the  operations  of  dew-rotting y  scuzch" 
ing  and  hackling.  In  the  first  process  water  dissolves  the 
glutinous  matter  that  binds  the  nbrous  portion  to  the  woody 
core,  thus  partly  setting  the  fibres  free ;  scutching  breaks 
the  stalk  and  separates  it  still  further  from  the  fibre,  and 
hackling  consists  in  combing  out  the  hemp  to  separate  the 
long  and  superior  fibres  from  the  short  and  indifferent  ones 
or  tow. 

The  hemp  of  commerce  is  put  up  in  bundles  of  about 
200  lbs.  each.  If  good,  it  will  oe  found  to  possess  a  long, 
thin  fibre,  smooth  and  glossy  on  the  surface,  and  of  a  yel- 
lowish green  color;  free  from  "spills,"  or  small  pieces  of 
the  woody  substance  ;  possessing  the  requisite  properties  of 
strength  and  toughness,  and  inodorous. 

Russian  and  Italian  hemp  are  considered  the  best,  for  the 
generality  of  purposes.  Rope  made  from  the  best  quality 
of  Russian  hemp,  is  more  extensively  used  in  the  navy  than 
any  other  kind. 

Italian  hemp  is  only  used  in  the  navy  for  packing  for 
engines,  its  cost  being  more  than  double  that  of  Russian 
hemp.  ; 

Tne  Native  American  dressed  hemp,  easily  distinguished 

24 


ROPE.  25 

by  its  dark  grayish  color,  is  preferred  for  many  purposes,  such 
as  for  marline,  houseline,  hambroline,  and  all  cordage  spun 
by  hand,  the  fibre  being  finer  than  that  of  the  Russian  hemp, 
Ootton  is  a  poor  substitute  for  hemp,  in  rope-making, 
lacking  its  strength  and  durability.  It  retains  moisture 
when  once  wet,  and  is  liable  to  rot. 

Flax  is  used  sometimes  for  deep-sea. sounding-lines, 
though  reeled  piano  wire  has  replaced  it  for  this  purpose 
where  great  depths  are  measured. 

Sail  T^vrine  is  made  of  cotton  or  flax. 

The  size  of  ]Rope  is  denoted  by  its  circumfer- 
ence, and  the  length  is  measured  by  the  fathom.  The 
cordage  allowed  in  the  ecjuipment  of  a  man-of-war  ranges 
from  IJ  (15-thread)  to  10  inches  inclusive. 

ROPE-MAKING. 

In  rope-making,  the  fibres  of  hemp,  not  averaging  more 
than  three  and  a  half  feet  in  length,  must  necessarily  be 
overlapped  among  themselves  and  compressed  together  so 
as  not  to  be  drawn  apart.  The  required  compression  is  given 
by  twisting,  the  fibres  being  continuously  drawn  out  to- 
gether, from  a  bundle,  in  the  right  quantity  to  produce  the 
required  size  of  thread  or  yarn.  'Yarns  are  then  combined 
by  twisting,  and  form  a  strand ;  three  or  four  strands,  by 
twisting,  form  a  rope,  and  three  or  four  ropes,  a  cable. 
These  successive  steps,  in  each  of  which  the  twist  is  re- 
versed, cause  the  strain  to  be  more  equally  diffused  among 
the  fibres  than  it  would  be  if  these  were  laid  together  in 
sufficient  quantity  at  once  and  twisted,  and  moreover,  the , 
alternating  directions  given  to  the  twist  in  the  several  oper- 
ations, cause  the  different  portions  to  bind  upon  themselves, 
and  form  a  permanently  firm  bundle.  The  fibres  only  once 
twisted,  make  but  a  loose  bundle,  which,  though  decidedly 
stronger  than  the  same  quantity  made  into  a  hard-twisted 
rope,  is  not  so  durable  nor  so  well  adapted  to  the  ordinary 
purposes  of  rope.*  The  actual  loss  in  strength,  by  twisting, 
as  found  by  trial,  is  about  one-third  the  full  strength  of  the 
fibre;  its  loss  in  length,  from  the  same  cause,  being  also 
one-third. 

Rope  is  made  in  long  buildings  called  rope-walks.  The 
size  of  the  yarn  varies  according  to  the  kind  of  rope  for 
which  it  is  intended.  Forties — so-called  because  forty  varus 
will  just  fill  a  half -inch  tube — are  for  the  finer  kinds  of  rope ; 
twenties,  requiring  twenty  to  fill  the  tube,  are  for  cables, 
hawsers,  etc.  From  the  spinning-room  the  bobbins  contain- 
ing the  yarn  are  taken  to  the  tar-house,  where  they  are 
placed  in  frames  conveniently  arranged  with  reference  to 
the  tar-box.  This  is  a  long  box  filled  with  tar  kept  during 
the  operation  of  tarring  at  a  temperature  of  220°  F.  by  means 

*  The  wires  which  compose  the  cables  of  the  E^t  River  Suspension  Bridge, 
N.  Y.,  are  not  "laid  up,"  or  twisted,  but  are  run  straight  and  bound  together. 


26  ROPE. 

of  Steam  heaters.  The  yarns  are  led  from  the  bobbins  in  the 
frame  through  two  or  more  guide-plates  working  in  a  verti- 
cal plane  over  the  tar-box,  and  convenient  for  lowering  into 
the  tar;  thence  to  the  farther  end  (between  metal  rollers, 
which  press  out  and  return  to  the  box  the  superfluous  tar) 
on  to  a  large  wooden  drum  to  cool  them ;  through  fair-lead- 
ers, and  finally  to  a  fresh  set  of  bobbins,  where  they  are 
wound  up  with  the  utmost  regularity. 

Rigging  is  so  much  exposed  to  moisture  and  heat  that 
hemp  would  soon  decay  if  not  protected.  Tar,  though  really 
injurious  in  its  effects  upon  the  hemp  fibre,  has  been  found 
indispensable  to  its  general  preservation. 

The  manila  fiber  is  cut  to  the  required  length,  oiled, 
drawn,  and  spun  into  yarns. 

Vai*ietieK  ol'  R,ope«  In  rope-making  the  gen- 
eral rule  is  to  spin  the  nam  from  right  over  to  left.  All 
rope  yarns  are  therefore  righi-hauded.  The  strand,  or 
ready,  formed  by  a  combination  of  suc^h  yarns,  becomes 
left-handed.  Three  of  these  strands  being  twisted  together 
form  a  riifht-handed  rope,  known  as  plain-laid  rope.  Fig. 
U,  Plate  10. 

AVliite  Hope.  Hemp  rope,  when  plain-laid  andi 
not  tarred  in  laying-up,  is  called  white  rope,  and  is  the 
strongest  hemp  cordage.  It  should  not  be  confounded  with 
Manila.  It  is  used  for  log-lines  and  signal  halliards.  The 
latter  are  also  made  of  yarns  of  untarred  hemp,  plaited  by 
machinery  to  avoid  the  kinking  common  to  new  rope  of  the 
ordinary  make.  This  is  caWea '' plaited  stuff, '^  or  '^signal 
halliard  stuff  J' 

The  tarred  plain-laid  ranks  next  in  point  of  strength, 
and  is  in  more  g^eneral  use  than  any  other.  The  lighter 
kinds  of  standing  rigging,  much  of  the  running  rig- 
ging, and  many  purchase  falls  are  made  of  this  kind  of 
rope. 

Cal>le-l«icl  oi*  PlaTVssser-laicI  H^ope,  Fig.  15, 
is  left-handed  rope  of  nine  strands,  and  is  so  made  to  render 
it  impervious  to  water,  but  the  additional  twist  necessary 
to  lay  it  up  seems  to  detract  from  the  strength  of  the  fil^re, 
the  strength  of  plain-laid  being  to  that  of  cable-laid*  as 
8.7  to  6;  besides  this,  it  stretches  considerably  under 
strain. 

I3a.ek-liMTi<led.  H^ope.  In  making  the  plain 
laid,  it  was  said  that  the  readies  were  left-handecl,  the 
yarns  and  the  rope  itself  being  right-handed.  If,  instead 
of  this,  the  readv  is  given  the  same  twist  the  varn  has 
(right-handed),  then,  when  brought  together  and  laid  up, 
the  rope  must  come  left-handed.  This  is  called  left-handed 
or  hack-handed  rope.  It  is  more  pliable  than  the  plain-laid, 
less  liable  to  kinks  and  grinds  when  new,  and  is  allowed,  in 
the  navy,  for  reeving  on  lower  and  topsail  bracers. 

Shi-orwl-lnicl  Kope,,  Fig.  16,  Plate  10,  is  formed 


ROPE.  27 

by  adding  another  strand  to  the  plain-laid  rope.  But  the 
four  spirals  of  strands  leave  a  hollow  in  the  centre,  which, 
if  unlSUed,  would,  on  the  application  of  strain,  permit  the 
strands  to  sink  in,  and  detract  greatly  from  the  rope's 
strength,  by  an  unequal  distribution  of  strain.  The  tour 
strands  are,  therefore,  laid  up  around  a  hearty  a  small  rope, 
made  soft  and  elastic,  and  about  one-third  the  size  of  the 
strands. 

Experiments  show  that  four-stranded  rope,  when  under 
5  inches,  is  weaker  than  three-stranded  of  the  same  size ; 
but  from  5  to  8  inches,  the  difference  in  strength  of  the  two 
kinds  is  trifling,  while  all  above  8  inches  is  considered  to  be 
equal  to  plain-laid  when  the  rope  is  well  made. 

All  hemp  or  manila  rope  aoove  3  inches  now  issued  to 
the  Xavy  is  four  stranded.  All  laniard  stuff  is  four  stranded. 
The  heart  used  in  all  rope  is  made  of  jute. 

Tapered  Il/ope  is  used  where  much  strain  is 
brought  on  only  one  end.  That  part  which  bears  the  strain 
is  full-sized,  tapering  off  to  the  hauling  part,  which  is  light 
and  pliable.  Fore  and  main  tacks  and  sheets  are  made  of 
tapered  rope. 

IVf  £tiiil£|.  I^ope  seems  to  be  better  adapted  to  cer- 
tain purposes  on  board  ship  than  hemp,  being  more  pliable, 
buoyant,  causing  less  friction,  and  not  so  easily  affected  by 
moisttu-e.  It  is  used  for  hawsers,  tow-lines,  and  for  light- 
nmning  rigging  and  gun-tackle  falls. 

Large  hemp  and  manila  cables  have  been  generally  re- 
placed by  steel  wire  hawsers ;  the  latter  being  much  lighter, 
stronger,  and  more  durable. 

liicle  I^oi>e  is  made  of  strips  cut  by  machinery  from 
green  hides. 

Bolt  H^ope  is  the  name  applied  to  rope  used  for  rop- 
ing sails.  It  is  made  of  the  best  hemp  and  finest  yarns,  and 
is  the  most  superior  kind  of  cordage. 

Small  HtuflT  is  the  general  term  applied  to  small 
rope.  It  is  particularized  by  tne  number  of  threads  or  yarns 
which  it  contains,  and  is  further  known  either  as  ratline 
stuff  or  seizing  stuff. 

Ratline  StrxlT  is  three-stranded,  right-handed 
small  sfcuflf  of  24,  21,  18,  15  or  12  threads.  It  is  measured  by 
the  fathonoL. 

Seizing-  Stn£K  Is  of  9,  6,  4  or  2  threads,  and  is 
measured  by  the  pound.  While  all  varieties  of  small  stuff 
may  be  spoken  of  as  "24,  18,  9,  &c.,  thread  stuff,"  the 
smaller  varieties  have  ^Iso  special  names,  according  to 
their  number  of  threads  and  the  manner  of  laying  up. 
We  have :        •  „ 

Hambroline,  two-stranded,  right-handed,  and 

ft'Oiiiidliiie,  three-stranded,  right-handed.  Both  of 
these  are  made  of  fine  back  or  left-handed  yams,  so  that 
the  stuff  itself  is  right-handed. 


2H  ROPE. 

>I Ai-line^  two-stranded,  left-handed. 

llonwliiie^  three-stranded,  left-handed.  Both  of 
these  are  made  of  finer  dressed  hemp,  and  have  altogether 
a  neater,  cleaner  and  smoother  appearance  than  spun- 
yam. 

SpiMi-^^ara  is  also  left-handed,  and  of  two,  three 
or  four  strands. 

^  For  fine  seizings  and  service,  hambroline  and  roundline 
(right-handed),  or  marline  and  housline  (left-handed)  are 
the  kinds  of  small  stuff  selected.  For  ordinary  purposes, 
spun-yam  is  used. 

;Nettle«!*9  used  for  hanmiock  clews,  and  where  very 
neat  stops  are  required,  are  made  by  laying  up  two  or  three 
yams  in  a  taut  twist  with  the  thumb  and  fingers,  and  then 
rubbing  it  down  smooth. 

Rumhowline  is  the  name  sometimes  applied  to  coarse, 
soft  rope,  made  from  outside  yams,  to  be  used  for  temporary 
lashings,  &c. 

Rogue's  Yam  is  a  single  untarred  thread,  sometimes 
placea  in  the  centre  of  the  rope,  or  in  the  centre  of  each 
strand,  denoting  government  manufacture. 

•Tiinl^:  is  supplied  for  the  purpose  of  working  up  into 
various  uses — sucn  as  for  swabs,  spun-yarn;  nettle-stuflf, 
lacings,  seizings,  carinas,  gaskets,  &c. — of  all  of  which  the 
supply,  in  proper  kind,  is  generally  inadequate.  Good  junk 
is  got  out  of  such  material  as  condemned  hawsers — they 
having  been  necessarily  made  of  the  best  stuff,  and  con- 
demned before  being  much  injured.  Old  rigging  makes 
bad  junk,  not  being  condemned  generally  until  much 
worn. 

Of  the  worst  junk,  swabs  and  spun-yarn  should  be 
made  ;  of  the  best,  nettle  and  seizing-stuff,  lacings,  earings, 
&c. 

Large  junk,  such  as  lengths  of  towlines,  should  be  unlaid 
before  being  put  below,  that  it  may  admit  of  being  snugly 
stowed. 

Hlisvkin^s!  are  odds  and  ends  of  yams  and  small 
ropes,  such  as  are  found  in  the  sweepings  of  the  deck  after 
work.  They  are  collected,  put  in  a  bag  kept  for  the  pur- 
pose, and  at  certain  times  served  out  to  the  watch  to  be 
Eicked  into  Oakum,  a  good  supply  of  which  should  always 
e  on  hand  for  any  calking  that  may  be  required,  for  stuff- 
ing jackasses,  boat's  fenders,  &c. 

«,opelIlalcel•'*^4  TVincli,  Fig.  is,  Plate  10,  gives 
a  general  idea  of  the  winch,  in  operation. 

A  loper  is  a  swivel  hook,  Fi^.  17  (a),  which,  by  revolving 
freely,  allows  the  strands  to  twine  up  together,  by  the  twist 
put  in  them  as  the  top  is  withdrawn. 

The  top,  Fig.  17  (b),  is  a  conical  piece  of  wood,  scored  on 
the  outside  for  the  reception  of  the  strands.  Its  use  is  to 
keep  the  strands  separate  between  it  and  the  winch,  and  to 


i 

i 


i 
I 


te 


ROPE.  29 

regulate  the  amount  of  twist  in  the  rope  behind  it.  by  being 
moved  along  either  slowly  or  rapidly.  When  four-stranded 
rope  is  required,  a  hole  is  bored  through  the  centre,  as  a 
lead  for  the  heart. 

Greixej*al  .Uema.r'ks  on  ]Rox>e«  The  strength 
of  a  rope-yam  of  medium  size  is  equal  to  100  lbs. ,  but  the 
measure  of  strength  of  a  given  rope  is  not,  as  might 
naturally  be  supposed,  100  lbs.  multiplied  by  the  number  of 
yams  contained  in  the  rope.  The  twist  given  to  the  yarn, 
after  certain  limits,  diminishes  its  strength,  as  already 
stated,  and  with  the  best  machinery  it  is  scarcely  possible 
that  each  yarn  of  the  rope  should  bear  its  proper  proportion 
of  strain.  The  difference  in  the  average  strength  of  a  yam 
differs  with  the  size  of  the  rope.  Thus,  in  a  12-inch  rope, 
the  average  strength  of  each  yarn  is  equal  to  76  lbs.,  whereas, 
in  a  rope  of  half  an  inch,  it  is  104  lbs. 

Experiment  has  shown  that  by  applying  a  constant,  or 
even  frequent,  strain  equal  to  half  its  strength,  the  rope 
will  eventually  break.  This  seems  to  be  particularly  the 
case  with  cable-laid  rope,  which  is  the  wealcest  of  all. 

It  has  been  ascertained  that  a  good  selvagee,  carefully 
made  with  the  same  number  arid  description  of  yams,  as 
the  common  three-stranded  plain-laid  rope,  possesses  about 
the  same  degree  of  strength. 

It  has  been  shown  by  experiment,  that  where  a  span  is 
so  placed  as  to  form  an  angle  less  than  30  degrees,  the 
strength  of  the  two  parts  of  the  rope  or  chain  of  which  it  is 
composed,  is  less  than  the  strength  which  one  such  part 
would  have  if  placed  in  a  direct  line  with  the  strain. 

Right-handed  ropes  are  coiled  down  with  the  sun,  or  in 
the  direction  pursued  by  the  hands  of  a  watch ;  the  left- 
handed  ropes,  against  the  sun.  An  exception  to  this  rule  is 
in  the  hemp  cables  and  hawsers,  which  are  left-handed  and 
are  coiled  away  with  the  sun. 

In  taking  out  new  ringing  from  a  coil,  the  end  should 
be  passed  through  the  coil  and  coiled  down  against  its  lay 
to  get  the  turns  out. 

Avoid  covering  hemp  rope  with  leather,  especially 
green  hide,  unless  good  and  well-tarred  parcelling  be  inter- 
posed. 

Rope  contracts  very  considerably  by  wetting  it.  Ad- 
vantage may  be,  and  often  is,  taken  of  this,  by  wetting 
lashings,  which  are  required  to  be  very  taut  and  solid,  and 
are  not.  permanent,  as  the  lashing  of  a  garland  on  a  lower 
mast  for  taking  it  in  or  getting  it  out.  For  the  same  reason 
in  rainy  weather,  braces,  halliards,  sheets,  clew-lines,  and 
other  ngging  requiring  it,  should  be  slacked  up  to  save  an 
unnecessary  strain  on  the  rope,  and  avoid  the  risk  of  spring- 
ing a  yard  or  carrying  something  away. 

Running  rigging  nas  nothing  to  protect  it  from  the 
effects  of  tne  weather,  excepting,  in  hemp,  the  tar  taken  up 


30  ROPE. 

in  the  process  of  manufacturt\  and  after  being  wet  the  air 
should  be  allowed  to  circulate  through  it  freely.  Rope 
should  never  be  stowed  away  until  thoroughly  drv. 

Running  rigging,  when  not  in  actual  use,  should  be  kept 
neatly  coiled  down  near  the  pin  to  which  it  belays,  taking 
care  always  to  capsize  the  coil  that  the  running  part  may 
be  on  top,  so  that  it  may  run  clear.  In  port,  during  good 
weather,  the  rigging  may  be  coiled  down  in  flemish  coils, 
that  is,  perfectly  flat,  as  soon  as  the  decks  are  dry  enough 
in  the  morning,  and  left  so  until  the  decks  are  cleared  up  at 
seven  bells  in  the  afternoon,  when  the  ends  should  be  run 
out,  the  rope  coiled  down  snugly  and  triced  up  in  readiness 
for  washing  decks  in  the  momine. 

When  scrubbing  clothes  or  hammocks,  soap  at  times 
unavoidably  gets  on  the  rigging :  it  should  be  carefully 
washed  oflE  oefore  the  decks  are  dry. 

One  rope  may  be  rove  by  another  by  putting  the  two 
ends  togetner,  and  worming  three  yams  or  pieces  of  spun- 
yam  in  the  lay  for  three  or  four  inches  on  each  side,  and 
clove-hitching  the  ends  around  the  rope,  or  opening  the 
strands  and  laying  them  in.  This  is  always  done  when 
reeving  new  braces  by  old  ones,  and  with  running  rigging 
generfiuly. 

Rule  to  Find  the  Approximate  Strength  of  Tarred 
Rope. — Divide  the  circumference  of  the  rope  by  3  and  mul- 
tiply the  quotient  by  circumference  will  give  breaking  point 
in  tons,  very  near.  Example:  Say  8" — 8-r-3=2.(i(i  x8=21^ 
tons;  2,240=47,786  lbs.  Proof  by  yarns  in  rope:  Yarns  in 
rope,  426;  8  in  426  x  112=47,712  lbs. 

^W^ire  H^ope  for  use  in  the  Navy  is  manufactured 
at  the  Boston  Navy  Yard.  It  is  made  of  galvanized  steel 
wire  A.  W.  G.*  Nos.  24  to  12.  All  wire  is  supplied  in  con- 
tinuous coils  of  not  less  than  4,000  feet.  Annealed  wire  is 
required  to  stand  a  strain  of  80,000  lbs.  per  square  inch; 
hard  wire  a  strain  of  175,000  to  200,000  per  square  inch. 
The  process  of  making  wire  rope  is  the  same  in  principle  as 
that  of  making  hemp  rope.  The  wires  taking  the  place  of 
the  yarns.  The  wires  are  laid  up  into  strands,  each  strand 
having  a  heart,  sometimes  of  wire,  sometimes  of  jute.  The 
strands  are  then  laid  up,  around  a  heart,  into  rope.  Wire 
rope  is  six-stranded  plain  laid,  the  size  and  number  of  the 
wires  varying  with  the  size  of  the  rope  to  be  made,  as  in 
the  following  types : 

Type  A,  When  strength,  rather  than  flexibility  is  re- 
quired. To  be  made  of  plain  laid,  hard,  galvanized  wire, 
six  core  wires,  and  twelve  wrap  wires.  Type  A  includes 
all  articles  coming  under  the  head  of  standing  rigging, 
shrouds,  baclj:stays,  fore  and  aft  stays,  catharpin  legs, 
reefing  jack  stays,  bitt  and  deck  stoppers,  boat  spans  and 
guys,  peak  and  throat  spans,  triatic  stays  and  spans,  pre- 

♦  American  Wire  Gage. 


ROPE.  31 

venter  slings,   winding  pendants,   water  whip  stays  and 
pendants. 

Type  B.  When  strength  and  flexibility  are  both  required. 
To  be  made  of  plain  laid,  hard,  galvanized  steel  wire,  as  in 
type  A,  except  that  the  core  wires  are  omitted  and  a  jute 
hemp  or  cotton  heart  tarred  or  greased  substituted.  The 
following  articles  are  made  from  this  type :  trysail  ladders, 
swinging  boom  and  stern  ladders  and  pendants,  grab  ropes, 
swinging  boom  topping  lifts,  yard  lifts,  topsail  runners,  par- 
rels and  tyes,  vang  pendants,  jib  and  staysail  pendants, 
sea  anchor  bales,  ridge  ropes,  foot  ropes  for  awnings. 

Type  C.  When  great  flexibility  is  required.  To  be  made 
w^ithout  core  wires  as  in  type  B,  but  with  a  greater  number 
of  wrap  wires.  The  following  articles  are  made  from  this 
type:  hogging  lines  for  collision  mats,  wheel  ropes,  boats 
rigging,  etc. 

Type  D.  Annealed  wire  to  be  used  for  special  purposes, 
such  as  scow  lines,  seizings,  etc.  To  be  laid  plain  or  other- 
wise. 

Directions  for  fitting  wire  rigging.  All  standing  rig- 
ging, after  being  put  on  a  stretch,  is  to  be  covered  with  a 
good  coat  of  red  lead,  mixed  with  boiled  linseed  oil  then 
wormed,  parcelled  with  dry  parcelling,  and  again  red  leaded 
and  served  over  all  and  throughout.  Rigging  below  2  inches 
to  be  served  with  marline,  from  2  inches  to  3J^  inches  to  be 
served  with  house-line,  larger  sizes  to  be  served  with  round- 
line.  All  nips  and  around  thimbles  to  be  doubly  served. 
Fore  and  aft  stays  to  be  leathered  in  collars  and  nips. 

In  splicing  in  thimbles,  etc.,  there  must  be  a  seizing  be-  ^ 
tween  the  thimble  and  first  tuck.     Splices  must  be  tucked 
whole  twice,  then  half,  then  quarter. 

All  spans  and  guys  to  be  served  throughout  and  fitted 
with  shackles  in  one  end  and  an  oblong  or  wire  thimble  in 
the  other.  Lower  lifts  and  boom  topping  lifts  to  be  served 
throughout.  Boom  pendants  and  ladders,  stern  pendants 
and  ladders  to  be  served  throughout,  leathered  around  thim- 
bles, the  sides  of  the  ladders  to  be  covered  with  8-ounce  cot- 
ton duck  between  the  leather,  the  duck  to  come  under  the 
ends  of  the  leather,  the  end  to  be  secured  by  a  seizing  of  ^^ 
inch  wire.     Boom  pendants  to  be  fitted  the  same  as  ladders. 

Trysail  ladders  to  be  served  throughout  and  set  up  with 
brass  tumbuckles;  boom,  stern  and  trysail  ladders  are  to 
have  galvanized  iron  rungs  13  inches  long  and  |  inch 
diameter. 

Deck  stoppers  to  be  double  served  throughout ;  fitted  with 
an  iron  toggle  at  one  end  and  a  hook  \  larger  than  the  cable 
at  the  other  end.  The  toggle  to  be  leathered.  The  toggle 
end  to  be  leathered  over  the  serving  one  foot  and  provided 
with  a  manila  lanyard  3  fathoms  long.  Bitt  stoppers  to  be 
fitted  at  the  forward  end  the  same  as  deck  stoppers.     Ridge 


82  ROPE. 

ropes  and  foot  ropes  for  awnings  to  be  served  throughout 
and  set  up  with  turnbuckles. 

Grab  ropes  to  be  served  throughout  and  covered  with  8- 
ounce  cotton  ravens,  the  ends  to  be  fitted  the  same  as  boom 
pendants  and  laciders. 

All  parcelling  used  on  wire  rope  must  be  of  cotton  sheet- 
ing of  the  best  quality,  unbleached,  closely  woven,  and  free 
from  sizing  of  any  kind. 

To  replace  hemp  or  manila  by  steel  wire  rope,  take  wire 
rope  whose  circumference  is  three-eighths  of  that  of  the  liemp 
or  manila. 


/ 


CHAPTER    I  V. 

KNOTTING,    SPLICING.   ETC. 

To  Klnot  It  It  ope  ^"arn.  Fig.  10,  Plate  11. 
Split  in  halves  the  two  ends  of  a  rope-yarn,  scrape  them 
down  with  a  knife,  crotch  and  tie  the  two  opposite  ends ; 
jam  the  tie  and  trim  off  the  ends. 

An  Ovei*-liaiicl  I-tnot,  Fig.  20,  Plate  11. 

JS^  t^igxii-e-ot-Ei^lit  TLn^yt^  Fig.  21,  Plate  11. 

A.  H^eef  lilnot.  Fig.  2:5,  Plate  11.  This  knot  is 
used  in  tying  reef  points  and  small  stuff  generally.  Observe 
to  bring  the  end  out  next  its  own  part,  otherwise  it  will  be 
a  Granny's  Knot,  which  jams  and  is  difficult  to  cast  off. 

A  I3o\;\--I^ine  Klnot,  Fig  20,  Plate  11. 

-^V  R^unning^  Bovr-T^ine  lilnot.  Fig  28,  Plate 
11.  Take  the  end  of  a  rope,  Fig.  27,  round  the  standing  part 
(b)  and  through  the  bight  (c) ;  make  the  single  bow-line 
knot  upon  the  part  (d),  and  it  is  done. 

A.  Xio^w-Line  linot  upon  the  Bight  of  a  Rope, 
Fiff.  30,  Plate  12.  Take  the  bight  (a)  in  one  hand,  Fig.  29, 
and  the  standing  parts  (b)  in  the  other ;  throw  a  kink  or 
Cuckold's  Neck  over  the  bight  (a)  with  the  standing  parts, 
the  same  as  for  the  single  knot ;  take  the  bi^ht  (a)  over  the 
large  bights  (c,  c),  bringing  it  up  again  :  it  will  then  be 
complete,  Fig.  30.  The  Best  way  to  sling  a  man  by  a  bow- 
line is  to  shorten  up  one  of  the  lower  bights,  using  the 
lower  part  as  a  seat  and  putting  the  arms  through  the  part 
next  aoove. 

A.  r*roloiig-e  Klnot,  Fig.  31,  Plate  12. 

A.  BoAV-line  KLnot,  formed  with  a  bight  to  hook 
into,  as  in  Fig.  2 is,  Plate  33,  is  used  for  heavy  pulls,  on  the 
ends  of  rigging  luffs,  by  riggers.  Fig,  7l>,  Plate  17,  shows 
an  ordinary  bow-line  knot  formed  over  a  ring-bolt  to  make 
a  temporary  stopper.  Shove  the  bight  through  the  ring- 
bolt, take  a  half  hitch  with  the  short  end  over  the  bight, 
then  pass  the  short  end  through  the  bight.  A  handy  knot 
when  you  wish  to  use  a  short  end  of  a  long  coil. 

A'^Wall-Klnot,  Figs.  32  and  33,  Plate  12. 

To  Ci-o^-n  this  knot.  Figs.  34  and  3o,  Plate  1 2. 
This  is  called  a  Single  Wall,  and  Hinijle  Crown, 

To  I>oixl>le->Vall  this  knot.  Fig.  36,  Plate  13.  Take 
one  of  the  ends  of  the  single  crown,  suppose  the  end  (b), 
bring  it  underneath  the  part  of  the  first  walling  next  to  it, 
and  push  it  up  through  the  same  bi^ht  (d) ;  perform  this 
operation  with  the  other  strands,  pushing  them  up  through 


•  »»> 


'J4  KNOTTING. 

two  bights,  and  the  knot  will  appear  like  Fig.  30,  having  a 
Double  Wall  and  Single  Crown. 

To  II>ovil>le-d*o\;\"i:i  the  same  knot,  Fig.  37,  Plate 
13.  Lay  the  strands  by  the  sides  of  those  in  the  single 
crown,  pushing  them  through  the  same  bights  in  the  single 
crown,  and  down  through  tne  double  wallmg ;  it  will  then 
be  like  Fig.  37,  viz.  single  walled,  single  crowned,  double 
walled,  and  double  crowned.  The  nrst  walling  must  always 
be  made  against  the  lay  of  the  rope  :  the  parts  will  then  lie 
fair  for  the  double  crown.  The  ends  are  scraped  down, 
tapered,  marled,  and  served  with  spun  yarn.  Tnis  knot  is 
often  used  for  the  ends  of  man-ropes,  and  hence  frequently 
called  a  Man-rope  Knot, 

>IattlieAV  Walker's  linot.  Fig.  39,  Plate 
13.  This  knot  is  made  bv  separating  the  stranas  of  a  rope, 
Fig.  38,  taking  the  end  (1)  round  the  rope,  and  through  its 
own  bight,  the  end  (2)  unaerneath  through  the  bight  of  the 
first,  and  through  its  own  bight,  and  the  end  (3)  underneath, 
through  the  bights  of  the  strands  (1  and  2),  and  through  its 
own  bight.  Haul  them  taut,  and  they  form  the  knot.  Fig. 
39.  The  ends  are  cut  off.  This  is  a  handsome  knot  for  the 
end  of  a  laniard,  and  is  generally  used  for  that  purpose. 

.A^  Siiig-1^  iVXattliew  AVallcev,  Figs.  ^Q  and 
41,  Plate  13.  It  should  have  a  leather  washer  around  its 
neck  when  exposed  to  chafe. 

A.  Singfle  ir>iamoii<l  T^iiot,  Fig.  43,  Plate  14. 
Unlay  the  end  of  a  plain-laid  rope  for  a  considerable  length. 
Fig.  42,  and  with  tne  strands  form  three  bights  down  its 
side,  holding  them  fast.  Put  the  end  of  strand  (1)  over 
strand  (2),  and  through  the  bight  of  strand  (3),  as  in  the 
figure  ;  then  put  the  strand  (2)  over  strand  (3),  and  through 
the  bight  formed  by  the  strand  (1),  and  the  end  of  (3)  over 
(1),  and  through  the  bight  of  (2).  Haul  these  taut,  lay  the 
rope  up  again,  and  the  knot  will  appear  like  Fig.  43.  This 
knot  is  used  for  the  side  ropes,  jib  guys,  bell  ropes,  &c. 

J^  Doiible  I>ia.iiioiicl  lilnot,  for  the  same 
purpose.  Fig.  44,  Plate  14.  With  the  strands  opened  out 
again,  follow  the  lead  of  the  single  knot  through  two  single 
bights,  the  ends  coming  out  at  the  top  of  the  knot,  and  lead 
the  last  strand  through  two  double  bights.  Lay  the  roue 
up  again  as  before,  to  where  the  next  knot  is  to  be  made, 
and  it  will  appear  like  Fig.  44. 

A-  Spi-it-Sail  Hli€-et  Ii:not,  Fig.  47,  Plate  14. 

A.  Stoi>pov  lV>i*  a  Htr-anclecl  Ii^^'oot  I^oi>o 
ox*  a  LeecMi  P^ope,  Fig.  48,  Plate  15.  This  is  made 
by  double  walling,  without  crowning,  a  three-stranded  rope, 
against  the  lay,  and  stopping  the  ends  together,  as  in  tht* 
figure.    The  ends,  if  very  short,  are  whipped  without  being 

stopped. 

A.  Stoppc^i'  lilnol:  on  the  end  of  a  deck  stopper  is 


> 


KNOTTING.  35 

made  as  in  Fig.  49,  by  a  single  crown  and  single  wall.  The 
ends  are  whipped  singly  and  cut  off.  A  deck  stopper  has  a 
laniard  spliced  around  the  neck  of  the  knot,  and  a  nook  and 
thimble  spliced  in  the  other.  When  made  of  wire  rope,  a 
deck  stopper  is  fitted  as  in  Fig.  50,  where  an  iron  toggle  is 
spliced  into  the  end  of  the  stopper  in  place  of  the  knot. 

A.  Shi^oud  Ji^not.  unlay  tne  ends  of  two  ropes, 
Fig.  51,  placing  them  one  within  tne  other,  drawing  them 
close  as  for  splicing ;  then  single-wall  each  set  of  ends — 
those  of  one  rope,  ag^ainst  the  lay  (i.  e.  from  left  to  right  if 
the  rope  be  cable-laid,  as  in  the  figiire),  round  the  standing 
part  of  the  other.  The  ends  are  then  opened  out,  tapered, 
marled  down,  and  served  with  spun-yam.  This  knot  is 
used  when  a  shroud  is  either  shot  or  carried  away.  Fig.  54 
and  Fig.  55. 

A.  French  Sliroud  Klnot.  Place  the  ends  of 
two  ropes  as  before,  Fig.  61,  drawing  them  close.  Laying 
the  ends  on  one  side  back  upon  their  own  part,  single- 
wall  the  remaining  ends  around  the  bights  of  the  other 
three  and  the  standing  part,  and  it  will  appear  as  in  Fi^. 
52.  When  hauled  taut,  it  appears  as  in  Fig.  53.  The  enas 
are  tapered,  &c.,  as  before.  This  knot  is  as  secure  as  the 
other,  and  much  neater. 


HITCHES. 

Hitoliing:  a  Hope,  Fig.  50,  Plate  15.  This  is 
called  a  Half-hitch,  Two  of  these,  one  above  the  other. 
Fig.  57,  are  called  Two  Half-hitches  or  a  Clove-hitch.  Fig. 
58  represents  a  half -hitch  around  a  spar;  Fig.  50,  Plate  10, 
a  clove-hitch,  with  a  ratline  around  a  shroud. 

A  Timber— Hitch,  Figs.  00  and  01,  Plate  10. 

A.  H^ound  Turn  a^nd  a  Half-Hitch,  Fig. 
02,  Plate  10.  Used  for  bending  a  hawser  to  the  ring  of  an 
anchor. 

A.  Timl>eir  and  Half-Hiitch,  Fig.  03,  Plate 
16.    Used  for  bending  a  line  to  a  spar,  for  towing,  &c. 

A.  Hlackwall  Hitch,  Fig.  05,  Plate  10.  This  is 
sometimes  used  with  a  laniard,  when  setting  up  the  shrouds. 

A.  r>oTil>le  Black^vall  Hiitch,  Fig.  (W;,  Plate 
10.  It  is  better,  however,  to  use  a  strap  when  a  heavy  strain 
is  expected. 

A.  Cat's  I^a^v  is  used  for  the  same  purpose  as  the 
double  blackwall  hitch.  Fig.  70,  Plate  10. 
•     A.  Sheep  Shank,  Fig.  71,  Plate  17.     This  is  made* 
for  shortening  a  back-stay,  &c. 

A.  H^ollin^  Hiitch,  Fig.  73,  Plate  17.  This  is  a 
good  hitch  for  a  stopper,  as  it  will  not  slip,  and  is  in  very 
general  use.  Fig.  74,  Plate  10,  shows  how  a  stopper  is 
passed,  one  of  the  hitches  being  omitted. 


36  HITCHING. 


A.  TMEai'ling-Spilce  Tliteli,  Fig.  75,  Plate  17. 
Always  used  in  heaving  on  seizings.  The  spike  is  used  as 
a  pry,  to  heave  the  seizing  taut. 

A  HariieHH  ITitcli,  Fig.  76,  Plate  17. 

A.  TVIarlingr  Hitcli,  Fig.  77,  Plate  1 7,  is  used  in 
marling  down  the  yams  left  out  from  a  splice  ;  for  the  mar- 
ling put  over  parcelling ;  and  for  making  selvagee  straps, 
&c.  It  is  the  same  as  used  for  lashing  up  hammocks,  Fig. 
78,  where  seven  such  turns  are  allowed. 

A.  AVeavei-'K  Hitcli.    See  Sheet-Bend, 

Uitcliiiigr  tlie  Iilncl  oi*  ix  H/Ope.  Trim  the 
end  off  with  a  knife  to  the  shape  of  a  cone ;  then,  with  a 
sail-needle  and  twine,  stitch  it  around  with  a  loop-stitch, 
first  taking  a  few  round  turns  with  the  twine.  When 
finished  it  will  resemble  Fig.  80,  Plate  17.  All  running 
rigging  have  the  ends  hitched  to  prevent  unlaying,  as  in 
the  figure,  instead  of  the  ordinary  whipping.  All  the  gun- 
tackle  falls  should  have  their  ends  hitcnea,  as  it  is  neater 
and  better  than  the  ordinary  whipping. 

To  Hitch  ovei-  a  H^ingr-l^olt,  Fig.  HI,  Plate 
17. 

IKa.elitliiig',  Fig.  H4,  Plate  18.  To  prevent  ghafe, 
secure  one  end  and  hitch  right  and  left  handed,  alternately. 

BENDS. 

.A.  Slieel  T^encl  oi-  Sing*!^  Uencl,  Fig.  85, 
Plate  IS.  It  is  sometimes  called  also  a  Becket-hend,  some- 
times  a  Weaver's  Hitch. 

jK.  T3ovxl:>le  liencl.  Fig.  S7,  Plate  IS,  is  simply  tak- 
ing the  end  around  a  second  time.  The  single  bend  is  the 
most  common  one  in  use.  The  standing  part  of  most  pur- 
chase falls  are  thus  secured  to  the  becket  in  tlie  strap  of  the 
purchase  block,  as  in  Fig.  80. 

jV.  I^iKliei-iixan'w  Bend,  Fig.  SS.  Plate  IS.  This 
is  sometimes  used  for  bending  the  studding-sail  halliards  to 
the  yard,  but  more  frequently  for  bending  a  hawser  to  the 
ring  of  an  anchor,  in  which  case  the  end  should  be  stopped 
down  with  spun-yarn.  Fig.  81*. 

i  Tlie  Stviclding^  Sail  I  lalliai-cl  I^eiid,  Fig. 
IM),  Plate  IS,  is  preferred  to  all  others  for  bending  halliards 
to  yards,  as  it  is  safe  and  snug. 

"J^  Cai-i-ick  Bencl,  Fig.  1)2,  Plate  18.  This  bend 
is  much  used  for  hawsers. 

Hawnevs^  are  sometimes  bent  together  thus.  Fig.  03, 
Plate  18;  the  hawser  has  a  half -hitch  cast  on  it,  a  throat 
seizing  clapped  on  the  standing  part  (b^  and  a  round  one  at 
(a).  Another  hawser  is  rove  througn  the  bight  of  this, 
hitched  in  the  same  manner,  and  seized  to  tne  standing 
part  (d,  e). 


CLINCHES — SPLICING.  '57 

And  frequently  the  ends  of  two  ropes  (a,  c),  Fig.  04,  Plate 
18,  are  laid  together :  a  throat  seizing  is  clapped  on  at  (e), 
the  end  (a)  is  tumed  back  upon  the  standing  part  (b),  and 
the  standing  part  (d)  brought  back  to  (c) ;  another  throat 
seizing  is  put  on  each,  as  at  (f ),  Fig.  95,  and  a  round  seizing 
near  tne  end  at  (g) ;  the  same  security  is  placed  on  the 
other  side. 

A-  Ifceevinjsr  Line  Beiid9  Fig.  96,  Plate  18,  may 
also  be  used  for  small  hawsers. 

In  any  case  of  bending  hawsers,  towlines,  &c.,  the  end 
should  bi  securely  stoppid  down  With  spuA-yarii,  using 
racking  turns  if  much  strain  is  anticipated. 

The  best  bend  for  a  hawser  to  a  kedge  is  a  Fisherman's 
bend.  Fig.  102,  Plate  19,  or  a  round  turn  and  a  couple  of 
half-hitches,  Fig.  101,  with  the  end  stopped  down  with 
spun-yarn. 

CLINCHES. 

The  clinch  is  made  like  Fig.  97,  Plate  1 0 ;  the  end  of  a 
bridle  or  leech  line,  for  example,  is  rove  through  the  cringle 
(f),  taken  round  the  standing  part  (e),  forming  a  circle  ;  two 
round  seizings  (d)  are  then  clapped  on.  The  clinch  on  any 
rope  is  always  made  less  than  the  cringle,  &c.,  through 
which  the  rope  is  rove. 

There  is  an  outside  clinch,  Fig.  98,  Plate  19  ;  and  an 
inside  clinch.  Fig.  99. 

To  Bend  a  Hemp  Cable,  use  an  inside  clinch.  The  end 
of  the  cable  (a).  Fig.  100,  Plate  19,  is  taken  over  and  under 
the  bight  (b),  forming  the  shape  of  the  clinch,  which  must 
not  be  larger  than  the  ring  of  tne  anchor  (d).  The  seizings 
(c),  which  are  called  the  bends,  are  then  clapped  on  and 
crossed. 

SPLICING. 

Ropes  are  joined  together,  for  dilBferent  purposes,  by 
uniting  their  strands  in  particular  forms,  which  is  termed 
Splicing.  A  splice  is  made  by  opening,  and  separating  the 
strands  of  a  rope's  end,  and  thrusting  them  through  the 
others  which  are  not  unlaid.  Ropes  reeving  through  olocks 
are  joined  by  a  long  splice,  otherwise  a  short  splice  is  used. 
Tlie  splice  is  weaker  than  the  main  part  of  the  rope  by  about 
one-eighth.  The  instruments  used  for  this  are  Fids,  Mar  ling- 
Spikes,  and  Prickers. 

In  addition,  for  working  with  wire  rope  are  the  follow- 
ing :  Hack-saws,  Marling-spikes  with  flat  end ;  Pinchers  with 
flat  nibs,  pinchers  with  round  nibs.  Wire-cutters,  or  nip- 

¥3rs;  Cold-chisel,  Heavers,  (a)  Fig.  290,  Plate  28.     Dogs,  and 
uming-in-Machine,  Fig.  292. 


38  SPLICING. 


I9  Fig.  231,  Plate  23.  From  2  to  3  feet  of  chain, 
from  1-8  to  3-8  in.  diameter,  with  a  ring  in  one  end,  and  a 
hook  on  the  other. 

Fid,  Fig.  103,  Plate  10.     Made  of  hard  wood  or  metaL 

jVIaT-liiig--Spik:e.  Is  shaped  like  Fig.  104,  Plate  19. 
Made  of  metal  and  has  a  round  hole  in  the  upper  end  through 
which  a  laniard  is  rove. 

j\.  Fi-icker  is  made  of  metal,  hard  wood,  or  bone, 
and  is  used  for  light  work, 

An  E^^e-Splice,  Fig.  106,  Plate  19,  is  made  by 
opening  the  end  of  a  rope,  and  laying  the  strands  (e,  f ,  g) 
at  any  distance  upon  the  standing  part  forming  the  Collar 
or  Eye  (a).  The  end  (h),  Fi^.  107,  is  pushed  through  the 
strand  next  to  it  (having  previously  opened  it  with  a  mar- 
ling-spike)  ;  the  end  (i)  is  taken  over  the  same  strand,  and 
through  the  second.  Fig.  108 ;  and  the  end  (k)  through  the 
third,  on  the  other  side.  Fig.  110.  After  sticking  the  ends 
once,  one-hall  of  the  yams  may  be  cut  away  from  the  under 
part  of  the  strands,  and  the  remainder  stuck  again,  in 
order  to  taper  the  splice  and  make  it  neater.  In  a  four- 
stranded  rope,  the  left-hand  end  lies  under  two  strands. 
Fig.  111. 

A.  Slioi*t  Splice.  To  splice  the  two  ends  of  a  rope 
together,  proceed  thus :  Unlay  the  strands  for  a  con- 
venient length  ;  then  take  an  end  in  each  hand,  place  them 
one  within  the  other.  Fig.  112,  Plate  20,  and  draw  them 
close.  Hold  the  strands  (a,  b,  c)  and  the  end  of  the  rope  (d) 
fast  in  the  left  hand,  or  it  the  rope  be  large,  stop  them 
down  with  a  rope-yarn  ;  then  take  the  middle  end  (1),  pass 
it  over  the  strand  (a),  and  having  opened  it  with  the  thimib, 
or  a  marling-spike,  Fig.  A,  push  it  through  under  the 
strand  (c),  and  haul  it  taut.  Perform  the  same  operation 
with  the  other  ends,  by  leading  them  over  the  first  and 
next  to  them,  and  through  under  the  second,  on  both  sides  ; 
the  splice  will  then  appear  like  Fig.  113  ;  but  in  order  to 
render  it  more  secure,  the  work  must  be  repeated  ;  leading 
the  ends  over  the  third  and  through  the  fourth  j  or  the  ends 
may  be  untwisted,  scraped  down  with  a  knife,  tapered, 
marled,  and  served  over  with  spun-yam. 

When  there  is  to  be  no  service  used,  the  ends  should  be 
stuck  twice  each  way,  otherwise  once  and  a  half  is 
sufl&cient.  In  anchor  straps,  and  heavy  straps  generally, 
the  ends  are  stuck  twice  and  not  trimmed  off  but  tvhipped. 

In  whipping  the  strands  they  should  be  split  and  one 
part  of  each  whipped,  or  seized,  with  one  part  of  another  so 
as  to  enclose  a  strand  of  the  rope  on  each  side  of  which  they 
appear. 

Al.  Slioi*t  Splice  with  a  Foui'-Sti-iincled 

.ope.  Fig.  114,  Plate  20. 

TTlie  Long:  Spliee,,  Fi^^  115.  Plate  20. 

j\.  iJwt  ox-  13ig-lit  Splice,    Fig.  120.  Plate  21. 


Plate  20 


SPLICING.  39 

norHe-Shoe  Spliee9  or  span-splice.  Fig.  121, 
is  formed  hv  splicing  the  two  ends  of  a  piece  of  rope  into 
each  side  of  the  bight  of  another  rope,  where  an  eye  is  to  be 
formed.  The  len^h  of  rope  used  is  one-third  the  length  of ^ 
the  eye  required,  with  twice  the  round  of  the  rope  on  each 
end,  in  addition,  for  splicing. 

To  Loiig"-Spliee  a  Three  stud  a  Fonr- 
Stranded  Itope  Tog-etliei^  Unlay  the  ends  of 
the  two  ropes  to  a  sumcient  length  and  crotch  them  ;  unlay 
one  strana  of  the  three-stranded,  and  fill  the  space  with  a 
strand  of  the  four-stranded  rope ;  then  unlay  a  strand  of 
the  four  and  fill  up  from  the  three-stranded  rope  ;  there  re- 
mains two  strands  of  the  foui,  and  one  of  the  three  ;  divide 
the  single  strand  by  taking  out  one-third,  with  which  knot 
to  one  of  the  remaining  pair,  then  unlav  the  other  one,  and 
fill  up  with  the  remaining  two-thirds  ;  knot  and  stick  once, 
stretch  well,  and  trim  off. 

Another  way  is  to  work  three  strands  as  usual,  and  stick 
the  fourth  strand  where  it  lies.    The  first  plan  is  the  better. 

To  Short-Splice  a  Thx^ee  and  a  l^^ovii^- 
Sti*aTided  IRope.  Unlay  the  ends,  and  divide  one 
of  the  three  strands  m  half,  making  four  strands,  and  pro- 
ceed to  splice. 

Z^erigt:heiiiiig'  a  H/Ope  ^with  an  Addi- 
tional Strand,  Fig.  122,  Plate  21.  Cut  a  strand  at  1, 
unlay  until  you  come  to  2,  and  cut  another  strand; 
unlay  both  to  3  (equal  to  the  distance  from  1  to  2,  or  there- 
abouts), and  there  cut  the  last  strand ;  separate  the  parts, 
and  they  will  appear  as  in  Fig.  122,  B.  Measure  off  the  in- 
creased len^h  required  from  1,  mark  it  (a),  and  brin^  the 
end  of  the  left-hand  piece  (b)  down  to  (a),  and  lay  it  in. 
The  second  strand,  at  2,  must  have  been  cut  sufficiently  far 
from  (a^  to  allow  end  enough  for  knotting  and  laying  in. 
Twist  tne  ends  (c  and  b)  up  together  ready  for  knotting,  on 
finishing  the  splice,  and  (a  and  e)  in  the  same  manner  for 
the  present :  the  splice  will  then  have  the  appearance  repre- 
sented in  Fig.  122,  c.  Cut  a  piece  of  rope,  and  unlay  a 
strand  sufficiently  long  to  fill  in  the  vacant  lay  between 
(f  and  g),  and  to  knot  with  the  ends  (f ,  g) ;  lay  the  strand 
in,  and  finish  off  as  with  an  ordinary  long-splice,  from 
which  it  will  only  differ  in  appearance  by  its  having  four 
breaks  in  the  rope  instead  of  three.  In  putting  in  the  long 
strand,  care  must  be  taken  to  follow  the  lay  along  cor- 
rectly, or  it  will  not  tally  with  the  ends  (f,  g),  with  which 
it  knots. 

If  it  is  required  to  give  a  sail  more  spread  by  inserting  a 
cloth,  the  head  and  foot  rope  must  be  lengthened  in  this 
way.  For  all  sizes  of  rope,  take  eight  times  the  round  for 
splicing,  in  addition  to  what  is  wanted  to  lengthen  the 
rope.  To  lengthen  two  feet,  cut  the  strands  tliree  feet 
apart :  and  the  additional  strand  must  be  over  nine  feet  long. 


40  SPLICING. 

To    Shorten   a  H^ope   in    the    Ceni:i*€3. 

Proceed  precisely  as  in  the  previous  case ;  but,  instead  of 
separating  strand  (b)  from  1,  bringing  it  down  to  (a),  take 
it  up  on  1  as  far  as  you  require  to  reduce  the  rope.  No 
additional  strand  is  used,  so  Knot  (b,  f),  (d,  g),  ana  (e,  c)  : 
finish  oflf  the  ends,  and  in  appearance  it  diflcers  in  no  way 
from  the  common  long-splice. 

To  Spliee  a  Slope  arovincl  a  Thimblo^ 
Whip  the  rope  at  twice  and  a  half  its  circumference  from 
the  end.  The  length  to  go  round  the  thimble  should  be 
once  the  round  of  the  thimble,  and  once  the  round  of  the 
rope,  from  the  whipping  to  where  the  first  strand  is  to  be 
struck.  If  the  splice  is  not  to  be  served,  whip  the  ends  of 
the  strands,  to  prevent  them  from  opening  out  into  yams, 
and  stick  them  twice,  whole  strand.  If  to  be  served,  after 
one  half  of  each  strand  is  put  through,  it  is  cut  oflf,  and  the 
other  half  is  opened  out,  wormed  along  the  lay,  and  marled 
down.     Parcel  the  thimble. 

A.  Flen\iHh  Eye,  Fig.  125.  Plate  22. 

-A.  Grrommet,  Fig.  131,  Plate  22,  is  made  by  unlay- 
ing a  strand  of  a  rope.  Fig.  130,  placing  one  part  over  the 
other,  and  with  the  long  end  (f)  following  tne  lay  till  it 
forms  the  ring.  Fig.  131,  casting  an  over-hand  knot  on  the 
two  ends,  and,  if  necessary,  splitting  and  pushing  them 
between  the  strands,  as  in  the  long  splice.  The  test  of  a 
well-made  grommet  is,  to  throw  it  on  the  deck  when  it 
should  lie  perfectly  flat.  Worn  or  four-stranded  rope  makes 
the  best.  For  CTommet  straps  for  yard  or  block,  take  three 
times  the  round  of  yard  or  block  and  three  times  the  round 
of  the  thimble,  allowing  six  times  the  round  of  the  rope 
for  splicing.  The  length  to  marry  the  strands  is,  once  tne 
round  of  the  block  and  thimble. 

A^i\  .A.x-tilieial  or-  Si>in<lle  E^ye,  Fig.  126. 

A\"oT"li:inor  a  d'ing-Ie  in  ti  l-{oj>e.  Unlay 
a  single  strand  from  a  rope  of  the  size  that  the  cringle  is 
required  to  be  ;  begin  on  the  left,  and  put  this  strand  under 
two  strands  of  the  rope  you  are  working  it  on ;  divide  it 
into  thirds  and  haul  two-thirds  of  it  through,  so  that  the 
long  leg  is  from  you  ;  lay  the  two  parts  up  together  so  as 
to  form  sufficient  for  the  round  of  tne  cringle,  out  always 
with  an  odd  number  of  turns,  ending  witn  the  long  leg 
towards  you.  Fig.  132,  Plate  24  ;  stick  it  from  vou  under  two 
strands ;  bring  it  round  and  work  back  to  tne  left :  put  it 
under  two  strands  towards  you,  leaving  one  strand,  inter- 
vening between  the  place  you  entered  it,  then  back  over 
one,  and  down  under  two,  Fig.  133.  Now  tuck  the  short 
end  in  under  the  same  two  strands  in  the  rope  that  the 
cringle  is  already  worked  through,  then  over  one,  and 
under  two ;  cut  the  ends  oflf,  and  serve  the  cringle 
over. 

If  a  cringle  is  to  be  worked  into  the  leech  of  a  sail,  the 


V 


l-'iB.iaa  FlB.143 


SPLICING.  41 

strand  is  taken  round  the  rope  and  through  the  eyelet-hole 
in  the  sail,  Fig.  134,  Plate  24,  and  the  ends  are  finished  off 
by  taking  a  hitch  round  all,  and  then  passed  under  two, 
over  one,  and  under  two,  as  before. 

The  following  are  the  splices  used  in  working  wire  rope. 
Remember  always  to  tuck  the  whole  strand  twice,  then  a 
half,  then  a  quarter. 

K;v'e  Splic»e  in  ^Vire  H^ope.  (As  for  splicing 
in  a  liook  and  thimble).  Clap  on  a  marline  whipping  two  feet 
from  the  end  of  the  rope,  and  a  similar  whipping  fifteen 
inches  farther  along.  Get  the  rope  on  a  stretch,  paint, 
ivorm,  parcel,  point,  again  serve  between  the  whippings, 
and  mark  the  centre  of  the  eye.  Now,  break  the  rope  around 
the  thimble,  first  by  hand,  then  in  the  turning-in-machine. 
Fig.  A,  Plate  41),  bringing  both  ends  of  the  service  together. 
Clap  on  a  good  figure-of-eight  seizing,  around  both  parts  of 
the  rope  and  through  the  thimble ;  then  take  off  the  turning- 
in-machine.  Unlay  and  open  out  the  strands  to  the  first 
whipping,  cutting  out  the  heart  close  to  the  service.  Count- 
ing to  the  left,  with  the  hook  of  the  thimble  toward  j'ou, 
tuck  No.  4  strand  first.  Enter  the  point  of  a  marling-spike 
from  right  to  left  under  two  strands  of  the  rope  about  one 
inch  from  the  service  and  clear  of  the  heart.  Push  or  driv(», 
the  spike  in  about  two-thirds  of  its  length,  and  hammer  the 
two  strands  down  on  both  sides  of  it  to  prevent  their  spring- 
ing out  when  the  spike  is  withdrawn.  Pull  out  the  spike, 
take  strand  No.  4,  throw  a  half  turn  in  it,  stick  it  under  the 
two  strands,  and  with  a  quick  jerk  to  the  left  and  toward 
you  bring  it  in  place,  then  give  it  a  pull  from  you  parallel 
with  the  rope.  In  the  same  manner,  and  always  under  two, 
and  over  one  strand,  tuck  Nos.  5,  3,  G,  2  and  1.  Tuck  onc^e 
again,  whole,  conmiencing  with  any  strand,  tucking  over 
one  and  under  two.  Now,  with  the  dog  and  heavers,  heave 
each  strand  in  place,  beginning  with  the  first  one  tucked. 
Then  hammer  down  the  tucks,  tuck  half  of  each  strand, 
heave  in  place  and  hammer  down,  then  tuck  one  quarter 
and  finish  off.  Get  splice  on  a  stretch,  cut  off  ends  of  wires, 
hammer  down  the  eye  and  seize  in  the  thimble.  Clap  on  a 
round  seizing  with  nine  lower  and  eight  upper  tm-ns  of  the 
Kuizing  stuff. 

Hhoi*t:  Splice  in  AVii*e  Il.c>p<*.  Clap  on  a  mar- 
line whipping  three  feet  from  the  end  of  one  of  the  ropes  to  be 
spliced;  and  a  similar  one  two  feet  from  the  end  of  the  other 
piece.  Unlay,  and  open  out,  the  strands  on  both  pieces,  cut 
out  both  hearts,  close  to  the  whipping;  marry  the  ends, 
heaving  them  well  together.  Put  a  stout  whipping  around 
all  the  short  strands,  binding  them  close  around  the  rope ; 
cut  the  whipping  around  the  short  piece  and  commence  to 
tuck  the  long  strands  as  in  the  eye  splice.  Twice  whole, 
and  heave  in  place;  once  a  half,  and  heave  in;   once  a 


[ 


42  SPLICING. 

quarter,  and  break  off  the  wires  and  hammt^r  down.     Then 
do  the  same  with  the  short  strands. 

Long-  Splice  in  "Wire  P^ope.  Put  on  a  mar- 
line whipping  eight  feet  from  the  end  of  one  piece  of  rope, 
and  a  similar  whipping  on  the  other  piece  two  feet  from  the 
end.  Unlay,  and  open  out,  the  strands ;  cut  the  hearts  out 
close  to  the  whipping  and  draw  the  two  ends  together  by 
hand  as  closely  as  possible.  Secure  a  dog  around  all  but  one 
strand  of  the  short  end,  and  another  do^  around  all  but  one 
of  the  long  strands ;  and,  with  heavers,  jam  both  ropes  close 
together.  Cut  the  whipping  on  the  short  end,  unlay  the  loose 
short  strand  and  follow  it  up  with  the  loose  long  strand, 
leaving  one  foot  of  the  strand  for  knotting.  Come  up  the 
dogs  and  leaving  out  another  long  and  short  strand,  clap 
dogs  around  the  remaining  strands  and  proceed  as  before, 
laying  these  strands  to  within  one  foot  of  the  first  pair. 
The  second  pair  left  out  should  be  those  exactly  opposite 
the  first  pair,  in  order  to  bind  both  ropes  close  together. 
Continue  in  the  same  manner  with  the  other  strands,  leav- 
ing one  foot  between  each  pair  of  strands.  Commence  to 
knot  from  the  point  where  the  ropes  come  together.  Take 
these  two  strands  overhand,  knot  them,  and  l)y  means  of 
dogs  and  heavers  on  each  strand  heave  the  knot  taut  in  the 
lay ;  tap  with  a  hammer  on  each  side  of  the  knot  to  prevent 
slipping.  Come  up  and  take  oflE  the  dogs,  divide  each  of  the 
strands  just  knotted  into  three  equal  parts  and  open  them 
out,  close  to  the  knot,  tuck  these  separately  over  the  same 
strand  and  into  the  lay,  the  first  one  to  the  left,  under  one 
strand,  the  second  under  two  strands,  and  the  third  under 
three.  Finish  up  the  other  strands  in  the  same  manner. 
Beat  down  the  knots  and  tucks  with  a  hammer;  get  the 
splice  on  a  stretch  and  cut  the  ends  of  the  wires  off  close  to 
the  rope,  and  with  a  hammer,  and  the  point  of  a  spike,  tap 
the  projecting  wires  down  out  of  sight  into  the  lay  of  the 

rope. 

The  Splicing-  Beiicli^  Fig.  21K),  Plate  23.  For 
convenience  in  handling  wire  rope,  some  rigging  lofts  are 
supplied  with  splicing  benches,  which  are  large  tables  of 
hard  wood,  plated  with  iron  on  the  top  and  sides. 

The  top  of  the  bench  is  pierced  with  holes,  into  which 
may  be  set  steel  standards  or  *'normans,''  by  which  the 
rope  is  steadied  on  a  stretch.  Similar  holes  are  made  in 
the  sides  of  the  tables  to  receive  smaller  pins. 

SEIZINGS,  POINTINGS,  GRAFTING,  MOUSING,  ETC. 

Seizing*  a  rope,  is  binding  the  two  parts  together  with 
spun-yam,  house-line,  marline,  or  small  stuff. 

All  seizing  stuff  should  be  well  stretched  before  use. 
J^  Sp£iiiisbL  ^V^^indlasis,  Fig.  135  (a),  Plate  24,  is 


f 


SEIZING.  4B 

used  for  heaving  two  parts  of  a  shroud,  or  any  rope  requir- 
ing it,  together  at  the  nip,  before  passing  the  seizing,  and 
for  many  similar  purposes. 

A.  Round  Seiziner,  Figs.  136,  i:37,  and  138,  Plate 
24;  and  Figs.  141,  142,  143,  144,  145,  and  14(5,  Plate  25.  Used 
for  eyes  of  lower  rigging,  &c. 

A.  Tlxx*oat  ^0121x13*9  Fig.  140,  Plate  25,  is  put  on 
when  ropes  cross,-  and  is  passed  with  riding  turns,  but  not 
crossed 

Ra.ckin^  Seizing,  Fig.  147,  Plate  25.  This  seiz- 
ing is  generally  made  use  of  in  seizing  two  parts  of  rope 
together  temporarily,  but  very  securely. 

A.  Flat  Seizing-  is  commenced  the  same  as  a  round 
seizing,  but,  on  the  end  being  rove  through  the  eye,  it  is 
finished  off  at  once  with  a  reef-knot  without  any  riding 
turns. 

A.  Cnclcolcl^s  IVeclc,  ox*  Half  Cx^own,  is 
formed  as  Fig.  148,  Plate  25,  with  a  round  seizing.  Used  when 
ropes  are  fitted  for  going  over  a  spar,  as  in  Fig.  149,  at  a. 

A.  K.OMe  Seizing",  oi*  X^ose  L<a>sliing',  Figs. 
150  and  151,  Plate  26,  is  used  when  rigging  is  lashed  to 
yards,  etc.,  such  as  foot-ropes,  &c.  It  is  passed  alternately 
over  and  under  each  part  of  the  eye,  and  the  end  passed 
around  the  crossings  instead  of  cutting  it  off. 

Stopping:^  IS  fastening  two  parts  of  a  rope  together, 
like  a  round  seizing,  but  not  crossed. 

]Vii>pex4ng*9  is  making  fast  the  two  parts  of  a  lan- 
iard or  tackle-fall,  while  the  purchase  is  fleeted.  The  turns 
are  taken  crossways,  Fig.  152,  between  the  parts  to  jam 
them;  and  frequently  a  round  turn  is  taken  over  the 
laniard,  before  every  cross  :  these  are  called  racking  turns. 
Riders  are  passed  over  these,  and  the  end  fastened  with  a 
round  turn  and  half  hitch,  or  with  a  clove  hitch,  to  a  part  of 
the  laniard  or  fall. 

WORMING,  SERVING,  POINTING,  GRAFTING,  MOUSING. 

Spxin-"\rax*n  is  used  for  Worming,  Serving,  Seizing, 
&€.,  as  a  general  rule,  but  Hamhroline,  Rounding,  and  small 
seizing  stuff  is  frequently  substituted. 

Tvorniing-  a  itope  is  filling  up  the  division 
between  the  strands  (called  the  lay  of  the  rope)  bypassing 
spun-yam,  &c.,  along  them.  Fig.  153.  This  is  done  in  order 
to  render  its  surface  smooth  for  parcelling. 

Worming  is  in  length  about  once  and  a  half  the  length 
of  the  rope  to  be  wormed,  for  each  piece. 

Pax^celling-  a  litope^  is  wrapping  strips  of  old 
canvas  round  it,  well  tarred,  with  edge  overlapping,  which 
prepares  it  for  serving  and  secures  it  from  being  injured  by 
rain-water  lodging  between  the  parts  of  the  service  when 


44  SEIZING. 

worn,  Fig.  150.    Parcel  with  the  lay,  if  s(Tvic(>  is  to  be  used, 
otherwise  against  it. 

Sei'vice  is  put  on  to  protect  the  rope  from  chafe  and 
the  influence  of  the  weather.  It  is  clapped  on  by  a  wooden 
mallet,  Fig.  154,  made  for  the  purpose. 

The  rope  is  first  bowsed  hand-taut  by  a  tackle,  then 
wormed.  The  end  of  the  spun-yarn  for  the  service  is  laid 
upon  the  rope,  and  two  or  three  turns  passed  round  the  rope 
and  over  it  (the  end),  hauling  them  very  taut.  The  mallet 
is  laid  with  its  groove  upon  the  rope.  Fig.  150;  a  turn  of  the 
spun-yarn  is  taken  round  the  rope  and  the  head  of  the  mal- 
let, close  to  the  last  turn  which  was  laid  by  hand;  another 
is  passed  in  the  same  manner,  and  a  third  also  on  the  fore 
part  of  the  mallet,  leading  up  round  the  handle  (i),  which 
the  rigger  holds  in  his  hand.  The  service  is  alwaijs  passed 
against  the  lay  of  the  rope,  so  that  as  the  latter  stretches, 
the  tension  of  the  former  is  not  much  decreased.  A  boy 
holds  the  ball  of  spun-yarn  (k),  at  some  distance  from  tlie 
man  who  is  serving,  and  passes  it  round,  as  he  turns  the 
mallet,  by  which  he  is  not  retarded  in  the  oi)eration.  The 
end  is  put  through  the  three  or  four  last  turns  of  the  service, 
and  hauled  taut. 

"Wliippinj?  «.  P^ope,  Fig.  157,  Plate  26,  is  done 
to  prevent  the  end  from  fagging  out. 

^V  Sailmaliei-'s^  ^\^liii>i>iiig-  is  put  on  with  a 
needle  and  twine — a  reef  point  has  such  a  whipping.  Pass 
a  stitch  through  the  point,  take  several  turns,  stick  through 
again,  and  pass  cross  turns  from  one  end  of  whipping  to  the 
other  in  the  direction  of  the  lay  of  the  rope. 


CROWNING,  POINTING,  SNAKING. 

Cr-ovi^iiirigr  tlie  end  ol'  a  Xl^ope  is  a  rough 
substitute  for  a  whipping.  With  the  three  strands  form  a 
crown,  then  stick  the  end  once  or  twice  as  in  splicing. 

To  Ci^ov^ii  a  Ilawnei*.  Put  a  stout  whipping 
on  the  hawser,  a  suflScient  distance  from  the  end  to  allow 
for  crowning.  Unlay  the  strands  to  the  whipping,  and  lay 
the  three  inside,  or  heart  strands  up  together.  Then  form 
the  crown  with  the  three  outside  ones,  taking  them  above, 
and  covering  the  remaining  three,  which,  with  the  heart 
strands,  should  be  whipped,  and  cut  off  even.  Lastly,  worm 
the  ends  of  the  crowning  strands  back  into  the  lay  of  the 
hawser,  and  clap  stout  smooth  seizings  close  up  to  the  crown, 
and  at  the  extremity  of  the  worming.  Sometimes  an  arti- 
ficial eye  is  formed  with  the  inner  strands. 

To   l^oint  IX  Xlope,  Figs.  IGO  and  C,  Plate  2f;. 

SnAkin^  is  for  the  better  securing  of  a  seizing,  which 
is  passed  round  the  single  part  of  a  rope,  and  therefore  can- 
not be  crossed.    It  is  done  by  taking  the  end  part  under  and 


Fig.  isa  I 


PUDDING   FENDERS.  45 

over  the  lower  and  upper  turns  of  the  seizing.  Fig.  10 1, 
Plate  26. 

Pointiiiiar  ^^  I^ai'gr^  Ha^wser*.  Clap  on  a 
whipping  of  three-yarn  nettle-stuflf,  snaked.  Open  out  the 
strands,  lay  the  heart  up  three-stranded,  and  splice  a  becket 
into  it,  which  has  previously  been  eye-spliced  into  its  own 
part.  Lay  the  outside  yarns  up  into  five-yarn  sennet :  use, 
for  filling,  a  two-yam  fox ;  ana  continue  as  already  snown 
Fig.  162,  Plate  27. 

Cross  Pointing-,  Figs.  163a  and  l(>:3b,  Plate  27. 

Hitoh.iiig'  is  a  very  convenient  method  for  covering 
boats'  awning-stanchions.     Fig.  164,  Plate  27. 

PUDDING  FENDERS,  OR  DOLPHINS. 

Piiclding-  FeTicleT*«9  oi*  I>olpliins,  are  used 
in  the  navy  for  launches,  being  placed  outside  the  boat  just 
under  the  gunwale,  and  permanently  secured  there. 

A  piece  of  rope  of  the  required  lenj^h  is  cut,  and  an  eye 
spliced  in  each  end,  by  means  of  which  it  is  set  up  to  small 
evebolts  under  the  gunwale ;  the  rope  is  then  marked  where 
the  puddings  are  to  be  worked.  W  orm  the  rope  and  form 
the  puddings  with  any  old  stuff,  such  as  old  strands  laid 
lengthwise  along  the  rope,  raising  the  pile  in  the  centre  and 
scraping  off  the  ends  to  a  taper.  Oi*  make  a  tapering  pud- 
ding by  winding  spun-yarn  around  the  rope.  In  forming 
the  puading,  the  sides  intended  to  be  next  to  the  boat  are 
flat,  and  the  outer  sides  a  half  round. 

When  formed  to  the  required  shape,  parcel  the  pudding 
and  graft  it  over,  as  in  Fig.  lG5a,  or  cover  with  leather,  as 
in  Fig.  1656. 

The  whole  fender  is  commonly  known  as  a  dolphin. 


FOXES-GASKETS-TURK'S  HEAD. 

Foxes  for  gaskets,  &c.,  are  made  by  taking  a  number 
of  rope-yarns,  from  three  upwards,  according  to  the  size 
intended,  and  twisting  them  on  the  knee,  rubbing  them 
well  backwards  and  forwards  with  a  piece  of  canvas. 
Spanish  foxes  are  made  by  twisting  single  rope-yarns  back- 
handed in  the  same  manner. 

Cjraslcetw,  Fig.  167,  Plate  27,  are  made  by  taking 
three  or  four  foxes,  according  to  the  size,  middlmg  them 
over  a  pin,  &c.,  and  plaiting  the  three  or  four  parts  together 
for  the  length  of  the  eye,  Fig.  KJO. 

Turin's  Head,  Fig.  108,  Plate  28. 

Tni^li's  JtIgslA  ^%voi*l£ecl  into  a  HLoi>e,  Fig. 


46  SELVAGEES,    ETC. 


SELVAGEES— REEFING  BECKETS,  ETC 

j\.  Selvag-ee  is  made  by  warping  rope-yam,  spun- 
yarn,  or  small  stuff,  according  to  tne  size  required,  and 
marling  down  as  in  Fig.  170,  Plate  2s. 

A  small  selvagee  may  be  made  by  warping  rope-yam 
around  two  marling-spikes,  stuck  in  the  holes  of  a  grating 
at  the  proper  distance  apart. 

Large  ones  are  sometimes  made  of  small  stuff,  for  get- 
ting in  lower  masts,  and  are  called  garlands. 

As  selvagee  straps  are  soft  ^nd  pliable,  they  are  the  best 
for  clapping  on  rigging,  spars,  &c.,  as  in  Figs.  171  and  172. 

For  tne  same  reason,  stoppers  for  braces,  &c.,  are  made 
in  a  similar  manner,  as  in  Fig.  173. 

Selvagees  may  be  used  tor  various  purposes.  A  very 
neat  and  expeditious  way  of  bending  stuading-sail  halliards 
is  to  use  a  strap,  as  in  Figs.  174  and  175. 

Very  neat  straps  for  blocks,  may  be  made  of  selvagees. 

Tieefinof  iJeelcetK,  Fig.  177,  Plate  29,  are  made 
like  sennit,  after  a  variety  of  designs. 

These  points  may  be  made  of  manilla-yarns,  or  four- 
yam  spun-yarn,  with  four  or  five  parts  in  the  eye,  and 
worked  down  with  seven  or  nine  parts  ;  the  length  of  the 
spun-yarn  on  the  two  parts  to  make  a  point,  is  once  and  a 
half  the  length  of  the  point  to  be  made.  The  eye  is  made 
around  a  toggle  which  remains  in.  If  fitted  to  go  around 
the  jack-stay,  plait  down  six  inches  from  the  toggle,  then 
separate  the  foxes  and  plait  an  eye  eight  inches  long,  then 
plait  down  nine  inches  solid,  whip  the  end  with  twine  and 
it  is  finished. 

Sennit  is  made  round,  square,  or  flat,  and  is  used  for 
various  purposes,  such  as  gaskets,  ^v, 

Oomnaon  Sennit.     Figs.  170  and  180,  Plate  21>. 

F'l-encli  Sennit.     Fig.  LSI,  Plate  'l\). 

H^onncl  Sennit.  Figs.  l<S:i  and  18:5.  Used  for 
man-ropes,  yoke-lines,  &c. 

SqxiaT-e  Sennit.     Fig.  1S4,  Plate  V.). 

SwoT'd  3f:at.  Figs.  185,  18<),  and  187.  Used  for 
chafing  mats. 

^V  Col^l^lei-'j^  Stiteli  is  used  for  joining  the  sides 
of  the  mat  together.     Fig.  17(),  Plate  :J(). 

Pannch  3Iat.     Fig.  lt)0,  Plate  :]0. 

IVet  iVTi^lcingr.     Figs.  103  and  104:.     Plate  31. 

A.  Shot  oi-  1^i-eawixi»;y^  :Xet.    Fig.  105,  Plate  31. 

Boats'  Fenclei's.  The  usual  hanging-fender  for 
boom-boats  is  made  of  as  many  parts  of  spun-yarn  as  will 
give  it  the  requisite  dimensions.  These  are  middled  and 
doubled  over  the  laniard,  and  a  small  grommet  is  driven 
over  the  bights  to  make  them  snug,  as  in  making  a  swab. 


SENNIT,  ETC.  47 

It  is  then  grafted  over,  either  with  sennit  or  foxes,  and  fin- 
ished off  as  grafting  is  usually  finished ;  or  by  crowning  the 
end  over  with  the  foxes.   dB'igs.  197  and  198,  Plate  31. 

A  grommet  fender  is  merely  a  rope  grommet  grafted  over. 

A  canvas  fender  is  stuffed  with  oakum,  roped  at  the 
edges,  and  has  a  small  grommet  sewed  on  the  centre,  to 
keep  the  chafe  oflf. 

Leather  fenders  are  used  for  gigs  and  cutters. 

For  another  kind  of  fender  for  boom-boats,  see  Dolphin. 

Ha^imnoeLc:  Clews.  Take  twelve  lengths  of 
nettle-stuff,  middle  them,  serve  round  all  at  the  centre,  and 

5 ass  a  seizing  to  form  the  eye ;  then  lay  one  up  and  one 
own,  as  for  a  sword  mat,  bring  the  outside  nettle  on  each 
side  across  for  filling,  and  leave  it  out ;  form  the  other  rows 
in  the  same  manner,  and  when  reduced  to  two,  knot  the  last 
pair.     Fig.  200.  Plate  31. 

Sennit  lor  Hats.    Figs.  201,  202,  and  203,  Plate  31. 

Coir  BrxxtsliessJ.      Figs.  204  and  205,  Plate  32. 

To  iVroixne  a  Hoolt.  This  is  done  when  hoist- 
ing a  heavy  weight  to  prevent  the  hook  from  straightening 
out,  and  on  sails,  &c.,  to  prevent  unhooking.  Fig.  200, 
Plate  32. 

Flog-sheacl  Slinks.     Fig.  207,  Plate  32. 

Can-Hoolis.     Fig.  208,  Plate  32. 

A.  Tanlc-Toggrle.     Fig.  209,  Plate  32. 

To  Sling-  a  Caslc  with  a  Itope^»-eTicl — 
make  a  bowline  knot  in  the  yard- whip,  and  stick  the  end 
back  so  as  to  form  a  short  bight,  to  which  bend  the  stay- 
whip.  Turn  the  bight  of  the  bow-line  over  its  own  part, 
and  slip  each  bight  thus  formed  over  one  end  of  the  cask. 
Fig.  210,  Plate  32. 

To  Sling  a  Cask  ^ivith  the  Head 
Klnooked  in — slip  the  bight  of  the  whip  under  the 
cask,  take  a  hitch  with  each  part  over  the  head,  and  knot 
them  together  above.    Fig.  211,  Plate  32. 

Another  way,  though  not  quite  so  safe,  is  to  make  a 
figure-of-eight  knot,  and  slip  the  bight  under  the  barrel,  as 
in  Fig.  212. 

I3ale  ox*  Barrel  Slings  are  generally  made  of 
three-inch  rope,  and  of  suflScient  length  to  go  round  the 
bale  or  barrel.  They  are  similar  to  a  long  strap,  spliced 
together  with  a  short  splice  ;  they  are  passed  round  the  barrel 
and  one  bight  rove  through  the  other.     Fig.  213,  Plate  33. 

They  are  sometimes  made  long  enough  to  sling  two  or 
three  barrels  at  a  time. 

Jk.  P^arbxiclile,  Fig.  214,  Plate  33,  is  a  purchase 
contrived  with  a  single  rope  for  raising  a  heavy  cask  or 
other  similar  weight.  The  same  kind  of  purchase,  though 
on  a  larger  scale,  is  used  for  getting  on  board  the  sheer  legs 
wrhen  masting  a  ship  with  one's  own  resources. 


-t'S  NETTINGS,    ETC. 


JACOB'S   LADDERS,    ETC. 

•Tacob^s  I^£iclclei:*s  are  made  of  wire  rope,  as  in 
Fig.  21.5.  Plate  ^:5,  for  convenience  of  passing  into  the  boats, 
into  the  rigging,  &c.  They  lead  from  the  spar  deck  to  the 
lower  rigging,  to  enable  the  topmen  to  get  in  the  rigging 
without  getting  on  the  hammocks  ;  on  the  lower  booms  and 
main  brace  bumpkin  to  facilitate  getting  in  and  out  of 
boats ;  and  in  large  ships,  to  the  after-end  of  the  spare  top- 
sail vard  in  the  chains  ;  and  also  from  the  top-gallant  mast- 
heads, the  lower  end  setting  up  to  the  aiterpart  of  the 
cross-trees. 

Snakins-  on  13aelcKtix;v"»*s«9  &^e.  Seizing  a  small 
rope  alternately  from  one  stay  to  another,  to  keep  either 
from  falling  if  shot  away.  This  is  only  done  when  prepar- 
ing for  action.     Fig.  216,  Plate  33. 


NETTINGS. 

lVettinsr«*«-i  Fig.  217,  Plate  33,  are  made  by  seizing 
together  the  Fights  of  small  ropes — such  as  ratline  stuff — 
leaving  uniform  spaces  or  meshes  between.  The  rope  is 
first  marked  oflf  at  equal  intervals  with  chalk,  and  neat 
seizings  of  twine  clapped  on.  They  are  used  in  different 
parts  of  the  ship  for  various  purposes. 

Jib  Nettings  seize  to  the  jib  guys  on  each  side,  passing 
under  the  boom,  and  are  for  the  purpose  of  catching  and 
holding  the  jib  when  hauled  down,  and  to  save  men  from 
falling  overboard  when  stowing  the  jib  in  bad  weather. 

Staysail  Netting,  for  stowing  the  foretopmast  staysail 
in. 

Boarding  Nettings  trice  up  from  the  rail  to  the  ridge-rope 
to  prevent  the  enemy  from  boarding.  These,  when  made  of 
ratline  stuff  well  soaked  in  tar,  sanded,  and  allowed  to 
harden,  defy  the  sharpest  knife. 

Quarter-deck  nettings  are  stretched  over  the  deck  like  an 
awning  to  prevent  spars,  &c.,  from  falling  on  the  heads  of 
the  oflBcers  in  time  of  action. 

Boarding  and  splinter  nettings  as  well  as  exterior  net- 
tings for  defence  against  torpedoes  are  only  furnished  in 
time  of  war. 

Torpedo  jVettingTH.  In  these,  steel  rods  or  wire 
take  the  place  of  the  small  rope  in  ordinary  netting,  and  the 
seizings  are  replaced  by  metal  rings  or  links. 

Collision  3£ats  are  used  to  stop  the  inflow  of 
water  in  case  a  vessel's  bottom  should  be  injured  in  collision 
or  otherwise.  They  are  carried  by  all  of  our  vessels  of  war, 
and  regular  drills  are  held  to  familiarize  the  crew  with 
their  use. 


COLLISION   MATS.  49 

In  the  United  States  Navy  there  are  five  sizes,  as  follows : 

Xo.  1.  Twelve  feet  square ) 

Xo.  2.  Ten  feet  square [•  For  ships. 

Xo.  3.  Eight  feet  square ) 

Xo.  4.  Six  feet  by  four  feet (  -^      tornpdo  boats 

Xo.  5.  Four  feet  by  three,  feet. . . .  f  ^''^  torpedo  boats. 

Sizes  1,  2,  and  3  are  made  of  No.  1  flax  canvas,  roped 
with  3-inch  hemp,  backed  with  cross  bands  six  inches  wide. 
Xo.  1,  three  cross  bands  each  way.  Nos.  2  and  3,  two  cross 
bands  each  way,  thrummed  with  3^-inch  hemp  thrums,  in 
rows  two  inches  apart.  To  be  fitted  with  3-inch  cringles  in 
corners  and  2-inch  metal  eyelets  in  ends  of  cross  bands.  To 
have  bridles  of  3-inoh  hemp  on  two  opposite  sides  fitted  with 
crow's  feet.  Thimbles  in  bridles  to  be  three  inches.  Dis- 
tance of  thimble  from  middle  of  side  of  mat  equal  to  the 
len^h  of  that  side.  To  have  dipping  or  hogging  lines  at 
comers  thirty -five  fathoms  long  of  3-inch  hemp  for  Nos.  1 
and  2,  and  of  2J-inch  hemp  for  No.  3. 

Sizes  4  and  5  to  be  made  of  No.  3  flax  canvas  roped 
with  2i-inch  hemp,  backed  with  one  cross  band  each  way, 
thrummed  with  2-inch  hemp  thrums,  in  rows  |-inch  apart. 
To  be  fitted  with  2-inch  cringles  in  corners  and  1-inch  metal 
eyelets  in  ends  of  cross  bands.  To  have  dipping  or  hogging 
lines  at  corners  five  fathoms  long  of  1  J-iiich  hemp. 


CHAPTER    V. 

BLOCKS. 

Bloclcs  are  mechanical  contrivances,  possessing  the 

Eroperties  and  powers  of  pulleys.  They  are  generally  made 
y  machinery,  of  ash,  and  are,  what  are  called,  made  or 
mortised. 

The  made  block.  Fig.  220,  Plate  34,  consists  of  four  prin- 
cipal parts,  as  follows  : — ^The  shell  or  outside,  consisting  of 
two  or  more  pieces  pinned  together ;  the  sheave  or  wheel 
(b),  over  which  the  rope  passes ;  the  pin  or  axle  (a),  on 
wnich  the  sheave  turns,  and  the  strap,  either  rope  or  iron, 
which  encircles  the  whole,  and  by  which  it  is  confined  to  its 
particular  place. 

The  sheave  mav  be  of  metal  or  of  lignum-vitaB ;  if  the 
latter,  it  is  bouchea  (c),  in  all  blocks  except  those  used  for 
the  gun  tackles.  In  the  patent  blocks  the  bouching  con- 
tains friction  rollers.     Fig.  221. 

In  the  common  block  the  bouching  is  counter-sunk,  and 
made  of  a  composition  of  100  parts  of  copper  and  16  of  tin. 
The  sheaves  of  blocks  used  for  gun  tackles  are  not  allowed 
to  be  bouched,  and  the  pins  are  made  of  hardened  copper. 
The  pin  of  the  common  olock  is  made  of  iron. 

Mortised  blocks,  Fig.  222,  Plate  34,  are  made  from  a 
single  piece  of  wood,  mortised  out  to  receive  the  sheave. 

Blocks  are  single,  double,  treble  or  threefold,  and  four- 
fold, according  to  the  number  of  sheaves  contained  within 
the  shell ;  are  either  single  or  double  scored,  and  are  mea- 
sured by  their  length — that  is,  the  length  of  the  shell. 

The  scores  are  the  notches  cut  at  the  ends  of  the  shell  to 
admit  the  strap. 

The  sizes  oi  blocks  used  in  the  navy  range  from  4  inches 
to  22  inches  inclusive,  as  follows  : — 4-inch,  5-inch,  6,  7,  8,  9, 
10,  11,  12,  14,  16,  18,  20,  and  22,  single  and  double  of  each 
size,  and  treble  blocks  for  the  largest  purchases. 

Not  included  in  the  above  are  viol  blocks,  large  blocks 
used  for  warping,  &c. 

Bloc'lcH  take  their  name  from  the  purposes  to  which 
they  are  applied,  or  from  some  peculiarity  of  form,  the  fol- 
lowing being  the  principal  ones  in  common  use  : — 

Bee-Bloclcss,  or  simply  Bees,  are  thick, pieces  of 
oak  bolted  to  the  sides  of  the  bowsprit,  having  heavy  metal 
sheaves  in  them  for  the  fore-topmast  and  fore-topmast 
spring  stays  to  reeve  through. 

50 


Plate  34 

SHs>SSO 


BLOCKS.  51 

Ocit-Block,  a  largje,  double  or  three-fold  block, 
iron-strapped  and  composition  sheaves.  It  has  a  large  hook 
connected  with  the  strap  by  a  link,  to  admit  play.  It  is 
used  to  raise  the  anchor  to  the  cathead.     Fig.  225. 

Cheelc-BIoelis  are  made  of  a  halt-shell,  and  bolt 
aeainst  a  mast  or  spar,  which  acts  as  the  other  cheek  or  half 
of  shell.  The  chief  bolt  serves  as  a  pin  for  the  sheave  to 
turn  on.     Used  on  gaffs  for  brails,  &c. 

Clew-g-ai^net  HloeliH  are  single,  iron-bound, 
and  hook  or  shackle  to  the  iron  bands  on  the  quarters  of  the 
fore  and  main  yard.  They  hang  under  the  yard  and  receive 
the  clew-garnets,  by  which  the  courses  are  hauled  up.  The 
name  also  applies  to  the  blocks  which  hook  in  the  clews  of 
the  sail. 

Cle^w-line  I31oc1ch  are  those  which  are  attached 
to  the  clews  of  the  topsails  for  the  clew-lines.  Formerly, 
the  name  applied  only  to  the  block  on  the  yard,  now  called 
Quarter-block. 

Clu-xnp-Bloclc.  Strongly  made  blocks  with,  a 
thick  metal  sheave,  having  a  large  swallow  or  opening  in 
proportion  to  the  length.  Used  for  the  topsail  and  top- 
gallant lifts  in  the  top  ;  also  on  collar  of  main  stay  for  fore- 
topsail  brace,  &c. 

The  same  name  is  applied  to  any  short  thick  block,  such 
as  fore  and  main  tack  blocks,  &c. 

I>aHliei*-I31ocl£  is  the  small  block  sometimes 
strapped  to  the  extremity  of  the  spanker-gaff,  for  reeving 
the  ensign  halliards. 

liJii.plii*oe.  A  long  piece  of  wood  having  a  number  of 
holes  in  it,  through  which  the  crow-foot  for  the  awnings  is 
rove.  It  has  a  score  around  it  for  a  strap,  and  is  strapped 
with  a  thimble  for  bending  the  crow-foot  nalliards. 

F'ish-Bloclc.  For  fishing  the  anchor  •  a  large 
double  or  treble  block,  iron  strapped,  fitted  with  several 
links  of  chain  and  a  hook  to  hook  on  the  arm  of  the 
anchor. 

F'iclclle-KlocliK,  Fig.  223,  Plate  34,  are  made  with 
a  long  shell  so  as  to  have  one  sheave  over  the  other,  the 
lower  Doing  smaller.  Used  for  top-burtons  and  as  hanging 
blocks.  When  used  for  fore  or  mam  buntlines  the  two  parts 
are  connected  by  a  swivel. 

Fly-Blools:  is  the  upper  block  of  the  topsail  hal- 
liards. It  is  double,  has  sister  hooks  and  thimble  for  hook- 
ing to  the  topsail  tye.    Friction  rollers. 

Grln-BlocliH,  Fig.  224,  Plate  34,  are  large  composi- 
tion sheaves  which  turn  m  a  metal  framework.  Used  prin- 
cipally for  topsail  tyes,  and  hook  to  iron  bands,  made  to  fit 
snugly  over  the  topmast  tressle-trees.  The  name  is  also 
appued  to  the  small  metal  blocks  used  aloft  for  various  pur- 
poses, such  as  for  topgallant  and  royal  braces,  topgallant 
Duntlines,  etc. 


52       X  BLOCKS. 

CJ-ii't-line  ZJlocks  are  single,  through  which  girt- 
lines,  or  single  whips  reeve,  as  the  mast-head  girtlines,  in 
rigging  ship,  etc.    oometimes  called  qantUnes. 

H[aiieliig--BlocliJs«  Any  block  depending  at  a 
mast-heaoT  as  a  lead  for  running  rigging ;  such  as  the 
fiddle-blocks  at  fore-topmast  head  for  head  halliards  and 
topsail  bunt  lines,  etc. 

•Tstek-BloekH  are  large  single  blocks,  used  for 
sending  up  and  down  topgallant  and  royal  yards. 

Jeei'-BloclcK  are  large  double  or  treble  blocks  for 
reeving  the  purchases  for  sending  up  and  down  the  lower 
yards.. 

JTe^v^el-Bloclcts  are  single  blocks  at  the  extremities 
of  the  topsail,  topgallant,  and  sometimes,  though  rarely, 
royal  yards,  through  which  the  studding-sail  halliards 
reeve.  The  head  oi  the  studding-sail,  when  set,  is  hoisted 
to  them. 

]\i]a.iii-i«t]ieet  Bloelc  is  a  double  or  treble  block, 
strapped  to  the  main-boom  of  a  schooner  or  sloop,  for  the 
main-sheet,  or  a  single  block  for  main-sheet  of  square 
riggers. 

C^ixai^er-Blocks,  on  the  topsail  or  topgallant 
yards,  are  double,  and  are  iron-strapped  to  the  quarters  of 
the  yards,  to  gfive  lead  to  the  sheet  of  the  sail  above  and 
clewline  of  the  sail  below.  On  the  lower  yard  they  are 
single,  for  the  topsail  sheet  alone,  and  on  "the  royal  yard 
they  are  single,  for  the  royal  clewline  alone.  Those  for  the 
topgallant  and  royal  yards  go  with  sister  hooks,  that  they 
may  be  readily  detached. 

Sister-BloclcH,  Fig.  226,  Plate  34,  are  formed  of 
one  solid  piece  and  two  sheaves,  one  above  the  other ;  be- 
tween the  sheaves  is  a  score  for  a  middle  seizing,  and  on 
the  sides  a  score  for  the  shrouds  to  fit  in. 

Seci^et-BloclcH,  Fig.  227,  Plate  34,  are  so  made 
that  the  sheave  is  entirelv  screened,  the  rope  leading 
through  an  orifice  in  the  shell  just  large  enough  to  admit  its 
free  passage,  the  object  being  to  prevent  its  fouling  by 
small  gear  catching  in  the  swallow  and  choking  it.  Used 
for  clewlines,  whicJn  are  frequently  fouled  bv  reef-points, 
and  for  clew-jiggers.  The  snell  of  the  block,  Fig.  227  (a 
and  b),  is  made  of  lignum-vitse,  and  has  an  iron  half-strap. 
The  hooks  fitted  to  this  block  are  known  as  clip  hooks. 
Similar  hooks  are  shown  in  Fig.  228,  but  opening  perpen- 
dicular to  the  sheave  instead  of  opening  in  line  with  it. 
Hooks  fitted  as  in  Fig.  228  are  known  as  sister  hooks. 

Snatcli-Blocltw,  Fig.  229,  are  always  single  arid 
iron-bound,  with  swivel  hooks.  The  shell  at  the  breech  is 
left  open,  and  the  strap  at  that  part  fitted  with  a  clamp,  so 
that  tne  bight  of  a  rope  may  be  ''  snatchech'' 

Teleg*i*apli-1  Jloolv>4  are  pyramidal  shaped  blocks, 
with  a  number  of  small  brass  sheaves,  used  for  making 
telegraphic  signals. 


BM«J340a     BHa.S40ft 


Fia-S-Urt       I^iK.S-l  I  /,     I^ia,a43 


BLOCKS.  53 

Top-Blocks,  Fig.  233,  Plate  35,  are  large,  single,^ 
iron-bound  blocks,  used  for  sending  up  and  down  topmasts. 
They  hook  to  an  eye-bolt  in  the  lower  cap,  hooking  irom  in, 
outj  so  that  the  bill  of  the  hook  points  outward,  and  the 
top  pendants  reeve  through  them.    Sometimes  shackled. 

Topg-allant-top  Block  is  similar  to  the  above, 
but  smaller.  It  is  used  for  the  topgallant-mast  rope,  and 
hooks  from  in,  outy  to  an  eyebolt  in  the  topmast  cap. 

Tye-Bloclis  are  large,  single,  iron-bound  blocks, 
which  bolt  or  shackle  to  iron  bands  on  the  topsail  yard,  for 
the  topsail  tyes  to  reeve  through. 

Viol-Blocks  are  large  single  blocks,  with  a  swallow 
large  enough  to  take  a  small  hawser. 

In  the  navy -yards  there  are  fourfold  blocks  of  30  inches 
and  over,  for  neavy  purchases. 

Block-a^nd-Block,  or  ''two  blocks"  is  the  term 
applied  to  a  tackle  when  its  two  blocks  are  drawn  so  close 
together  that  they  cease  to  operate.  The  act  of  drawing 
the  blocks  apart  is  called  fleeting  the  purchase,  or  overhaul' 
ing  it. 

Blocks  should  frequentlv  be  examined,  not  only  as  to 
strapping,  but  also  by  knocking  the  pin  out  and  inspecting 
the  Douching.  The  loss  of  power,  and  strain  on  rope,  occa- 
sioned by  a  worn  bouch,  is  considerable.  The  working 
blocks  of  tackles  (for  instance,  the  fly  block  of  topsail  hal- 
liards) are  always  more  worn  than  the  lower  ones,  and, 
therefore,  without  waiting  until  the  sheaves  shriek  and 
become  dumb,  the  blocks  should  be  shifted  and  the  sheaves 
transposed.  This  remark  applies  also  to  quarter-davit 
blocks. 

The  sheave,  on  which  the  hauling  part  of  the  rope 
works,  does  most  duty  ;  and  this  calls  for'greater  strengtn, 
and  frequent  alterations  in  upper  blocks. 

All  blocks  which  stand  horizontally  must  be  placed  with 
the  square  end  of  the  pin  upwards :  as,  when  the  shell 
shrinks,  it  is  liable  to  fall  out  if  placed  otherwise. 

Hanging,  Tye,  and  Quarter-Blocks,  undergo  great  strains 
when  bracing  sharp  up ;  if  the  former  are  two  blocks,  the 
weather  halliards  snould  be  eased  up  suflBciently. 

Books.  There  is  no  proportion  for  hooks,  so  that 
while  handling  heavy  weights,  unless  the  hooks  be  evidently 
very  strong,  it  is  safer  to  use  a  shackle  or  a  good  mousing. 
More  accidents  happen  from  open  hooks  than  from  chain  or 
cordage.  Great  support  may  be  given  a  hook  by  slipping  a 
link  or  a  shackle  over  the  point,  Fig.  234,  Plate  35. 

Tliimblos  are  made  both  perfectly  round,  and  also 
with  the  ends  nearly  joined.  Two  are  sometimes  united 
for  the  purpose  of  giving  easy  play  to  the  adjoining  straps 
or  block,  as  well  as  a  different  stand.  These  are  called 
Lock-Thimbles. 


54  STRAPPING   BLOCKS. 


STRAPPING  BLOCKS. 

The  majority  of  the  largest  blocks  supplied  to  men-of- 
war  are  iron-strapped ;  quarter-blocks,  brace-blocks,  clew- 
gamet-blocks,  top-olocks,  cat-blocks,  blocks  for  boat  falls, 
and  many  others  are  of  this  class.  All  the  above,  except 
the  cat-blocks  and  top-blocks,  are  also  provided  with  fric- 
tion rollers,  and  the  same  may  be  said  of  nearly  all  iron- 
strapped  blocks  which  are  not  subjected  to  very  heavy 
strains.  Some  blocks  are  made  entirely  of  iron,  such  as  the 
jeer-blocks  for  small  vessel's,  secured  permanently  in  the 
chain  sling.     See  also  Fig.  231,  for  a  treble  iron  block. 

Figs.  229  and  233  show  one  method  of  strapping  blocks 
with  iron.  Another  plan  is  to  use  inside  iron  straps,  as  in 
Figs.  230  and  232,  which  are  probably  the  strongest  straps 
yet  devised. 

When  not  iron-strapped,  blocks  are  fitted  with  straps  of 
hemp  or  wire-rope. 

A  wire-rope  strap  differs  from  a  hemp  one  in  being 
wormed,  parcelled  and  served,  and  in  being  usually  made 
of  rope  one  half  the  size  of  the  corresponding  hemp  strap. 
In  wire  straps  for  ordinary  single  blocks,  the  splice  comes 
on  the  side  instead  of  the  breech,  to  avoid  a  nip  near  the 
splice. 

Hemp-rope  for  block-straps  should  be  well-stretched,  or 
until  it  begins  to  look  **  long-jawed,"  that  is,  the  angle  of 
the  lay  diminished. 

Once  and  a  half  the  round  of  the  block  gives  a  good 
measure  for  the  common  strap,  in  which  the  two  ends  are 
joined  by  a  short  splice  ;  first  reeving  the  ends  through  the 
eye  of  the  hook  ;  a  seizing  of  marline,  houseline,  spun-yarn, 
hambroline,  or  larger  stuff,  according  to  the  size  of  the 
block,  is  then  clapped  on  between  the  thimble  and  the 
block. 

The  splice  in  the  hemp  strap  should  be  placed  at  the 
breech  of  the  block.  After  getting  a  good  strain  on  the 
strap,  the  splicing  ends  may  be  trimmed  off. 

Covering  block-straps  at  all  is  objectionable,  particularly 
if  much  exposed,  as  they  decay  more  rapidly  and  break  with- 
out warning. 


CHAPTER    VI. 

TACKLES. 

Taclile  is  an  assemblage  of  ropes  and  blocks, 
and  is  known  in  mechanics  as  a  sj^stem  of  pulleys. 

The  simplest  contrivance  of  this  kind  is  the  single  whip, 
or  ffirtline,  which  consists  of  a  rope  rove  through  a  single 
sttuionary  block.  By  this  arrangement,  a  better  lead  is 
given  the  rope,  but  no  power  is  gained  by  it. 

But  this  arrangement  is  extremely  convenient  and  often 
absolutely  necessary,  as  in  hoisting  articles  from  the  holds 
to  the  upper  decks,  or  from  the  decks  to  the  masts  and 
yards. 

It  is  quite  different,  however,  when  the  single  block  is 
movable,  or  attached  to  the  weight  to  be  moved,  and  gener- 
ally these  two  principles  obtain  m  all  tackles,  namely,  that 
stationary  blocks  give  no  gain,  but  only  serve  as  a  lead  to 
the  rope,  and  all  increase  of  power  is  derived  from  movable 
blocks. 

The  block  having  the  greatest  number  of  parts  of  the  fall 
should  be  attached  to  the  weight  to  be  moved,  in  order  to 
gain  the  greatest  mechanical  advantage.  The  power  gained 
IS  equal  to  the  number  of  parts  at  the  movable  block. 

As,  in  all  purchases,  a  considerable  proportion  of  power 
is  expended  in  overcoming  friction  alone,  and  as  stationary 
blocks,  while  they  serve  to  augment  friction,  yield  no 
mechanical  advantage,  there  should  be  as  many  movable 
blocks  aspossible.    - 

To  X>etermii:ie  the  IRelatioix  of  Po^vrer 
to  A^V^eisrh-t  in  anj^  system  of  pulleys,  we  have  to 
remember  mat  the  tension  on  a  rope  is  the  same  through- 
out, from  the  point  hauled  on  to  tnat  at  which  it  is  made 
fast,  friction  not  considered.  If  we  then  make  a  figure  of  a 
system  of  pulleys,  tracing  up  the  tension  on  each  part, 
marking  the  hauling  part  as  1,  we  find  the  purchase  by 
adding  the  values  thus  assigned  to  each  part  of  rope  at  the 
weight,  or  reeving  through  the  block  at  tne  weight.  When 
the  rope  itself  starts  with  a  doubled  power  as  at  A,  Fig. 
253,  each  part  of  such  a  rope  must  be  marked  2  ;  if  it  starts 
with  a  quadrupled  power  as  at  B,  Fig.  255,  each  part  must 
be  marked  4,  &c. 

Plate  36  shows  the  manner  of  estimating  the  power  in 
this  way,  with  the  forms  of  purchase  in  ordinary  use. 

55 


ii)  TACKLES. 

Pig.  244,  Single  whip  ;  power  gained,  none. 

Fig.  245,  The  same  with  block  at  the  weight;  power 
gainea,  2. 

Fig.  246,  Gun  tackle,  purchase,  power  gained,  2. 

Fig.  247,  The  same  inverted,  power  gained,  3. 

Fig.  248,  A  luflf  tackle,  power  gained,  3. 

Fig.  249,  The  same  inverted,  power  gained,  4. 

Fig.  250,  Double  purchase,  power  gamed,  4. 

Fig.  251,  The  same  inverted,  power  gained,  5. 

Fig.  252,  Single  Spanish  burton,  power  gained,  3. 

Fig.  253,  Double  Spanish  burton,  power  gained,  5. 

Fig.  254,  Bell  purchase,  for  topsail  halliards,  power 
gained,  7. 

Fig.  255,  Luff  upon  luff,  power  gained,  16. 

In  the  above  estimate  for  Bell  purchase,  the  angle  be- 
tween the  two  parts,  C,  D,  should  be  considered. 

The  general  rule  for  ascertaining  the  power  necessary  to 
raise  a  given  weight  with  a  tackle,  is  to  aivide  the  weight  to 
be  raised  by  the  number  of  parts  of  rope  at  the  movable 
block  or  blocks,  the  quotient  being  the  power  required  to 
produce  an  equilibrium,  friction  not  considered. 

To  ascertain  the  amount  of  purchase  required  to  raise  a 
given  weight  with  a  given  power,  divide  the  weight  by  the 
power,  and  the  quotient  will  be  the  number  of  parts  of  rope 
which  must  be  attached  to  the  lower  block. 

To  ascertain  what  weight  given  tackling  will  raise,  the 
weight  a  single  rope  will  bear  is  multiplied  by  the  number 
of  parts  at  the  moving  block. 

When  one  tackle  is  put  upon  another,  multiply  the  two 

¥owers  together  to  get  the  total  amount  of  purchase  gained, 
'hus  with  a  luff  tackle,  with  four  parts  at  the  movable 
block,  the  gain  is  four.  A  luff  upon  luff  would  give  an 
increase  of  16  times,  another  luff  clapped  on  to  the  fall  of 
the  second,  16  x  4,  or  64  times,  &c. 

These  rules  require  considerable  modification  for  fric- 
tion. 

Power  can  only  be  increased  at  the  expense  of  time, 
hence  there  are  many  cases  on  board  ship  where  a  great 
deal  of  purchase  would  be  a  positive  disadvantage. 

f  I'ietion.  Perhaps  we  shall  not  be  far  wrong  if  we 
estimate  one  sixth  of  the  original  force  to  be  consumed  by 
friction  each  time  the  rope  passes  round  a  sheave.  Thus, 
supposing  the  tension  or  strain  on  the  hauling  part  be  0, 
that  on  the  next  will  be  5,  the  next  4,  the  next  3,  and  so  on. 
So  that  if  the  strain  on  the  fall  of  a  two-fold  tackle  be  6,  the 
strains  on  the  parts  of  the  rope  will  be  represented  by  the 
figures  6,  5,  4,  3,  and  their  sum,  18,  will  nearly  represent  the 

Sower  of  the  tackle,  instead  of  24,  which  it  would  have  been 
ad  there  been  no  friction  ;  or  about  one  fourth  of  the  force 
would  have  been  consumed  by  it. 

If  the  rope  which  passes  round  the  sheave  of  the  block 


Plata  36 


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TACKLES — FRICTION.  57 

be  small,  it  will  bo  more  flexible ;  a  less  force  will  be  neces- 
sary to  "nip"  it  round  the  sheave,  and  there  will  be  less 
resistance  by  friction  against  the  inside  of  the  shell  of  the 
block. 

From  these  considerations,  we  gather  that  work  is  light- 
ened by  using  large  blocks  and  small  ropes;  the  boat- 
swain's rule,  that  the  hauling  part  of  a  fall  bears  double  the 
strain  of  the  standing  part,  is  not  far  wrong ;  that  as  the 
pin  of  a  block  is  more  worn  on  one  of  its  sides,  it  should  be 
frequently  turned ;  and  that  as  sheaves  nearest  the  stand- 
ing part  do  least  duty,  they  should  be  shifted  occasionally 
with  the  others. 

There  are  about  five  different  purchases  in  common  use, 

VIZ  * 

A.  Sing-le  TV^iip,  Fig.  256,  Plate  37,  which  consists 
of  a  single  stationary  block  and  fall.  By  it  the  power  can 
be  more  conveniently  applied  to  the  weight,  but  no  power 
is  gained.  It  is  therefore,  in  reality,  no  purchase  at  all. 
The  term  whip  is  sometimes  applied  to  tackles,  as  the 
wcUer^ivhips. 

A.  X{.ixTiiiei*9  Fig.  257,  Plate  37,  a  single  movable 
block  and  fall.  In  this  case,  the  fall  is  called  the  runner, 
and  has  a  thimble  spliced  in  the  end,  for  hooking  a  purchase 
to.  By  it  the  power  is  doubled.  The  main  bowline  and 
topsail  tyes  are  instances  of  runners.  Runners,  as  in  the 
figure,  are  used  for  setting  up  backstays,  and  generally 
wherever  they  can  be  applied  to  advantage. 

A.  GixjLrt  Taclcle  l^rii-eliiiKcs  Fig.  258,  ^late 
37,  is  composed  of  two  single  blocks,  strapped  with  )ok 
and  thimble,  the  standing  part  of  the  fall  bent  to  the 
becket,  or  spliced  into  the  strap  of  the  block  from  which 
the  fall  leads.  The  advantage  derived  from  this  purchase 
has  been  given  already.     Its  gain  is  as  1  to  3. 

A  Lull'  TacUIe,  Fig.  259,  Plate  37,  consists  of  a 
double  and  single  block,  each  strapped  with  a  hook  and 
thimble,  the  standing  part  of  fall  bent  to  the  becket,  or 
spliced  into  the  strap  oi  the  single  block.  If  the  double 
block  is  hooked  to  the  weight,  the  power  is  multiplied  four 
times  ;  if  the  single  block,  then  but  three  times,  &c. 

A.  T>vofoltl  Fixreliase-,  Fig.  2G0,  Plate  37,  con- 
sists of  two  double  blocks,  the  standing  and  hauling  part 
leading  from  the  same  block,  and  on  opposite  sides,  so  that 
the  block  will  not  cant.  The  power  gained  is  four  or  five 
times,  as  it  may  be  applied. 

A.  Threefold.  JPu.i'cliaKc*  consists  of  two  treble 
blocks,  having  the  fall  and  standing  part  leading  from  the 
same  block,  and  from  opposite  sides.  Its  power  is  six  or 
seven  times. 

The  foregoing  are  the  principal  kinds  of  purchase  in  use 
on  board  ship  ;  all  others  are  combinations  or  modifications 
of  these,  and  take  their  names  from  the  purpose  for  which 


oS  TACKLES — FRICTK  )N. 

or  place  where  used,  the  foUowing  being  those  in  most 
general  use. 

IJoom  Tackle^  or  boom-jiggers,  used  in  large 
ships  for  rigging  in  and  out  the  studding-sail  booms.  In 
schooners,  the  tackle  which  guys  the  main  boom  forward, 
when  going  large. 

I3ii.i*toriH  are  light  tackles.  The  term  burton  by  itself, 
is  generally  understood  to  apply  to  those  which  are  nearly 
always  kept  hooked  to  the  pendants,  at  the  topmast  heads, 
ready  for  use,  and  called  tojy  burto7is.     They  are  the  same 

fmrchase  as  a  luff,  but  instead  of  the  common  double  block 
ike  a  luff,  it  has  a  fiddle  block,  both  for  neatness  and  con- 
venience, there  being  but  little  room  close  up  under  the  eyes 
of  the  topmast  rigging.  The  falls  of  these  burtons  are  long 
enough  to  permit  both  the  lower  block  and  hauling  end  to 
reach  the  deck,  with  plenty  to  spare,  while  the  upper  block 
is  hooked  to  the  topmast  pendant. 

SpaniKli  llvxi'tonw  are  of  various  styles. 

A  single  Spanish  burton,  Fig.  2G1,  Plate  37,  consists  of 
two  single  blocks,  the  standing  part  spliced  in  to  the  strap 
of  the  movable  block  and  the  bight  seized  or  bent  to  the 
hook.    This  increases  the  power  three  times. 

The  double  Spaiiish  burton,  Fig.  253,  Plate  'M,  has  one 
double  and  two  single  blocks  ;  the  standing  part  spliced  in 
the  strap  of  one  single  block,  then  rove  through  the  double 
or  fixed  block,  and  tlie  bight  seized  to  the  strap  of  the  lower 
block,  to  which  the  weight  to  be  lifted  is  hooked.  The  end 
is  then  rove  up  through  the  double  block,  through  the  lower 
and  lastly  through  the  single  block  to  which  tne  standing 
part  is  secured.  This  purchase  gives  an  increase  of  five 
times  the  power  applied.  Figure  254,  Bell's  purchase,  in- 
creases the  power  seven  times.* 

A.  I>eeli:  Tttcflile  is  a  heavy  purchase,  of  a  double 
and  single,  or  two  double  blocks.  It  is  used  for  rousing  in 
chains,  and  for  heavy  work  generally. 

f  iwli  Tacltle  is  a  heavy  purchase  of  double  or 
treble  blocks,  used  for  fishing  the  ancnor ;  that  is,  for  raising 
the  crown  to  get  the  inner  nuke  up  to  the  bill-board  after 
catting. 

^V  l^"^<>i*e-Jiiicl-af%  Taeltle  is  one  used  to  get 
the  awnings  on  a  fore-and-aft  stretch.     The  term  is  also  of 

general  application  to  any  tackle  whose  use,  for  the  time 
eing,  may  be  in  the  direction  of  the  length  of  the  ship. 
In  the  same  way  we  have  thwartsh  ip-tackles. 

C^rivtliness  are,  generally,  single  whips.  The  name 
applies  particularly  to  those  used  at  the  mast-head  in  get- 
tmg  up  tops,  riggmg,  &c.,  when  rigging  ship.  Hammock 
Girtlines  are  simply  lines  on  which  to  stop  scrubbed  ham- 
mocks for  drying.    They  are  fitted  in  various  ways,  and 

*  Seo  also  Boll's  purcluise,  and  Plat-,  Cliapt^^r  IX  ,  ITai^liards. 


^^ 


TACKLES.  '^'.^ 

formerly  had  permanent  (nettle)  stops  attached ;  but  now  the 
"long"  or  harbor  clothes-lines  are  used  for  the  purpose. 

Hateli  Tackles.  These  are  common  luff  pur- 
chases, and  are  used  generally  in  the  hatches  over  the 
holds.  When  the  upper  block  is  required  to  be  above  the 
spar  deck,  it  should  not  be  permitted  to  hook  to  the  lower 
stay,  but  to  a  long  pendant,  hooking  to  the  lower  cap  and 
stopped  out  to  the  stay  by  a  lizard. 

•Jeers,  for  sendmg  up  and  down  the  lower  yards,  are 
variously  rove.  The  plan  now  is,  to  have  one  or  two  double 
or  treble  purchases  according  to  the  size  of  the  yard.  For 
small  vessels  the  blocks  (iron)  are  fitted  in  one  with  the 
slings.  Fig.  262,  Plate  37. 

•Jig-g-ei's,  Fig.  264,  Plate  38,  are  small  luffs,  having 
the  double  block  strapped  with  one  or  two  tails,  and  are  used 
for  a  great  variety  of  purposes  about  decks. 

1^1x11'  Tackle.  Double  and  single  block,  as  already 
de?;cribed.  But  rigging  Ivffs  used  in  setting  up  rigging  are 
either  double  or  single.  f5ouble  rigging  luffs  may  oe  ordi- 
nary luff  tackles  or  double  purchases,  used  for  setting  up 
lower  stays,  and  called  stay  luffs.  Sinp^le  rigging  luffs  have 
two  single  blocks,  and  are  used  in  setting  up  shrouds. 

In  former  days  when  ship's  batteries  were  light,  the  gun 
tackles  had  only  two  single  blocks,  hence  the  term,  gun- 
tackle  purchase. 

Rigging  luffs  in  former  days  were  composed  of  double 
and  single  blocks,  but  in  time  were  made  up  with  two 
single  blocks  instead,  as  the  double  block  was  too  large, 
much  in  the  way,  and  liable  to  split  in  setting  up  shrouds. 

I^endant  Tackles  are  large  tackles,  composed 
of  double  blocks.  They  hook  to  the  mast-head  pendants, 
whence  their  name,  and  are  used  for  setting  up  lower  rig- 
ging, staying  the  mast,  or  steadying  it  under  certain  emer- 
gencies. 

R/eef  Tackles  are  for  rousing  the  leeches  of  the 
top-sails  and  courses  up  to  the  yard  arms  for  reefing.  They 
are  variously  fitted,  and  may  be  either  a  luff  or  a  gun- 
tackle  purchase,  as  will  be  explained  hereafter. 

JEielie vin^  Tackles  are  for  the  purpose  of  hook- 
ing to  the  tiller,  m  order  to  steer  the  ship  in  the  event  of 
the  wheel  ropes  being  shot  away  in  action,  or  to  assist  in 
steering  in  very  heavy  weather,  when  the  motions  of  the 
rudder  are  sudden  and  violent.    Double  and  single  block. 

R^olling"  Tackles  hook  to  the  quarters  of  thc^ 
yards  (lower  and  top-sail)  and  to  the  mast,  for  the  puipose 
of  steadying  the  yards  in  a  heavy  sea,  when  the  ship  rolls 
much,  and  to  relieve  the  strain  on  the  trusses,  slings,  or 
parrel. 

Huclder  Tackles  hook  to  the  rudder  chains  or 
pendants,  to  steer  the  ship  in  case  of  accident  to  the  tiller  or 
rudder  head. 


00  TACKLES. 

A.  IX.\iiiiiei*  a^rid  Taelcle^  Fig.  205.  Plate  :^S, 
is  simply  composed  of  a  tackle  (double  and  single  block) 
attached  to  a  runner.  They  are  for  aiding  in  staying  the 
lower  masts.     The  power  gained  is  eight  times. 

Sta^v^  Tackles  are  those  which  hook  to  the  triatic 
stay,  or  a  lower  stay,  and  are  called  respectively,  forestay 
tackle  and  mainstay  tackle — used  in  getting  the  boats  in  ana 
out.  These  are  large  double  or  treble  purchases  with  a 
hook  and  several  links  of  chain  on  the  lower  blocks.  One 
link  is  round,  and  into  it  hooks  the  yard  tackle. 

jV  Sail  HTaeUle,  Fig.  200,  Plate  3S.  The  upper 
block  is  often  double ;  the  small  single  block  below  is  to  act 
as  a  fair  leader,  and  the  fall  to  act  as  a  guy  in  keeping  the 
sail  clear  of  the  yards  and  top  when  swaying  aloft.  The 
burtons  are  used  as  sail  tackles. 

Stoclc  and  Dill  Taelile  is  a  small  tackle  used 
when  securing  the  anchor. 

Tricing-  Linew  are  generally  single  whips.  Some- 
times, however,  they  are  gun-tackle  purchases,  as  the  fore- 
topmast  studding  sail  boom  tricing  lines. 

W'ateli  Tacrlde.  A  common  luff  purchase  or 
jigger. 

^  >\  liip  Jiiid  TfcviiiiKM'.  Similar  to  a  runner 
and  tackle,  but  smaller.  The  main  bowline  of  a  large  ship 
is  a  whip  and  runner. 

^"ard  TacltleK  are  large  tackles  used  on  the 
lower  yards,  in  connection  with  the  stay  tackles,  for  get- 
ting the  boom-boats  in  and  out,  purchasing  anchors,  &c. 
They  are  called  fore  and  main  yard  tackles,  respectively, 
and  are  fitted  with  large  double  or  treble  blocks,  strapped 
with  single  hooks.  Fig.  230  shows  an  inside  iron-strapped 
treble  block  for  yard  tackle. 

A\"atei'  A^V^liips^  are  tackles  for  hoisting  in  water, 
when  it  is  brought  ofif  in  gang  casks  ;  or  for  medium 
weights  generally. 

Besides  the  yard  and  stay  tackles  described  above,  for 
hoisting  in  and  out  boats,  lighter  purchases,  known  as  the 
yard  and  stay  water  whips,  are  used  for  getting  in  provi- 
sions, Fig.  207. 

This  purchase  consists  of  two  water-wliips.  The  upper 
block  of  the  stay  whip  has  a  pendant  which  hooks  into  the 
lower  cap,  and  is  fitted  with  a  lizard  hauling  it  out  to  the 
collar  of  the  lower  stay,  where  it  is  secured. 

The  upper  block  of  the  yard  whip  is  fitted  with  a  strap 
as  in  Fig.  207  to  go  around  the  yard  arm.  Both  lower  blocks 
may  be  fitted  with  chain  pendants  and  hooks.  Sometimes 
the  lower  stay  block  alone  is  fitted  with  chain,  the  lower 
yard  block  having  a  hook  only. 

Besides  the  foregoing,  there  are  various  jiggers  and 
whips,  all  of  which  will  be  explained  when  used. 

<jrenei'al  lteiiiai*li.*s.    One  great  advantage  of  a 


*•'•■'""     *■«.=<« 


TACKLES.  (>1 

tackle  on  board  ship,  which  renders  its  application  of  con- 
,  stant  occurrence  when  mere  power  is  not  wanting,  must  not 
be  overlooked  ;  as,  for  example,  when  hoisting,  a  jerking  is 
to  be  avoided,  and  a  steady,  gradual  strain  required,  as  in 
staying  a  mast.  Another  advantage  of  a  purchase,  when 
titt^d  to  any  part  of  a  ship's  rig^ng,  is  that  on  coming  up, 
when  some  little  must  necessarilv  oe  given  back,  only  a 
mere  fractional  part  is  lost  on  the  rope  itself,  as  in  the 
laniard  of  a  dead-eye,  &c. 

The  p:r(^ater  the  amount  of  purchase  used,  the  steadier 
will  be  the  strain. 

The  swallow  of  a  block  should  be  full  large  in  proportion 
to  the  size  of  the  fall ;  generallj^  one-tenth  of  an  men  swal- 
low for  every  one-fourth  of  an  mch  in  circumference  of  the 
rope. 

The  fall  of  a  purchase  should  have  as  clear  a  lead  as 
possible,  and  the  nauling  part  be  in  a  line  parallel  to  the 
rest  of  the  purchase. 

A  score  is  generally  cut  in  the  breech  of  a  block  to  admit 
the  standing  part  of  the  fall  being  passed  under  the  strap, 
so  as  to  splice  the  end  into  its  own  part.  When  this  is  done, 
the  splice  should  be  tapered  and  neatly  served  over  with 
marline.  But  in  jiggers,  luffs,  deck  and  pendant  tackles, 
the  standing  part  is  oent  to  a  becket,  worked  around  the 
strap  of  the  single  block,  with  a  sheet  or  becket  bend,  and 
the  end  stopped  down.  This  is  to  allow  the  fall  to  be 
shifted,  end  for  end,  or  to  be  unrove  at  pleasure. 

Bv  reason  of  friction,  the  becket  in  the  breech  of  the 
standing  block  may  be  much  less  in  size  than  the  fall,  as 
the  fall  there  bears  less  strain  than  at  the  hauling  part,  and 
the  greater  the  number  of  parts  of  a  fall,  the  greater  will 
this  difference  be.  Notwithstanding  this,  in  neavy  pur- 
chases, where  great  weights  are  to  be  moved,  the  standing 
Eart  is  hitched  around  tne  neck  of  the  strap,  between  the 
lock  and  the  thimble  ;  and  it  is  a  good  precaution,  when 
using  any  tackle  for  a  great  strain,  to  cast  off  the  standing 

Eart  from  the  becket  and  hitch  it  around  the  strap.    In  large 
locks,  the  standing  part  is  made  to  go  on  the  side  opposite 
to  that  from  which  the  fall  leads,  making  it  lead  fairer,  and 

Sreventing  the  tendency  of  the  block  to  slew  in  the  strap, 
ig.  2G8,  Plate  38. 
VSThen  a  racking  is  to  be  put  on  a  purchase  fall,  the  haul- 
ing part  is  racked  to  the  part  next  to  it. 

Sometimes,  as  in  the  case  of  a  boat's  fall,  by  the  block 
capsizing,  or  through  carelessness  in  overhauling,  the  fall 
gets  a  thorouqhfoot  in  it — that  is,  the  parts  get  crossed ;  be- 
fore use  the  thoroughf  oot  must  be  taken  out. 

The  following  is  the  result  of  a  carefully-executed  ex- 
periment with  tackles : 

A  tackle  of  2  upper  and  1  lower  sheave  requires  on  the 
fall  I  of  the  weight  of  the  resistance  in  order  to  raise  it,  but 


02  TACKLES. 

only  \  to  sustain  it  in  its  place.     In  hoisting,  the  standing 

Eart  takes  a  strain  of  about  J  of  the  weight  suspended,  1  m 
eeping  it  suspended,  and  |  in  lowering  tne  weight.  WheB 
composed  of  one  upper  and  one  lower  sheave,  the  fall  of  thi 
tackle  requires  the  exertion  of  a  power  equal  to  about  t  ol 
the  weight  to  move  it,  and  ^  to  keep  it  in  eauilibrium,  s< 
that  the  strap  should  be  3  times  the  strengtn  of  the  fall, 
or  lltimes  its  size. 

The  Pui-clia^e  g-stiried  l>y  Swig-ging"  OlE 
What  is  called  swigging  off — ^that  is,  pulling  at  right  anglel 
to  a  rope,  is,  at  first,  a  very  great  power  ;  but  it  decreas< 
as  the  rope  is  pulled  out  or  the  straight  line.  A  purchat 
upon  this  principle  may  be  conveniently  applied  to  severe 
purposes.  By  it  a  boat  may  be  hauled  up  on  the  beach.  Al 
some  distance  up  from  the  water,  drive  m  a  stake,  and  neai^ 
the  water,  in  a  line  with  the  boat,  drive  in  another.  To  the 
upper  stake  secure  the  boat's  painter,  passing  it  along^ 
against  the  lower  one.  Now,  bv  swigging  off  upon  the" 
painter  midway  between  the  stakes,  the  boat's  crew  will- 
pull  with  an  increased  power,  and  if  this  be  insuflScient,  ill 
may  be  increased  by  moving  the  stakes  farther  apart. 


I 

r 


f^^ 


^E 


r^'-yVf-i^^t^ 


CHAPTER    VI  I. 

MASTS  AND   Y  ARD  S  -  RUDDER.-M  A  STING. 

'W^ood.eii  Lo"wer*-maeits  are  made  of  several 
pieces,  united  by  dowels  or  coaks,  and  hoops. 

In  the  United  States  Navy,  the  made  masts  consist  of 
four  principal  pieces,  each  of  which  consists  of  two  or  more 

f)arcs,  scarfed  together,  when  a  whole  piece,  of  sufficient 
ength,  cannot  be  obtained.  These  pieces  are  placed  as  in 
Plate  39  P.  The  inner  corner  of  each  piece  is  taKen  off  so  as 
to  leave  a  square  hole  .extending  tnroughout  the  whole 
length  of  the  mast,  in  its  axis.  This  admits  of  a  closer  con- . 
tact  of  the  parts  of  the  mast  with  each  other  when  the 
hoops  are  set  up,  and  does  not  take  from  the  strength  of  the 
spar.  This  hole  is  one-tenth  of  the  diameter  of  the  mast  in 
size. 

The  hoops  are  placed  from  three  to  three  and  a  half  feet 
apart  from  each  other,  and  are  from  four  and  one-quarter 
to  five  inches  wide,  and  from  four-eighths  to  five-eighths 
of  an  inch  thick,  according  to  the  class  of  ships  the  mast 
is  made  for.  They  must,  liowever,  be  kept  clear  of  the 
wedges  at  the  partners.  The  scarfings  of  the  piece  must  be 
kept  clear  of  each  other  (that  is,  the  points  of  junction  in 
one  piece  must  be  as  far  as  possible  from  those  in  an- 
other piece),  and  equally  distributed  in  the  mast.  There 
is  a  chafing  batten  on  the  forward  part  of  the  liiast,  about 
one-fourth  the  diameter  of  the  mast  in  width,  and  one- 
eighth  in  thickness. 

The  principal  parts  of  a  mast  are  the  heady  hounds,  bibbs, 
neck,  partners  and  heel. 

The  Bovi^sprit  is  represented  in  full  length  in 
Plate  39.  At  the  side  the  bees  are  shown  extending  from 
the  cap  to  the  housing,  or  where  the  octagonal  form  com- 
mences. 

The  Jih-Boom  is  represented  in  its  place.  The 
heel  is  cut  to  fit  in  a  saddle  bolted  on  the  top  of  the  bow- 
sprit, and  is  clamped  down  by  an  iron  strap;  a  short  dis- 
tance outboard  is  a  sheave  for  a  heel-rope. 

The  Topmant  has  the  cross-trees  and  cap  on. 

The  Lo^^'ei'  "Varcl  has  in  the  centre  a  stout  iron 
span,  to  which  hook  the  slings. 

The  truss  is  fjihown  in  a  separate  figure. 

The  Topsail  "Vard.,  in  two  views,  shows  the 
jaws,  tve-blocks,  bending- jackstay,  quarter-blocks  for  top- 

68 


04:  MASTS. 

gallant  sheets  and  additional  blocks,  forward,  for  topsail 
clew-lines. 

Yarcl-Slingrs,  Y,  Plate  30,  are  of  chain,  in  length 
twice  that  of  their  respective  mast-heads ;  to  which  must  be 
added  half  the  length  of  the  forward  lower  cross-tree,  that 
being  the  distance  the  yard  should  hang  below  the  top. 

Ii-on  >f!£iHtH.  Iron  and  steel  are  now  almost  exclu- 
sively used  for  making  masts  and  yards. 

Figs.  A,  B,  C,  and  D,  Plate  40,  are  cross  sections  of  iron 
masts,  showing  some  of  the  methods  of  construction. 

Plate  41,  illustrates  the  general  method  of  construction 
of  a  military  mast  of  a  modern  battle  ship. 

Figs.  E  and  F,  Plate  40,  show  the  mode  of  fitting  wooden 
trestle-trees  to  an  iron  mast.  As  there  are  no  shoulders  at 
the  hounds,  special  provision  has  to  be  made  for  supporting 
the  trestle-trees,  and  this  is  accomplished  by  worKin^  a 
plate  and  a  ring  of  angle-iron  around  the  mast,  and  fittmg 

Slate-knees,  k  k,  which  correspond  with  the  bibbs  usually 
tted  below  the  trestle-trees  of  a  wooden  mast.  The  plan  E 
shows  the  spread  of  the  knees  and  the  arrangement  of  tho 
plaie  and  angle-iron  below  the  trestle-tree. 

It  is  usual  to  work  doubling  plates  upon  the  lower  masts 
in  tlie  wake  of  the  wedging  decks.  These  plates  give  addi- 
tional rigidity  in  wake  or  the  wedges,  and  also  prevent 
corrosion  in  the  mast-plate  itself. 

Fig.  G,  Plate  40,  shows  the  ordinary  mode  of  forming  the 
heel  of  an  iron  lower  mast.  The  end  of  the  mast  is  closed 
by  a  circular  plate  fitted  against  and  connected  with  the 
outside  plating.  In  the  centre  of  this  plate  there  is  a  square 
hole,  around  which  the  angle-iron  frame  a  is  fitted,  the 
vertical  flange  of  the  angle-iron  thus  forming  the  sides  of  a 
mortice  in. the  heel.  When  in  place,  the  mast  rests  on  a 
stepping  plate,  upon  which  is  riveted  a  rectangular  box- 
shaped  frame  of  iron  6,  and  the  tenon  thus  formed  fits  into 
the  mortice  in  the  heel  of  the  mast. 

A  man-hole  is  usually  cut  a  few  feet  from  the  lower  end 
of  an  iron  mast  to  give  access  to  the  interior  and  for  ventila- 
tion ;  oth^r  openings  are  also  made  at  various  heights  for 
the  latter  purpose. 

Iron  and  steel  have  also  been  used  in  the  construction  of 
topmasts,  topgallant  masts  and  yards,  but  in  these  spars  the 
advantages  resulting  from  the  cnange  from  wood  are  not  so 
great  as  in  the  case  of  lower  masts.  The  details  of  con- 
struction for  the  lighter  spars  do  not  differ  greatly  in  prin- 
ciple from  those  described  for  lower  masts.  The  plating  is 
usually  flush-jointed,  and  the  larger  spars  have  angle-iron, 
or  other  interior  stiflfeners. 

IVXa.Htinjg'.  In  fitting  out  our  men-of-war,  advantage 
is  taken  of  every  facility  which  a  navy -yard  affords.  The 
ringing  is  cut  out  by  the  draft  furnished  by  the  constructors, 
using  the  Equipment  Book  of  Allowances  as  a  guide.     The 


.jl:."'~a.. 


i  fn 


MASTING.  65 

masts  are  placed  by  the  navy-yard  sheers,  and  the  hold 
stowed  by  regular  stevedores. 

When  the  navy-yard  sheers  are  used,  the  mast  is  brought 
down  from  the  spar-shed  and  placed  with  its  head  toward 
the  ship  under  the  sheers,  or  masting-derrick.  the  garland 
lashed  on  and  the  main  purchase  toggled,  tne  fall  being 
taken  to  the  capstan,  or  crab,  built  for  the  purpose.  Con- 
venience determines  which  mast  is  to  be  taken  in  first. 
After  placing  one  mast,  the  ship  is  hauled  ahead,  or  dropped 
astern,  to  bring  the  other  partners  plumb  under  the  purchase. 

In  the  following  outline  of  masting,  the  work  is  assumed 
to  be  done  without  the  conveniences  of  a  yard.  The  vessel, 
a  frigate,  is  supposed  to  be  lying  in  the  stream,  and  her 
spars,  &c.,  towed  off. 

Proceed  to  support  the  spar-deck  for  the  weight  it  will 
have  to  sustain,  oy  shoring  it  up  fore  and  aft,*  particularly 
those  beams  immediately  under  the  places  to  be  occupied 
by  the  sheers  when  getting  in  the  masts. 

Sling  skids  outside  leading  from  the  gunwale  to  the 
channels,  and  from  the  channels  to  tlie  water's  edge ;  block 
up  a  half -rounded  spar  in  the  hammock  netting,  the  upper 
surface  being  well  slushed,  to  lead  the  parbuckle  over,  and 
proceed. 

To  lieeve  the  Pai-bxTelcle,  Fig.  269,  Plate 
42.  The  main  parbuckle  consists  of  a  hawser  of  a  suitable 
size — say  5-incn — which  is  middled  and  the  ends  rove 
through  the  spar  deck  ports,  a  few  ports  apart  (the  distance 
depending  on  the  length  of  the  sheer  legs),  from  out,  in, 
leaving  tne  bight  outside.  The  sheer  legs  having  been 
towed  alongside,  with  their  heads  aft,  pass  the  after  end  of 
the  parbuckle  down  under  the  head  of  tne  first  sheer  leg,  up 
over  the  gunwale  to  the  opposite  water-ways,  where  the  end 
is  snatched  and  led  forward,  having  a  long  luff  clapped  on 
it,  if  found  necessary.  The  forward  end  of  the  parbuckle 
is  led  in  like  manner,  taking  it  under  the  heel  of  the  sheer 
leg,  and  thence  to  the  capstan. 

Tlie  Coixntei*  lr*ai'l>iiclcleK^  a  a,  Fig.  269,  are 
rove  in  a  contrary  way,  for  easing  the  sheer  legs  inboard. 
They  are  rove  through  the  same  ports,  from  in,  out,  leaving 
the  centre  bight  inboard,  and  the  two  end  bights  hanging 
down  inside  to  catch  the  sheer  leg  when  it  comes  over  the 
gunwale  ;  the  ends  are  led  down  through  the  gun  deck  ports 
and  taken  around  spars  lashed  fore  and  aft  in  the  ports, 
having  hands  to  attend  them  to  ease  the  sheer  Icffs  down. 
Have  a  stout  spar  laid  across  the  gunwale  well  ait  to  rest 
the  heads  of  the  sheer  legs  on  when  on  board. 

When  ready,  clap  on  the  luff,  man  the  bars,  and  '^  walk 
airay."    When   "high  enough,"  or  up  with  the  gunwale, 

*  Shores  are  stout  pieces  of  timber  or  joist,  placed  under  a  Ix-am  and  resting 
on  a  block.     To  give  the  deck  abore  a  projier  support,  tliey  must  bt*  \vecJg(»d  up. 


66  MASTING. 

^' avast  heaving,''  arrange  the  counter  parbuckles  under 
head  and  heel,  and  set  taut.  Now  pull  up  on  the  main,  and 
ease  away  on  the  counter  parbuckle,  land  the  heel  on  the 
deck,  the  head  resting  on  the  thwartship  spar  placed  for  the 
purpose,  roll  it  over,  lift  the  heel  over  the  capstan  and  get 
it  in  its  proper  position  for  forming  the  sheers  ;  a  spar  may 
be  placed  from  the  gunwale  to  the  capstan,  and  the  sheer 
leg  got  thence  to  the  opposite  water-ways.  The  second 
sheer  le^  is  got  on  board  in  the  same  manner,  and  placed 
for  lashing. 

Note.  Instead  of  using  parbuckles,  the  sheer  legs  may 
be  got  on  board  by  means  of  a  pair  oi  small  sheers,  raked 
over  the  taff rail. 

Fore  and  main  topmasts  or  lotver  yards  may  be  used  for 
sheer  legs ;  in  the  latter  case,  the  yard-arms  must  be  well 
strengthened,  or  fished  and  woolded,  by  lashing  around 
them  small  spars,  or  made  fishes  of  stout  oak  plank,  using 
well-stretched  rope,  and  tautening  the  lashes  by  wedges. 
The  lashing  around  the  spar  is  termed  a  woolding. 

The  SlieerK.  The  sheer  legs  oein^  on  board,  cross 
their  heads  (with  the  port  leg  uppermost  if  the  masts  are 
taken  in  on  the  starboard  side),  square  the  heels  and  spread 
them  about  two-thirds  the  breadth  of  beam  at  the  mizzen 
partners,  so  that  when  spread  out  to  their  full  extent,  the 
sheer  head  lashings  may  be  tautened. 

For  sheer  head  lashings,  take  a  piece  of  good  3^  or  4-inch 
rope,  well  stretched,  middle  it  and  make  one  end  fast  to  the 
sheer  leg,  near  the  cross  ;  with  the  other  end  pass  the  requi- 
site number  of  figure-of-eight  turns  round  both  spars  and 
take  a  couple  of  half -hitches  with  the  end  around  one  leg. 
With  the  first  end,  pass  a  number  of  round  turns,  filling  up 
the  intervals  between  the  figure-of-eight  turns,  pass  irap- 

Eing,  or  cross  turns,  and  secure  the  two  ends  with  a  square 
not. 
After  passing  the  sheer  head  lashing,  spread  the  heels 
and  place  them  in  the  shoes.  The  shoes  should  be  of  stout 
oak  plank,  long  enough  to  rest  upon  at  least  two  of  the 
spar  deck  beams.  A  saucer  is  cut  out  of  the  centre  to  rest 
the  heel  in,  and  on  the  forward  and  after  side  an  eye-bolt  is 
placed  for  lashing  the  heel  to.  There  are  eye-bolts  in  the 
forward  and  after  ends,  for  hooking  fore  and  aft  shoe- 
tackles  to,  to  aid  in  the  transportation  of  the  sheers.  Lash 
the  heel  to  the  shoe  temporarily.  Hook  the  after  heel 
tackles  to  straps  around  the  heels  and  set  them  taut,  and,  as 
an  additional  security,  when  raising  the  sheers,  shift  the 
forward  heel  tackles  ait. 

The  >£ain.  I^u.i'chase.  Lash  on  the  upper 
block  of  the  main  purchase,  so  that  it  will  hang  directly 
under  the  cross.  It  should  be  a  large  threefold  block, 
strapped  with  two  single  straps  and  fitted  with  a  large 
thimble,  to  hang  by  a  lashing  passing  over  the  cross  of  the 
shear  head. 


r\-* —  SignaJ  Laoitra 

1 


-^ 


Enlaigcd  SecHon  on  Xiat  AJ^ 
Showing  Ffiuning   of  MasU 


MASTING.  67 

The  straps  of  the  main  purchase  blocks  should  be  well 
parcelled  and  marled.  The  lower  block  is  double-strapped, 
with  eyes  for  tojg^gling,  Fig.  235,  Plate  35.  Take  the  lower 
block  of  the  main  purchase  to  the  bowsprit  hole,  and  toggle 
it  there  with  a  suitable  spar. 

The  fall  should  be  new  5^-in.  Manila  rope.  Begin  with 
the  stfinding  part  and  reeve  it  from  forward^  aft^  through 
the  side  sheave  of  the  upper  block,  beginning  on  the  side 
opposite  to  that  intended  tor  taking  in  the  masts  ;  thence 
through  the  corresponding  sheave  in  the  lower  block,  and 
so  on  until  rove  full,  when  clove  hitch  it  around  one  of  the 
forks  close  to  the  lashing,  and  stop  the  end  down  to  its 
own  part.  Snatch  the  fall  in  some  convenient  place  near 
where  the  lower  block  has  been  toggled,  and  take  it  to  the 
capstan. 

If  apprehensive  that  the  upper  purchase  block  will  slue 
in  its  strap,  by  the  greatest  strain  coming  on  one  side,  the 
fall  may  oe  rove  so  as  to  lead  from  the  centre  sheave — 
but  this  brings  a  cross  in  the  fall,  and  is,  therefore,  objec- 
tionable. 

Tlie  Siiia.ll  FurcliaKe^  Griivs,  &c.  The 
upper  block  of  the  small  purchase  is  double,  and  lashes  to 
the  after  fork  so  as  to  play  clear  of  the  main  purchase. 
Lash  a  single  block  to  each  fork  above  the  small  purchase  and 
reeve  stout  girtlines.  For  sheer-head  guys,  clove-hitch  a 
couple  of  stout  hawsers  over  the  sheer  head,  leading  two 
ends  forward  and  two  aft,  and  to  each  clap  on  a  luflE-upon- 
luff  for  convenience  in  setting  up  and  easing  off,  without 
surging.  Belly  guys  are  put  on  in  the  same  way,  about 
one-third  the  distance  down  each  leg,  cleating  the  hitches 
to  prevent  slipping,  and  clapping  on  luffs.  On  Qach  sheer 
leg  just  above  the  shoe,  put  good  straps,  and  hook  and 
set  well  taut  a  thwartship  tackle  to  ease  the  strain  on  the 
water-ways ;  lastly,  pass  a  bulwark  lashing  either  to  the  bul- 
wark, or  to  a  stout  toggle  placed  outside  of  the  spar-deck 
ports. 

Raisins*  tlie  Slieers.  The  main  purchase  fall, 
being  led  to  the  capstan,  the  heels  temporarily  lashed  to  the 
shoes,  and  the  forward  and  after  shoe  and  heel  tackles,  both 
hooked  aft,  to  prevent  the  sheers  from  launching  forward 
as  the  strain  is  brought  on  the  main  purchase ;  the  thwart- 
ship  heel  tackle  set  well  taut,  and  plenty  of  hands  to  take  in 
the  slack  of  forward  guys,  and  others  to  attend  after  ones, 
man  the  capstan,  and  heave  around,  catching  the  sheers  as 
they  rise,  by  the  thwartship  spar. 

When  nearly  up  and  down,  or  at  an  angle  of  about 
eighty  degrees  with  the  spar  deck,  "  avast  heaving,"  lash 
the  heels  in  the  shoes  securely,  shift  the  forward  heel  and 
shoe  tackles,  cast  off  the  bulwark  lashings,  and  transport 
the  sheers  to  just  forward  of  the  mizzen  partners  (having 
previously  wet  the  deck),  by  moving  one  leg  at  a  time.    The 


<I8  MASTING. 

sheers  should  have  a  slight  rake  aft,  and  the  main  purchase 
hang  plumb  with  the  mast-hole.  The  fall  may  lead  through 
a  blocK  toggled  through  the  ward-room  sky-li^ht  and  thence 
to  the  capstan.  When  the  sheers  are  in  position,  set  up  the 
after  head  and  belly  guys,  leading  to  the  quarters  ;  ana  the 
forward  ones,  leading  well  forward  ;  set  taut  the  th wartship 
tackle,  and  pass  the  bulwark  lashings,  or  substitute  for  it  a 
good  tackle — the  main  object  of  which  is  to  prevent  the 
opposite  heel  from  rising  when  raising  the  mast  from  the 
water.  Now  overhaul  down  outside  the  main  purchase  and 
toggle  to  the  garland  on  the  mizzen-mast.  Fig.  271, 
Plate  42. 

Tlie  r>er*i*icl«:.  It  may  occur  that  the  angle  of 
the  sheers  with  the  deck,  before  raising,  is  so  small  that 
the  main  purchase  will  not  be  effective,  in  which  case 
it  will  be  necessary  to  start  them  up  with  a  derrick,  as 
follows  : 

A  small  stout  spar  (say  a  stump  top-gallant  mast)  is 
placed  between  the  cross  of  the  sheer-forks,  where  it  is  re- 
tained by  a  loose  lashing.  Hook  a  stout  tackle  from  the 
head  of  this  spar  to  the  sneers,  and  attach  two  other  (cant- 
ing and  heel)  jiggers  together  with  head-guys,  as  in  Fig. 
272,  Plate  43.  With  these,  get  it  erect,  slushing  the  spar 
and  the  forks  at  their  points  of  contact.  Now,  with  the 
assistance  of  the  tackle,  the  head  of  the  sheers  c&n  be 
elevated  to  a  considerable  degree,  and  the  main  purchase 
made  to  act,  at  an  an^le  sufficiently  great,  to  raise  the 
sheers  without  further  difficulty. 

Gretting-  in  tlie  Lo>vev  l^Ja wt  k.  The  mizzen 
mast  is  taken  in  first,  because  the  breadth  of  beam  is  less 
aft,  and  the  sheers,  as  they  are  transported  forward  spread 
the  heels  and  tauten  the  sneer  head  lashings  ;  and  for  the 
reason,  that  getting  in  the  foremast  last,  the  sneers  may  be 
better  secured  and  raked  for  getting  in  the  bowsprit. 

Tlie  Oartancl,  Fig.  273,  if  used,  should  be  of  good 
four-inch  rope,  made  selvageo  fashion,  marling  it  with  small 
stuflf.  It  is  lashed  on  the  forward  side  of  the  mast  about 
six-tenths  from  the  tenon,  so  that  the  mast  will  hang  a  little 
heel  heavy.  The  distance  from  the  heel  must  in  any  event 
be  such  that  the  garland  may  not  take  in  the  partners  be- 
fore the  heel  is  landed.  The  garland  lashing  is  passed  as 
in  Fig.  273.  After  passing  enough  turns,  dog  the  ends 
down  the  forward  part  of  the  mast  and  seize  them  together. 
The  garland  should  be  lashed  on  before  the  mast  is  put  in 
the  water,  not  only  for  the  greater  convenience,  but  the 
subsequent  wetting  tautens  the  lashings  very  considerably. 
If  the  small  purchase  is  used — as  in  getting  in  the  main  and 
foremasts,  its  garland  is  placed  on  the  mast  as  far  above  the 
main  garland,  as  the  small  purchase  block  is  lashed  on 
above  the  main.  If  practicable,  the  lower  purchase  blocks 
are  lashed  to  the  mast  and  the  garlands  dispensed  with. 


MASTING.  (il> 


To  talce  lii  t lic^  >IizKe]iL->f;a^st9  Fig.  271.  Tow 
the  mizzen-mast  alon^ide  with  the  head  aft.  Having  over- 
hauled down  the  main  purchase  abaft,  shove  the  two  eyes 
of  the  lower  block  strap  through  the  garland  and  toggle  it, 
usine  a  small  lashing  to  s^uard  against  slipping. 

^Man  the  capstan  and  "heave  around,  observing  that 
the  skids  and  mats,  or  whatever  has  been  placed  to  protect 
the  ship's  side  from  chafing,  are  properly  adjusted.  When 
the  mast-head  is  up  with  the  gunwale,  "avast  heaving," 
lash  a  couple  of  stout  single  blocks  to  the  tenon,  one  on  each 
side,  and  reeve  girtlines,  taking  the  precaution  to  knot  the 
ends  together  to  prevent  unreeving.  Put  a  couple  of  good 
straps  around  the  mast,  just  above  the  futtock  band,  for 
pendant  tackles,  and  bend  the  canting  girtline,  froip  the 
sheer-head  to  the  mast,  just  below  the  bibbs  ;  sway  up  again 
until  high  enough  ;  ease  the  heel  inboard  by  a  jigger,  com- 
ing up  the  belly  guy,  which  must  be  set  up  agam.  Pull 
up  on  the  canting  line  and  point  the  mast  fair  for  stepping, 
wipe  the  heel  dry,  and  white-lead  the  tenon  and  mortise, 
have  hands  on  the  gun-deck  to  keep  the  mast  on  the  right 
slue,  and  carpenters  on  the  berth-deck  to  attend  at  the  step, 
lower  away  and  step  the  mast.  Sway  up  three  pendant 
tackles  and  hook  them  to  the  straps  aoout  the  mast- 
head— the  two  at  the  side  set  up  in  the  channels,  and  one 
fore-and-aft  to  act  as  a  stay ;  set  taut  the  tackles  and 
wedge  the  mast  temporarilv.  When  nearly  stepped,  a 
stout  strap  and  heaver  may  be  used  to  get  the  mast  on  the 
right  slue. 

Come  up  the  purchases  and  take  off  the  garlands.  Cast 
off  the  bulwark  lashing,  man  the  guys,  shoe  and  heel 
tackles,  and  transport  the  sheers,  one  leg  at  a  time,  observ- 
ing to  wet  the  decks  and  come  up  the  thwartship  tackle  in 
the  wake  of  obstructions  ;  get  them  a  little  forward  of  the 
main  partners,  rake  and  secure  them  as  before. 

If  the  sheers  are  high  enough  or  can  be  made  available 
by  spanning  the  fork  above  the  sheer-head  lashing,  send  up 
the  tressle-trees,  &c.,  of  each  mast,  before  transporting 
them  to  take  in  the  rest. 

Take  the  main  and  foremast  in,  in  the  same  manner, 
with  the  additional  use  of  the  small  purchase. 

Should  the  sheers  prove  too  short,  the  fork  above  the 
lashing  may  be  spanned  by  a  stout  rope  and  the  upper  block 
of  the  small  purchase  lashed  to  the  span.  If  the  garland 
takes  in  the  partners  before  the  mast  is  stepped,  tlie  heel 
may  be  rested  on  blocks,  or  stout  planks,  the  mast  steadied  by 
the  guys  and  the  garland  shifted  higher.  Should  the  sheer- 
legs  be  found  too  slender  and  to  complain,  a  spar  may  be 
lashed  across  from  one  to  the  other,  in  the  wake  of  the 
guys. 

When  both  purchases  are  employed  in  getting  in  heavy 
masts,  a  good  plan,  and  one  which  obviates  the  necessity  of 


70  MASTING. 

heavers  on  the  heeler,  is  to  lash  the  garlands,  a  little  on  each 
side,  and  not  in  the  same  right  line  with  the  axis  of  the 
mast.  Then,  bv  slacking  one  purchase  and  holding  on  the 
other,  it  may  be  slued  at  pleasure.  The  position  of  the 
small  garland  should  be  at  the  distance  of  its  purchase 
block,  from  that  of  the  large  one,  on  the  sheers,  above  the 
main,  so  that  the  falls  cannot  come  two  blocks  except  at 
the  same  time. 

When,  in  dismasting,  a  mast  is  jammed  in  the  step,  a 
gentle  roll  given  to  the  ship  will  start  it. 

To  «-et  in  tli<-  I  Jowsspi-it,  Fiff.  276  A,  Plate  44. 
Transport  the  sheers  as  far  forward  as  the  bows  will  permit ; 
send  a  hand  to  the  sheer  head,  bend  a  girtline  to  the  small 
purchase  block  and  light  it  up ;  unlasTi  and  shift  it  to  the 
forward  side  of  the  sheer  head.  Pass  a  strap  around  the 
foremast  head,  to  which  hook  the  double  block  of  a  large 
tackle  ;  the  other  block  take  aft  and  set  well  taut.  Lash  a 
couple  of  large  blocks  to  the  foremast  head  ;  middle  a  haw- 
ser and  clove-hitch  it  around  the  sheer  head,  reeve  the  ends 
through  the  blocks  at  the  foremast  head,  lead  them  aft 
and  set  them  up ;  take  aft  the  forward  head-guys,  which, 
with  the  after  ones,  are  to  be  set  up,  and  the  forward  belly 
guys  to  the  cat-head ;  hook  the  after-shoe  and  heel-tackles 
forward  and  set  them  taut.  Rake  the  sheers  over  the  bows 
so  that  the  main  purchase  will  clear  the  billet-head. 

The  bowsprit  is  towed  under  the  bows,  with  the  head  for- 
ward, the  cap  on,  and  the  main  garland  lashed  on  a  little 
over  one-third  its  length  out  from  the  heel,  or  so  that  it  will 
hair^  head  heavy.  The  small  garland,  lash  on  just  inside 
of  til  '^.  cap.  Have  guys  or  whips  from  eye-bolts  in  the  cap 
to  the  cat-heads,  and  an  eye-bolt  in  the  heel  for  the  bedding 
tackle  which  leads  from  the  bitts  on  the  gun-deck  out 
through  the  bowsprit  partners. 

In  getting  in  a  bowsprit  in  modern  vessels,  the  thrust  of 
the  heel,  owmg  to  the  necessary  lead  of  the  purchases  may 
be  so  great  as  to  push  the  heel  inboard  too  soon,  before  it  is 
pointed  fair  for  placing.  To  diminish  the  thrust  and  get  the 
spar  on  the  right  slue  use  a  fore-and-aft  outrigger  (stunsail 
vard)  with  one  end  against  the  neck  of  the  strap  on  the 
lower  purchase  block,  and  the  other  controlled  by  two 
heel  tackles. 

Sway  away  on  the  main  and  small  purchases,  steadying 
the  spar  by  the  guys.  When  the  heel  is  high  enough,  nook 
the  bedding  tackle.  Wipe  the  tenon  dry,  and  white-lead  it 
and  the  mortise.  Keep  fast  the  small  purchase  ;  ease  away 
on  the  main  and  bowse  on  the  bedding-tackle  and  cat-head 
guys,  and  get  the  bowsprit  in  its  place.  Come  up  the  pur- 
chases and  guys,  and  unlash  the  garlands. 

The  bowsprit  rests  on  the  stem  nead,  between  the  knight- 
heads,  and  steps  in  the  bowsprit  partners — on  the  gun-deck 
in  a  frigate  and  on  the  spar-deck  in  a  sloop-of-war.     It 


MASTIN(i.  71 

comes  inboard  about  one-third  its  length.  If  the  cap  was 
not  on,  it  may  be  shipped  by  means  of  a  small  pair  of 
sheers,  stepped  on  the  bees. 

If,  by  taking  the  forward  head  gujs  well  aft,  and  setting 
them  up,  the  support  is  found  sufficient,  the  hawser  at  the 
sheer  head  may  be  dispensed  with. 

To  I>i«iiiantle  tlie  Shoei's.  Proceed  now 
to  dismantle  the  sheers.  Take  the  after  heel  tackles  aft, 
come  up  the  bulwark  lashing,  and  rouse  the  heels  aft,  easing 
away  the  forward  heel  tackles,  the  head  guys  and  the 
hawser,  and  lower  away  until  the  sheer  heads  rest  on  the 
kni^ht-heads ;  strip  the  sheer  legs,  cast  oflf  the  sheer  head 
lashing  and  get  each  leg  aft  in  the  gangway  ;  unreeve  the 
hawser  from  the  foremast-head  and  send  down  the  single 
blocks.  Put  straps  on  the  ends  of  the  sheer  legs  and  hook 
the  fore  and  mam  pendant  tackles  to  them,  liaving  the 
opposite  tackles  set  well  taut.  Hook  to  the  same  straps, 
jiggers  leading  in  from  the  channels.  Pull  up  on  tne 
t^kles,  rouse  out  by  the  jiggers  and  lower  the  sheer  leg 
overboard,  taking  care  to  have  skids  in  the  proper  places  to 
prevent  chafe,  or  the  spars  taking  against  the  dead-eyes 
m  the  channels.  Or,  the  sheer-legs  may  be  got  down  by 
lashing  their  heads  separately  to  the  lower  mast,  casting 
oflf  the  cross  lashing  and  lowering  them  by  means  of  the 
pendant  tackles. 

In  masting  or  dismasting  with  one's  own  resources,  it  is 
necessary  to  measure  the  lengths  for  slinging  the  masts 
very  accurately,  so  as  to  make  sure  of  carrying  the  heel 
clear  of  the  iipper  deck,  and  yet  avoid,  if  possible,  top- 
heaviness.  Wnen  the  spars  are  shork  for  the  work  (as  in 
the  case  of  the  topmasts  of  a  high  ship),  the  masts  must  be 
sluDg  so  low  as  to  make  top-heaviness  unavoidable.  In 
^oing  out,  when  the  heel  of  the  mast  is  near  the  upper- 
deck  partners,  tackles  are  put  on  above  from  each  side  of 
the  upper-deck,  and  one  strong  and  long  one,  led  from 
below  tnrough  the  lower  mast  holes,  is  lashed  to  the  heel, 
and  well  cleated  each  way.  The  tackles  are  tautened  until, 
the  heel  being  clear  of  the  partners,  they  are  eased 
away,  and  the  mast  lowered  head  foremost  overboard. 
Fig.  274. 

In  coming  in,  the  mast  is  slung  above  the  balancing 
point  and  hoisted  with  an  extra  taclde  alongside  the  sheers  ; 
the  purchases  are  then  lashed  low  enough  down,  and  the 
heel  is  confined  to  the  side  by  the  turns  oi  a  greased  hawser 
passed  through  the  ports  ;  or,  in  a  merchant  ship,  through 
the  ballast-hole.  When  the  heel  is  nearly  up  to  tne  highest 
bight,  deck-tackles  are  lashed  on  from  all  sides,  which  are 
cleated  in  their  place.  These  are  tautened  as  the  mast 
rises,  and  guy  the  heel,  when  high  enough,  into  the  mast- 
hole. 

In  handling  a  bowsprit  with  your  own  resources  use  the 
jibboom  and  spare  topmast  for  sheer  legs  ;  or,  if  the  fore- 


7t  MASTINd. 

topmast  is  sent  on  deck,  it  may  be  used  as  one  of  the  le^s. 
The  sheer  head  may  be  supported  by  the  foretop  pendants 
thus :  Each  pendant  is  talcen  through  its  top  block  at  the 
lower  mast  head,  thence  through  a  top  block  on  the  upper 
side  of  each  sheer  head  in  waSe  of  the  lashing,  and  made 
fast  at  the  foremast-head.  The  after  ends  of  tne  pendants 
have  the  top  tackles  clapped  on  to  them,  led  from  as  far  aft 
as  possible.  Take  the  usual  precautions  in  shoring  the 
decKS,  etc.  Bring  the  inner  purchase  as  close  in  to  the 
heel  of  the  bowsprit  as  the  housing  permits,  and  the  outer 
purchase  well  inside  the  cap.  Use  the  spar  above  described 
to  counteract  the  thrust  in  coming  in.  The  position  of  the 
purchase  blocks  on  the  bowsprit  is  determined  by  the  length 
of  the  sheer  legs,  which  in  this  case  would  be  comparatively 
short.  The  bowsprit  might  have  to  come  up  athwartships, 
when  suspended,  to  clear  the  billet  head.  This  slueing  is 
effected  by  the  tackle  from  one  of  the  catheads  ;  the  tackle 
from  the  opposite  cathead  will  slue  the  spar  fore  and  aft 
again  when  above  the  billet  head,  the  heel  tackle  being 
previously  hooked  to  assist  in  placing  the  bowsprit. 

A  long  topgallant  forecastle  wiU  make  it  diflScult  to 
handle  the  bowsprit  with  improvised  sheers  alone,  as  they 
are  too  short  to  get  sufficient  cant  and  make  the  main  pur- 
chase clear  the  billet  head.  In  that  case  the  sheers  may  be 
assisted  by  a  topmast  used  as  a  derrick.  Fig.  276  B,  Plate 
44,  shows  such  a  derrick,  the  sheers  being  represented  as 
formed  of  two  lower  yards,  fished. 

Vessels  with  long  topgallant  forecastles  are  likely  to 
have  comparatively  light  head  booms  and  short  bowsprits. 
In  such  cases  a  topmast  alone,  used  as  a  derrick,  might  suf- 
fice to  get  in  the  bowsprit. 

A  neat  performance  in  the  history  of  Masting  on  one's 
own  resources  was  in  the  case  of  an  English  line-of -battle 
ship,  which,  having  lost  her  own  mainmast,  helped  herself 
in  one  operation  to  that  of  a  captured  frigate.  Sheers  were 
formed  of  the  main-topmasts,  whose  heads  were  supported 
by  guys  set  up  to  the  fore-topmasts,  which  were  rigged  out 
through  the  main  deck  ports  on  the  off-side.  A  derrick 
was  made  of  the  main  yard,  which  was  secured  at  its  lower 
quarter  to  the  sheer  leg  on  the  working  side,  the  pressure 
at  this  point  being  relieved  by  an  athwart-ship  spar,  thrust- 
ing outward,  by  means  of  a  tackle  led  across  the  deck.  The 
purchase  on  the  upper  arm  of  the  derrick  took  the  mast  out, 
the  frigate  was  dropped  astern,  the  mast  lowered  until  the 
sheer  purchase  "looked"  well  up  and  down,  when  that 
tackle  Drought  it  in.     Fig.  275,  Plate  43. 

Besides  carrying  duplicates  of  some  of  the  important 
spars,  vessels  of  war  are  supplied  with  iron  fishes  of  various 
sizes.  With  these  and  the  heavy  planking,  &c.,  furnished  in 
the  outfit,  there  is  a  large  amount  of  material  available  for 
effecting  repairs  to  the  spars  and  masts  when  necessary,  or 
for  rigging  jury  masts  and  yards. 


Plate  45 


BMB.srs 


fM    1    «    *    ♦    ♦    <    7    »    »   tf 


•CALI  OF  FEET  AND  INCHES. 


THE   RUDDER.  73 


THE  RUDDER. 

Fig.  "277,  Plate  45,  represents  the  ordinary  forrn  of  rudder 
of  wooden  vessels.  Around  the  pintles,  A  A  A,  the  wood  is 
removed  so  as  to  allow  the  rudder  to  ship  on  tiie  gudgeons. 
C  C  C.  In  all  but  the  topmost  space  the  wood  is  removed 
so  as  to  leave  a  vacant  place,  as  shown  in  the  figure,  but 
by  the  topmost  pintle  the  wood  is  cut  square,  as  seen  in  the 
figure  at  d.  This  is  in  order  to  admit  a  small  piece  of  oak 
under  the  upper  pintle  after  the  rudder  has  been  shipped. 
This  piece  of  oak  is  called  a  wood  lock  (d),  and  is  intended 
to  prevent  the  rudder  from  unshipping.  Under  the  second 
gudeeon  a  strong  cleat  is  sometimes  placed,  on  which  the 
pintle  partly  rests.  This  relieves  the  gudgeons  of  much 
strain. 

For  modem  vessels  of  war  the  rudder  consists  of  a  frame 
of  cast  iron  or  steel  of  the  required  shape,  covered  with 
metal  plates  riveted  to  both  sides  of  the  frame ;  the  space 
between  the  plates  being  filled  with  wood  or  some  light 
material. 

BAck  -  Olistins.  It  is  frequently  necessary  for 
steamers  to  back  against  the  helm;  but  in  doing  so  the 
strain  brought  on  the  rudder  and  its  fitments  is  immense. 

Tug-boats  guard  against  such  accidents  by  using  back- 
chains.  These  are  cnain  pendants  which  attach  to  the 
after-part  of  the  rudder  and  to  some  point  under  the 
counter,  one  each  side,  and  of  such  a  length  as  to  give 
ample  support  to  the  rudder  when  backing  with  the  helm 
hard  over. 

Instead  of  these  chain  pendants,  many  tugs  and  small 
steam  craft  have  chocks  bolted  to  the  rudder-post  on  each 
side,  and  of  such  shape  as  to  limit  the  motion  of  the  rudder 
to  an  angle  of  45""  in  either  direction. 


CHAPTER    VIII. 

STANDING    RIGGING.* 

The  standing  rigging  of  a  ship  consists  of  a  quantity  of 
ropes  for  the  support  of  the  masts,  yards,  and  booms. 

Each  mast  is  supported  from  forward  by  stays,  from  aft 
by  backstays,  and  sideways  by  shrouds.  The  foremast  is 
supported  in  a  great  measure  irom  the  bowsprit,  therefore 
theoowsprit  has  a  number  of  extra  stays,  called  bobstays. 
These,  and  such  ropes  as  are  stationary,  constitute  the  stand- 
ing rigging. 

The  standing  rigging  of  modern  vessels  is  composed  of 
steel  wire  rope. 

Wire  rope  now  in  use  in  the  U.  S.  Navy  for  standing 

*  rigging,  is  right-handed,  of   six  strands.     The   individual 

wires  forming  the  strand  are  of  a  size  (larger  or  smaller) 

corresponding  to  the  full  size  of  the  rope,  ranging  from 

Xos.  U  to  1  •.>  A.  W.  G. 

In  the  Navy,  all  wire  rope  is  measured  and  designated  by 
its  circumference,  but  bridge  builders,  and  others  than  sea- 
men, often  use  the  diameter  to  designate  the  size  of  wire 
rope. 

Wire  rope  is  reeled  for  stowage  or  transportation  on 
strong  wooden  reels.  To  take  wire  rope  off  a  reel,  cast 
loose  the  outside  end.  which  is  secured  to  the  reel,  and  make 
it  fast  to  a  bolt  in  the  floor  of  rigging-loft  or  deck..  Place 
the  reel  on  its  edges,  with  the  rope  end  underneath,  roll  th(> 
reel  along  the  floor  to  a  point  a  little  beyond  the  length  re- 
quired, then  clap  on  a  strap  and  tackle  near  the  reel,  leav- 
ing enough  space  between  the  strap  and  the  secured  end  to 
measure  off  the  required  length.  Haul  the  rope  taut  along 
the  floor,  place  a  mark  close  up  to  the  secured  end.  Then 
measure  off  from  the  mark  the  number  of  feet  and  inches 
required.  Make  allowance  for  end  enough  to  work  either 
for  splice  or  to  turn  up,  and  place  within  an  inch  of  each 
other  two  strong  bindings  or  ivhippings  to  keep  the  ends 
of  wire  in  place  when  it  is  sawed  off. 

If  the  wire  is  to  be  served  the  full  length,  it  would  be 
better  to  get  it  on  a  stretch  before  cutting,  but  if  the  ends 
are  to  be  spliced  into  eyes,  then  with  a  hack-saw,  kept  well 
oiled,  saw  the  wire  in  two  between  the  whippings,  secure 
the  end  of  the  rope  to  the  reel  and  put  it  away. 

*  For  much  nf  the  information  concerning  wire  rigging,  our  thanks  are  due 
to  Boatswain  John  A.  Brisco,  U.  S.  N. 

74 


Plate  46 


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RIGGING.  75 

Should  it  be  required  to  take  all  the  wire  from  the  reel, 
then  the  reel  will  be  rolled  as  far  as  circumstances  admit, 
back  and  forth,  till  all  the  rope  is  oflf.  The  rope  can  then  be 
taken  up  and  put  on  a  stretch  just  as  it  lies  upon  the  floor 
without  taking  turns  out  for  stretching. 

A  piece  of  |-inch  iron  chain,  about  3  feet  lon.^,  with  a 
ring  in  each  end,  one  ring  sufficiently  lar;^6  to  let  the  other 
reeve  through  it,  is  the  best  strap  to  be  used  in  putting 
heavy  wire  rope  on  a  stretch.  Plenty  of  protection  should 
be  put  on  the  rope  to  prevent  the  chain  from  injuring  the 
wire. 

Wire  rope,  not  galvanized,  is  best  protected  from 
weather  ana  wear  if  painted  with  boiled  linseed  oil  and  red 
lead,  well  mixed,  and  filled  well  into  the  lays,  wormed  and 
parcelled  with  cotton  sheeting,  so  cut  and  laid  on  that  the 
overlapping  will  give  two  thicknesses  over  all  the  rope,  then 
painted  again  and  served  tight  and  close  over  all.  If 
properly  done,  this  will  keep  out  water  for  years. 

Cii-ttiiig-  fUg-^ing-  l>^  I>i'alt«  Having  an 
accurate  draft  of  the  null  and  spars  of  a  ship,  Fi^.  284, 
Plate  46,  the  measures  may  be  reaaily  taken  and  the  rigging 
cut  and  fitted  so  that  it  can  be  sent  aloft  as  soon  as  the 
masts  are  ready  to  receive  it.  It  not  unf requently  happens 
that  a  gang  of  ringing  is  completed  and  triced  up  out  of  the 
way,  in  the  rigging  loft,  long  before  the  ship  is  ready  to 
take  it. 

Rigging  drafts  are  usually  made  on  an  ^-inch  scale  (one- 
eighth  inch = one  foot). 

The  half  beam  at  each  mast  is  usually  noted  on  the  draft 
at  the  respective  channels,  but  the  location  of  dead-eyes 
seldom,  and  therefore  the  rigger  must  ^et  the  measurements 
from  the  vessel.  As  no  beam  draft  is  now  furnished,  an 
qdjustable  beam  scale,  Fig.  287,  Plate  48,  is  employed  (which 
is  graduated  to  the  same  scale  as  is  the  draft)  with  a  sliding 
rest  and  set  screw.  Another  adjustable  beam  scale,  Fig.  285, 
is  in  the  form  of  a  hollow  square  of  metal,  graduated  on  its 
four  exterior  sides  to  different  fractional  parts  of  an  inch. 
The  sliding  rest  for  the  point  of  the  dividers  may  be  applied 
to  any  one  of  the  four  sides  to  correspond  with  the  scale 
used  in  the  draft. 

Before  working  on  the  draft  scale,  measure  carefully  the 
square  of  the  mast-head  iust  in  line  with  the  upper  side  of 
bolster.  The  measure  oi  the  square  is  used  to  fit  the  pen- 
dants, but  for  eyes  of  the  lower  rigging,  five  square  of  the 
actual  girth  measure  is  used.  The  mast-heads  are  rounded 
for  wire  rigging,  iron  or  composition  plates  being  let  in 
and  secured  on  each  comer  oi  the  mast-head  to  round  it 
oflE. 

Lowei?  ]Mast-liead.  Pendants.  Should  bp 
fitted  long  enough  to  hang  one  foot  below  the  f uttock  band, 
and  both  legs  are  now  fitted  the  same  length,  with  an  iron 


76  RIGGING. 

thimble  and  large  link  in  each  end.  Fig.  2H(),  Plate  47.  In 
measuring  for  lower  mast-head  pendants,  find  the  distance 
from  top  of  trestle-tree  to  one  foot  below  f uttock  band,  add 
one  thickness  of  trestle-tree,  and  half  square  of  mast-head, 
which,  doubled,  will  be  the  combined  length  of  starboard 
and  port  leg.  Allow  enough  on  each  end  to  turn  in  the  thim- 
ble. Now  paint,  worm,  parcel,  paint  again  and  serve,  double 
serve  with  spun-yarn  the  place  retjuired  for  the  thimble,  and 
splice  in  the  thimble.  Double  serve  from  centre  of  pendant 
to  a  distance  equal  to  one-half  the  mast-head,  plus  the  thick- 
ness and  depth  of  trestle-tree  each  way. 

When  this  is  finished  take  tarred  flax  parcelling,  begin 
just  above  where  the  double  service  ends  and  parcel  up  to 
the  centre  of  pendant.  This  is  called  the  heading.  From 
the  centre  mark  of  each  pendant,  lay  off  and  mark  each  way 
one  half  the  square  of  the  mast-head  as  the  place  for  the 
cross-lashings.  Marl  on  the  parcelling  with  strong  marline, 
the  hitches  not  more  than  half  an  inch  apart,  being  careful 
to  put  no  hitches  where  the  cross-lashings  are  to  come. 
Take  two  pieces  of  wood  about  three  inches  wide  and  one 
inch  thick,  equal  in  length  to  one  square  of  mast-head,  lay 
the  two  pendants  side  by  side  to  verify  the  marks,  then 
spread  them  apart  till  the  pieces  of  wood  can  be  placed 
across  from  pendant  to  pendant,  just  outside  the  marks 
where  the  cross-lashing  is  to  go,  allowing  room  to  (comfort- 
ably work  the  lashing.  See  Plate  47,  Fig.  2S(i.  With  a  piece 
of  strong  seizing  stuff  with  a  long  eye,  proceed  to  put  on  a 
regular  round  seizing  from  pendant  to  pendant,  being  cart»- 
ful  to  keep  outside  of  the  mark,  or  the  sciuare  will  be  too 
small  to  go  over  the  mast-head.  Having  i)assed  the  riding 
turns  of  the  lashing,  secure  its  end.  Then  around  the  cro^s- 
lashing  close  up  to  the  pendants  put  a  good  seizing  of  house- 
line,  being  careful  to  bring  all  parts  of  the  cross-lashing  close 
together,  and  marl  the  lashing  together,  parcel  with  thin 
stuff  and  woold  with  a  strand,  then  with  tarred  flax  parcel- 
ling protect  the  lashing,  cover  well  the  turns  around  the 
pendants  and  marl  all  down.  Leave  the  wooden  strips  in 
till  the  pendants  are  about  to  be  put  over  the  mast-head. 

A  link  is  put  into  the  end  of  the  pendant  because  it  is 
so  much  easier  hooked  into  than  in  the  thimble  in  the  stiff 
wire. 

The  mizzen  pendants  are  of  smaller  rope  than  the  fore 
and  main,  and  can  be  fitted  in  the  same  manner,  with  a  cut 
splice,  or  spanned  to  a  pair  of  odd  shrouds,  as  is  sometimes 
the  case.  When  pendants  are  to  be  fitted  in  the  latter  way, 
the  odd  shroud  and  pendants  spanned  together  go  on  the 
mast-head  first.  The  odd  shroud  is  fitted  straight  and  passes 
over  the  bolsters  from  side  to  side  abaft,  as  if  it  were  an 
after-pendant,  and  the  span  is  fitted  as  above  described  for 
double  pendants.  In  small  vessels,  and  when  there  is  no 
odd  shroud,  the  mizzen  pendants  are  fitted  with  a  cut  splice, 


CAlHTOHiln; 


RIGGING.  77 

the  cut  eye  to  be  one  foot  longer  at  each  end  than  the  eye 
for  a  shroud,  with  ^ood  seizings  at  the  proper  places. 
The  eyes  are  purposely  made  too  large  to  prevent  injury  to 
the  splice  in  opening  the  eye. 

To  ]M[ea«ri.i*e  tox»  IVo.  1,  oi*  Fix^st  A-*aii? 
of  SIii*ou.cIh.  These  comprise  the  swifter  and  next 
shroud,  or,  as  called  by  riggers,  "  forward  leg"  and  "after 
leg,"  and  they  go  over  the  mast-head  next  after  the  pend- 
ants and  always  on  the  starboard  side. 

The  beam-scale.  Figs.  285  or  287,  being  adjusted  to  the 
mark  representing  the  half -beam  of  the  vessel,  minus  half 
the  diameter  of  the  mast,  place  it  on  the  draft  just  at  the 
upper  edge  of  channel  at  the  dead-eye  of  the  first  shroud. 
Place  one  point  of  the  dividers  at  the  top  line  of  trestle-tree 
near  the  forward  side  of  mast-head  ana  the  other  point  on 
the  beam-scale  at  the  mark  indicating  the  half -beam,  apply 
the  dividers  to  the  rule  and  observe  the  number  of  feet  and 
inches  it  gives  according  to  the  scale  on  which  the  draft  is 
made  ;  this  will  give  the  length  of  the  forward  shroud,  or 
•'forward  leg,"  of  No.  1  pair,  without  the  eve.  Then  pro- 
ceed to  measure  for  the  next  shroud  or  after-leg  in  the  same 
manner,  moving  the  beam-scale  to  the  second  dead-eye. 
There  will  be  very  little  difference  in  the  length  of  the  two 
first  legs.  Having  the  length  of  both  legs  of  No.  1  pair  ol 
shrouds,  take  their  sum  and  add  five  squares  of  the  mast- 
head, plus  the  diameter  of  the  lower  mast-head  pendants, 
as  the  shrouds  w^ill  *'pile,"  or  rise,  that  much  on  the  mast- 
head.    This  will  give  the  extreme  length  of  No.  1  pair. 

Having  the  rope  on  a  stretch,  hang  it,  with  tricing  lines 
at  short  intervals  to  prevent  sagging.  Commence  measur- 
ing from  a  mark  near  the  strap  on  the  end,  the  length  cf  the 
forward  leg.  Then  continue  along  to  measure  five  squares 
of  the  mast-head,  being  careful  to  leave  at  the  centre  (which 
will  be  the  centre  of  eye)  a  special  mark,  usually  a  long 
strand.  Then  measure  and  mark  the  after-leg,  and  in  the 
same  manner  measure  and  mark  all  the  other  shrouds,  not 
forgetting  to  add  for  the  second  pair  of  shrouds  twice  the 
thickness  of  a  finished  eye ;  for  the  third  pair  three  times 
the  thickness,  &c.,  as  each  succeeding  shroud  must  '*  pile  " 
that  much  in  rising  above  the  others  on  the  mast-head.  As 
each  pair  of  shrouds  is  measured,  marked  and  cut,  it  is 
l)ainted  from  end  to  end  with  red  lead  and  boiled  oil  [being 
particular  to  fill  well  in  the  lay],  wormed  and  parcelled  with 
new  cotton  sheeting.  In  putting  on  this  parcelling  com- 
mence from  the  end  of  each  leg,  working  towards  the  cen- 
tre of  eye.  The  parcelling  should  be  so  put  on  that  the  rope 
will  be  protected  with  two  thicknesses  at  every  point ;  paint 
over  the  parcelling,  and  serve  from  end  to  end  with  spun 
yam,  commencing  to  serve  from  the  centre  and  serving 
towards  the  ends.  Measure  off  from  the  centre  mark  each 
way  the  half  eye,  which  gives  the  place  for  the  upper  turn 


78  KftGIxN^a. 

of  the  eye-seizine.  Start  two  feet  below  these  eye-seizing 
marks,  on  each  leg,  and  parcel  with  tarred  flax  canvas  to 
the  center  of  eye,  and  serve  over  with  roundline.  Double 
serve  the  end  of  each  shroud  from  the  place  of  the  quarter- 
seizing  for  its  dead-eye.  Bring  the  two  ends  of  the  shroud 
together  and  break  the  eye  around  till  the  two  eye-seizing 
marks  come  firmly  together.  Mark  one  foot  below  the  eye- 
seizing  on  each  leg,  and  with  strong  ilax  parcelling  put  on 
the  heading,  which  is  just  the  same  as  parcelling,  always 
commencing  below  and  working  up  to  the  centre  on  both 
legs  so  that  the  edge  of  the  ''heading"  will  overlap  and 
form  a  *' shingling,"  which  it  is  often  termed.  Use  the  sel- 
vage edge  of  parcelling  stuff  for  shingling,  leaving  the  sel- 
vage out ;  this  makes  smooth  work  that  will  not  fray  out. 
Se(;ure  the  heading  in  place  by  marline  hitches,  which 
should  be  on  top  not  more  than  one-half  inch  apart,  leaving 
a  space  for  the  eye-seizing  without  hitches.  Put  on  the  eye- 
seizing. 

Should  there  be  an  odd  shroud  in  the  fore  or  main  rig- 
ging, it  is  fitted  with  an  eye-splice,  and  goes  over  the  mast- 
head last,  the  eye  to  be  splicea  one  foot  longer  than  the  eye 
of  a  pair  of  shrouds,  and  seized  together  above  the  splice 
so  as  to  have  the  same  size  as  it  would  have  if  of  a  pair  ;  the 
eye  to  be  double  served  and  headed  in  the  same  manner  as 
all  the  others. 

jVEizxen  IRig-g-ingr  is  fitted  in  the  same  manner  as 
the  fore  and  main,  excepting  in  the  case  of  an  odd  shroud, 
which  is  fitted  ''straignt,"  passing  over  across  the  mast- 
head abaft  and  forming  one  leg  on  each  side,  being  spanned 
at  the  mast-head  with  the  pendants,  of  which  the  mizzen 
has  in  this  case  but  one  on  each  side.  In  large  ships  the 
mizzen  lower  mast-head  pendants  are  often  fitted  witn  four 
legs,  in  the  same  manner  as  is  tho  fore  and  main. 

Sword  mats  are  put  over  the  service  on  the  ,swifters  (for- 
ward shrouds)  pf  lower  rigging. 

UowHpi-it  TMg-g-ing-.  Bobstays  are  now  made  of 
iron  chain  shackled  into  the  cutwater  and  set  up  with  four 
scored  hearts  secured  to  bands  on  the  bowsprit.  To  find  the 
length  of  bobstays,  measure  from  the  band  under  the  bow- 
sprit at  the  place  prepared  for  the  upper  heart,  to  the  bolt 
or  link  in  cutwater,  then  find  the  number  of  feet  and  inches 
the  two  hearts  will  occupy  and  the  drift  of  laniard,  add  to- 
gether and  subtract  the  sum  from  the  extreme  length ;  the 
remainder  will  be  the  length  of  the  chains  required  for  the 
bobstays.  Care  should  be  taken  that  the  bobstays  have  the 
same  drift  of  laniard,  as  it  adds  to  the  trimness  of  the  head 
gear. 

13o>vspi:*it  Slii*oxi.<is  are  fitted  of  wire  and  lead 
well  down  on  the  bows,  shackled  to  eye-bolts  and  set  up 
with  three  scored  hearts  on  the  bowsprit.  To  find  the 
length  by  draft,  measure  from  the  band  on  bowsprit  at  the 


RIGGING.  79 

place  marked  to  the  place  in  the  bow,  and  from  the  extreme 
measm-e  deduct  the  arift  of  laniard  and  one  heart.  The  rea- 
son of  but  one  heart  being  deducted,  is  that  the  measure  of 
the  other  allows  for  the  "  carry  out"  of  the  shroud.  Too 
much  care  cslnnot  be  taken  in  fitting  the  gear  and  securing 
the  bowsprit,  as  it  not  only  has  all  the  head  booms  to  sup- 
port, but  in  a  great  measure  the  foremast  with  its  topmast 
and  topgallant  mast,  together  with  the  main  topmast  and 
topgallant  mast. 

Fove  Stays  are  fitted  with  lashing  eye  collars  and 
set  up  with  laniards  and  four  scored  hearts.  Measure  for 
fore  stays  from  the  after-side  of  foremast  head,  about  one 
foot  above  the  trestle-trees,  to  the  place  where  the  lower 
heart  is  to  be,  and  allow  about  three  feet  for  lashing  eyes. 

To  fofm.  the  Collax*  ot'the  Stay.  Suppose 
the  finished  collar  i.;  to  be  twelve  feet,  then  at  fifteen  feet 
from  the  upper  end  of  the  rope  put  on  a  wliipping.  This 
marks  the  crotch  of  the  stay.  Unlay  from  the  end  to  tin* 
whipping,  forming  two  legs  of  three  strands  each;  cut  out 
the  heart  close  to  the  whipping,  and  put  in  another  one- 
third  smaller  than  the  original. 

Work  in  two  strands  eighteen  feet  long  (the  additional 
three  feet  for  tucking  at  crotch)  on  each  side,  thus  giving 
two  legs  of  five  strands  each  and  a  heart.  These  strands 
are  tucked  at  the  crotch  as  in  an  eye  splice.  Eye  splices 
are  worked  in  the  end  of  each  leg  for  lashing  eyes.  The 
lashing  eyes  are  painted,  wormed,  parcelled,  painted,  and 
served  in  the  eye  before  tucking.  Get  the  stay  on  a  stretch 
by  lashing  the  toggles  to  posts  four  or  five  feet  apart,  get  a 
strong  tackle  on  the  end,  heave  it  up  straight  and  trim  the 
splices.  Paint,  worm,  parcel,  paint  again,  and  serve  with 
spun-yarn  from  end  to  end,  being  careful  to  have  a  good 
piece  of  parcelling  laid  through  the  crotch  to  shed  the 
water.  Tnen,  from  four  feet  below  the  crotch,  parcel  with 
tarred  flax  parcelling  to  eyes  of  collar,  and  leather  over  the 
parcelling,  serving  over  the  ends  of  the  leather  and  over 
the  splices.  Having  both  stays  double  served  and  leathered, 
place  one  over  the  other,  being  careful  to  keep  the  crotches 
fair  and  even.  Then  seize  both  stays  together  with  one 
good  heavy  seizing  close  up  to  the  crotch,  and  smaller  ones 
at  every  two  feet  along  the  collars.  Parcel  and  leather 
over  the  seizings.  Double  serve  the  ends  of  fore  stays  to 
eight  feet  above  the  nip  around  the  thimble. 

IVXain  Stay h  are  fitted  in  the  same  manner  as  fore 
stays,  excepting  the  double  service  on  end,  wjiich  is  only 
from  quarter  seizing  around  thimble  to  end.  Sometimes  if 
the  smoke-stack,  when  up,  is  near  the  stays,  a  piece  of 
chain  is  shackled  into  the  stay  just  over  the  stact.  The 
main  stays  generally  set  up  witn  four  scored  hearts,  the 
lower  heart  oeing  secured  to  iron  straps  made  for  the 
purpose,  one  on  each  side  of  the  foremast.    The  iron  rods  or 


80  RIGGING. 

strapsr  lead  down  to  the  berth  deck,  frequently  passintr 
through  the  bitt  standards  and  setting  up  with  a  nut  on 
the  forward  side. 

>Iizzeii  Sta^>'H  are  always  single,  with  the  collars 
fitted  and  lashed,  same  as  fore  or  main  stays.  On  some 
vessels  the  end  is  split  into  tv/o  Icp^s  to  admit  the  main  try- 
sail mast,  and  each  leg  fitted  with  a  thimble  to  set  up  by 
laniard  to  bolts  on  each  side  of  main-mast.  On  others  the 
end  is  turned  up  around  a  thimble  and  set  up  with  three 
scored  hearts  to  the  after-side  of  main-mast. 

The  ends  of  all  stays  turn  up  under  the  standing  parts. 

The  ends  of  all  shrouds  turn  up  inside  the  standing  parts. 

K'txttocli  SliT'oxidtss  are  made  of  rod  iron  set  up 
with  turn-buckles.  The  required  lengths  are  best  obtained 
by  actual  measurement  after  the  top  is  on.  In  small  ships 
futtock  shrouds  are  rattled  down.  Futtock  shrouds  are 
set  up  independently  to  the  top  rim,  and  not  to  the  plates  of 
the  topmast  dead-eyes.  The  lower  ends  secure  to  the 
futtock  band. 

Note. — In  the  above  measurements  for  shrouds  it  is 
assumed  that  by  measuring  from  the  place  of  the  lower 
dead-eye,  on  the  channel,  enough  allowance  is  made  for 
turning  up  the  shroud  around  the  thimble  of  the  upper 
dead-eye.  But  if  the  drift  of  the  laniard  added  to  the 
diameter  of  both  dead-eyes  does  not  allow  enough  shroud 
to  turn  up,  extra  length  must  be  added  for  that  purpose  to 
each  measurement  taken. 

The  amount  allowed  for  turning  up  is  six  feet  for  the 
forward  shroud  of  large  rigging,  a  proportionately  smaller 
amount  for  smaller  rope.  After  shrouds  have  somewhat 
more  turn  up  than  forward  ones,  in  order  to  bring  the  ends 
themselves  parallel  to  the  sheer. 

Upper  dead-eyes  are  usually  in  line  with  or  below  the  rail. 

When  lower  rigging  has  been  set  up  for  some  time,  or 
after  a  ship  has  experienced  heavy  weatner,  it  will  be  found 
that  the  shrouds  will  not  lie  exactly  above  one  another,  but 
settle,  the  necks  of  the  eyes  working  partly  inside  of  each 
other.  The  effect  is  to  slacken  the  rigging,  particularly 
the  after  shrouds,  which  settle  most,  and  which  may  re- 
quire turning  in  again  to  keep  the  dead-eyes  in  line,  a 
diflicult  operation  with  wire  rope.  If  the  allowance  for 
piling  were  two-thirds  of  a  diameter  of  the  shrouds,  instead 
of  a  whole  diameter,  as  at  present,  it  is  believed  that  much 
of  this  inconvenience  could  be  avoided,  although  a  few  of 
the  after  dead-eyes  might  not  come  quite  to  their  places 
when  the  shrouds  are  first  set  up. 

Topmast  ItMg-g-ing-.  To  measure  for  topmast 
shrouds  from  the  scale  draft,  proceed  on  the  same  principle 
as  for  lower  shrouds.  Set  the  beam  scale  to  one-half  the 
spread  of  the  top  from  the  side  of  the  mast,  allowing  for  the 
rounding  of  the  top ;  place  the  beam  scale  on  the  draft 


RIGGING.  81 

abreast  of  the  proper  dead-eye,  and  measure  the  distance 
with  dividers  from  the  top  of  the  sliding  rest  to  the  top  of  the 
trestle-tree.  Add  for  each  pair  the  diameter  of  the  mast  plus 
the  thickness  of  the  trestle-trees,  and  make  the  usual  allow- 
ance for  turning  up  from  the  nip  of  the  dead-eye  thimble. 

Topmast  rigging  is  fitted  in  the  manner  known  as 
^' straight  that  is,  the  shroud  goes  from  the  upper  dead-eye 
on  one  side  over  the  trestle-trees  to  the  upper  dead-eye  on 
the  other,  two  shrouds  being  seized  on  each  side  of  the  mast 
.thus  forming  the  eye,  which  gives  two  '•lifts"  or  thick- 
nesses on  the  mast-head,  with  four  shrouds  on  each  side, 
making  a  snug  and  neat  mast-head.  This  answers  very 
well  for  ships  intended  to  do  most  of  their  cruising  under 
steam ;  but  cannot  be  recommended  when  sail  is  to  be  carried 
to  any  extent.     All  the  strain  comes  on  the  seizing. 

It  should  be  painted,  wormed,  parcelled,  painted  again, 
and  served  the  entire  length.  The  shrouds  double  served 
from  centre  of  eye  to  three  or  four  feet  below  the  futtock- 
staff.  The  length  of  heading  from  centre  of  eye  down  to 
one  foot  below  the  eye-seizing  is  put  on  the  same  as  for  the 
lower  rigging. 

Catharpins  are  of  wire  rope,  wormed,  painted,  and  par- 
celled, and  double  served  throughout ;  fitted  with  eyes  in 
each  end,  and  go  abaft  the  mast  and  seize  together  in  the 
centre.  • 

The  topmast-head '  (burton)  pendants  are  wire  rope,  fitted 
with  a  shackle  in  one  end  and  a  link  in  the  other ;  the 
shackle  connecting  to  a  link  under  the  trestle-trees.  Each 
topmast  has  two  pendants.  The  lower  ends  of  pendants 
hang  six  inches  below  the  catharpin  legs. 

Pendants  are  fitted  the  same  as  topmast  rigging,  without 
double  service,  except  around  their  thimbles. 

Sword  mats  are  substituted  for  double  service  on  the 
Bwifters  of  topmast  rigging. 

Topg-allant  Sliroxi<i».  The  easiest  way  to 
measure  for  length  of  topgallant  shrouds  is  to  draw  a  figure 
to  scale,  showing  the  top,  the  position  of  the  futtock-staff, 
and  position  and  spread  of  cross-tree.  Measure  on  that 
draft  from  the  topgallant  mast-head  to  the  horn  of  the 
cross-tree,  thence  to  futtock -staff  and  into  the  top,  where 
the  shroud  sets  up.  Allow  for  each  pair  enough  for  a  neat 
eye  around  the  funnel,  and  ends  for  turning  up. 

The  shrouds  are  painted,  wormed,  parcelled,  painted 
again,  and  served  the  entire  length,  and  go  over  the  funnel 
on  the  mast-head.  They  are  fitted  in  pairs,  with  eyes  formed 
like  the  eyes  of  lower  rigging,  and  seized  so  as  to  fit  snug 
over  the  funnel. 

The  forward  legs  are  double  served  from  the  centre  of 
eve  to  one  foot  below  the  f uttock-stafli  of  topmast  rigging  ; 
tne  after  leg  is  double  served  from  centre  oi  eye,  three  feet 
down  ;  then  from  a  point  one  foot  above  cross-trees  to  one 


82  RIGGING. 

foot  below  the  f uttock-staff  :  both  legs  are  leathered  in  the 
wake  of  cross-trees,  and  set  up  in  the  top  with  dead-eyes. 
R/oyal  Slix*oiicli§i9  Stay «  and  Backstays* 

Measure  for  each  to  where  it  leads  and  sets  up,  allowing" 
enough  end  to  turn  up  in  the  wake  of  the  thimble. 

Fore. — Are  painted,  wormed,  narcelled,  painted  again* 
and  served  the  entire  length,  and  ntted  to  an  iron  funnel  or 
band,  which  has  three  eyes  at  equal  distances  apart,  one  on 
each  side  and  one  forward.  The  shroud  and  backstay  are 
one  piece,  rove  through  a  side  eye  of  the  band  and  seized 
around  a  thimble  there.  Double  service  one  foot  down  on 
the  shroud  and  backstay  from  centre  of  eye,  double  service 
on  the  shroud,  leathered  in  the  nip  of  the  jack.  The  stay  is 
spliced  around  a  thimble  on  the  lorward  eye  of  the  band, 
double  served  and  leathered  in  the  nip  of  the  flying  jib-boom, 
in  the  clamp  on  the  dolphin  striker,  and  also  where  it  reeves 
through  the  leader  on  the  bowsprit. 

Royal  shrouds  set  up  in  the  top  with  a  purchase  ;  stays 
and  backstays  with  dead-eyes. 

Main, — Fitted  and  set  up  the  same  as  the  fore  ;  double 
service  and  leathered  at  the  nip  of  the  chock  in  the  fore- 
topmast  trestle-trees. 

Mizzen, — Fitted  and  set  up  the  same  as  the  main  ;  double 
service  and  leathered  at  the  nip  of  the  chock  in  the  main- 
topmast  cross-trees. 

IH^oi*e-topiiias5t  Sta,yK.  Measure  from  after 
part  of  topmast-head  to  the  bees,  thence  to  place  of  setting 
up  ;  make  allowance  for  turning  up.  They  are  fitted  sepa- 
rate ;  single  service  throughout ;  collars  the  same  as  fore 
and  main  ;  double  service  From  ten  feet  above  the  bowsprit 
to  one  foot  inside  of  the  leader  under  the  bees ;  leathered 
over  double  service  from  four  feet  above  the  bees  to  eight 
inches  inside  the  leader,  under  the  bees.  Set  up  with  three- 
scored  hearts. 

The  service  on  the  port  (spring)  stay  is  omitted  in  the 
wake  of  the  stay-sail  hanks. 

•Til>  Sta^y.  Measure  from  after  part  of  topmast- 
head  to  where  it  leads  and  sets  up.  To  be  fitted  like  fore- 
topmast  stays,  with  split  collars,  lashing-eyes,  &c. ;  served 
from  four  feet  above  the  boom  to  the  end  where  it  sets  up  ; 
double  service  and  leathered  in  the  nip  of  the  clamp  on  the 
dolphin-striker,  and  also  where  it  goes  through  the  bees, 
leathered  over  the  surface  from  four  feut  above  to  eight 
inches  below  the  boom ;  collars  of  jib  and  topmast  stays 
seized  together  below  the  crotch  around  the  stays,  seizings 
parcelled  and  leathered.     Set  up  with  three-scored  hearts. 

i\Jaii:i-t<>x>in.ast  Sta^'H.  Measure  and  fittings 
similar  to  fore-topmast  stays }  in  long  ships,  with  great  dis- 
tances between  fore  and  mam  masts,  they  may  be  brought 
directly  to  the  deck  near  the  foremast  ;*   out  in  short  ships 

*  It  would  bo  better  if  this  lead  could  be  adopted  in  all  ships,  Ixit  the  smoke- 
stack frequently  interferes. 


RIGGING.  83 

they  pass  through  chocks  between  the  fore  trestle-trees,  and 
set  up  on  deck  with  three-scored  hearts.  Nips  double  served 
and  leathered  ;  collars  seized  together  in  the  loft. 

3J[i2SKeii-topiiia,st  Ststy.  Measure  and  fittings 
similar  to  main-topmast  stays,  and  set  up  in  the  raain-top 
with  three-scored  hearts. 

Fore-topg-allant  Stay.  Measure  to  where  it 
leads  and  sets  up,  allowinc^  for  neat  eye-splice  around  funnel. 
Painted,  wormed,  parcelled,  painted  again,  and  served  the 
entire  length  ;  double  served  on  the  eye  around  the  funnel, 
and  from  twelve  feet  above  to  one  foot  below  the  jib-boom  ; 
also  in  the  wake  of  the  nip  of  the  clamp  on  the  dolphin- 
striker,  and  where  it  reeves  through  the  bees,  or  leader 
under  the  bees.  All  nips  to  be  leathered.  Stay  set  up  with 
dead-eyes. 

3i]Ai]:i-topg'a,lla.]:it  Sta;^-.  Measure  and  fit  like 
the  fore,  and  set  up  with  dead-eyes  in  the  fore-top.  Double 
served  and  leathered  at  the  hole  in  the  fore-cap  through 
which  it  leads,  also  leathered  about  three  feet  oelow  tne 
crotch  of  the  eye-splice. 

>Xi2czeii-top^a.ll£tiit  Ststy^  Measure  and  fit  as 
above.  Served,  leathered,  and  led  through  a  hole  in  the 
main-cap  and  set  up  in  the  main-top. 

I^l>^iiig'-«Til:>  Stay.  Measure  and  fit  with  an  eye- 
splice,  similar  to  topgallant  stay.  Double  served ;  served 
and  leathered  three  feet  below  the  crotch  of  splice,  in  all 
other  respects  fitted  like  the  jib  stays.   Set  up  with  dead-eyes. 

•ril>  Cttiivh  are  of  wire  rope,  painted,  wormed,  par- 
celled, painted  again,  and  served  the  entire  length  ;  double 
served  and  leathered  in  the  wake  of  whiskei-s,  over  which 
they  fit  with  horseshoe  cringles ;  outer  ends  shackle  to  a 
band  on  the  boom  end  :  set  up  to  the  bows,  or  cat-head,  with 
three-scored  hearts. 

I^'^lviii<*--.Iil>  Cir\\y>i  are  of  wire  rope,  fitted,  set  up 
to  the  bows,  or  cat-head,  with  three-scored  nearts,  and  con- 
nected with  the  boom,  same  as  jib  guys  ;  reeve  through 
thimbles  in  a  strap  out  on  the  whisker  yard-arms.  Double 
served  and  leathered  in  the  nip  of  the  thimbles. 

Ar"V^liiHl£ei*-«Txiiiiperw  are  of  wire  rope ;  painted, 
wormed^  parcelled,  painted  again,  and  served  throughout ; 
fitted  witn  an  eye-splice,  double  served  and  leathered,  to  fit 
over  the  whisker-boom  end  ;  the  inner  end  leathered  in  the 
nip,  and  set  up  on  its  own  part  through  a  bull's  eye  con- 
nected to  a  bolt  01^  the  cut-water.    . 

^Baok  HopeH  are  fitted  either  of  hemp  or  wire, 
served  throughout,  hooked  or  shackled  to  the  dolphin-striker, 
and  set  up  at  the  bows  with  three  scored  hearts. 

•Jil>  >Jai:^ingfale-Sta;y'  is  of  wire  rope,  wormed, 
parcelled,  and  served  the  same  as  guys.  Pitted  with 
shackles  and  thimbles  in  each  end,  witn  double  service 
around  the  thimbles.  Shackles  to  the  dolphin  striker  and 
to  the  band  on  jib-boom. 


84:  RKUilNii. 

Flyinff-Jili  ]VIai*tiiipr«l**-Htay.  Fitted  the 
same  as  the  jib  martingale,  of  wire ;  aouble  served  around 
the  thimbles  m  the  outer  end,  in  the  waJce  of  the  sheave  on 
the  dolphin-striker,  and  where  it  reeves  through  the  bees, 
or  leader.    Sets  up  with  dead-eyes. 

Foi*e  oncl  ]\Iain  Topmasst  Baclcstavm. 
Fitted  and  measured  off  the  same  as  the  after-shrouds  of 
the  fore  and  main  rigging. 

I\Iizzeii-Toj>in.iXKt  Uaoliwta.^v'^K  are  fitted  with 
horseshoe  eyes,  or,  properly  speaking,  a  span.  Measured 
like  the  fore  and  main. 

Foi^e,  IVIaiii,  and  iVIixzeii  Topprallant 
HaclcKta,yK  are  painted,  wormed,  parcelled,  painted 
again,  and  served  throughout.  Fitted  with  spliced  eyes, 
which  are  double  served,  without  outside  parcelling.  Mea- 
sured from  the  funnel  to  the  place  of  setting  up  in  the 
channels,  with  allowance  for  the  eye  and  the  usual  allow- 
ance for  turning  up. 

Uoat-I>avit  T<>i>ping-  T^ilTtH^  Spaax  and 
Cjtvxa-k,  are  of  wire  rope,  and  served  throughout.  Spans 
to  which  topping-lift  pendants  are  attached  are  leathered 
in  the  middfe. 

l>ead-K,veK.  The  dead-eye  now  used  in  the  Navy 
is  shown  in  Fig.  288.  Plate  48. 

The  end  of  the  shroud  passes  around  a  heavy  iron 
thimble,  which  is  confined  by  a  pin  to  the  lugs  of  the  iron 
strap  of  the  upper  dead-eye. 

Dead-eyes  are  made  with  one  hole  without  a  score  on 
the  inboard  face,  the  edge  being  left  square  so  as  to  present 
a  solid  shoulder  to  the  knot  of  tne  laniard. 

The  shroud  being  passed  around  the  thimble  is  secured 
by  five  seizings — throat,  quarter,  middle,  upper  and  end 
seizing. 

The  two  lower  turns  of  the  throat  seizing  are  racking 
turns,  over  these  come  riding  turns.  The  seizing  is  crossed 
and  hitched  in  the  upper  part. 

The  quarter,  middle  ana  upper  seizings  are  riding  seizings. 

The  end  seizing  is  flat,  crossed  ana  hitched,  and  holds 
into  place  the  canvas  cap  placed  over  the  ends  of  all  stand- 
ing rigginff. 

Lower  dead-eyes  connect  with  the  chain  plates  by  bolts, 
so  as  to  be  readily  unshipped.  The  bolts  are  fitted  with 
forelocks. 

In  setting  up  stays  and  some  other  portions  of  the 
standing  rigging,  scored  hearts  are  used  mstead  of  dead- 
eyes.  These  hearts  have  iron  straps,  and  the  upper  ones 
are  supplied  with  iron  thimbles  similar  to  those  around 
which  a  shroud  is  taken.     Fig.  289,  Plate  48. 

Care  must  be  taken  in  turning  the  ends  of  shrouds  or 
stays  around  their  thimbles  that  it  is  done  properly,  as,  in 
the  event  of  a  change  becoming  necessary,  it  is  difficult  to 
get  the  old  nip  out  of  the  wire. 


RIGGING.  S5 

Wire  rigging  in  the  Navy  as  a  rule  sets  up  with  hemp 
laniards,  which  impart  all  the  **  give  "  necessary.  Rigging 
screws.  Fig.  D,  Plate  48,  are,  however,  frequently  used. 

Topmast  rigging  of  fore  and  aft  vessels  may  be  set  ux> 
on  end. 

In  many  vessels  of  recent  construction  the  standing  rig- 
ging is  simply  shackled  to  the  eyes  in  bands  around  the 
masthead,  and  set  up  inside  the  rail  with  rigging  screws. 
In  some  ships  the  lower  rigging  is  shackled  into  pendants 
from  the  lower  mastliead,  so  that  in  going  into  action  it  can 
be  entirely  removed  to  give  a  clear  held  for  the  guns. 


CHAPTER     IX. 

^  RIGGING     SHIP. 

When  a  ship  is  taken  in  hand  to  be  rigged,  her  lower 
masts  are  standing,  temporarily  or  permanently  wedged, 
and  with  girtlines  on  each  side  of  the  mast-heads.  The 
bowsprit  is  in  place,  as  are  also  the  lower  dead-eyes  for 
the  lower  rigging.  Hearts  on  the  bowsprit  and  shackles 
on  the  bows  may  also  be  supposed  in  place  before  the 
riggers  begin  work. 

We  will  rig  the  bowsprit  first,  as  the  staying  of  the  fore- 
mast depends  upon  it,  and  would  otherwise  be  delayed. 

The  Gramiiioi^ing-  of  the  bowsprit  in  "modern 
vessels  consists  of  one  or  two  iron  straps  as  shown  in  Figs. 
293  and  294,  setting  up  with  nuts  and  screws.  It  serves  to 
keep  the  bowsprit  m  place,  and  should  be  set  up  before  the 
ship  is  turned  over  to  the  riggers. 

Secure  the  heads  of  two  small  spars  together  in  a  lash- 
ing hung  from  the  bowsprit-end,  the  heels  resting  on  the 
bows,  where  convenient,  and  seized  to  prevent  slipping. 
Lay  boards  across  from  one  boom  to  the  other  as  a  plat- 
form for  the  men  to  stand  on. 

Tlie  Bol>Kta>^s  are  placed  first,  shackling  to  the 
cutwater,  and  with  laniards  irom  hearts  in  their  outboard 
ends  to  similar  hearts  under  the  bowsprit.  There  are  two, 
or  three,  bobstays  fitted ;  if  three,  they  are  termed  innery 
middley  and  cop  Dobstays. 

I3o^wspi*it-Slii*on.<ls«  Shackle  the  bowsprit- 
shrouds  one  on  each  side  to  eye-bolts,  well  down  on  the 
bows.  The  hearts  in  their  outboard  ends  set  up  with  lani- 
ards to  similar  hearts  on  either  side  of  the  bowsprit  near 
the  cap. 

Now  set  up  the  bowsprit-shrouds  and  bobstays.  Both 
may  be  set  up  by  using  luff  upon  luff  on  each  end  of  the 
laniard,  as  in  Fig.  301,  Plate  51,  racking  every  turn  after  it 
has  been  hove  taut,  and  finally  seizing  down  the  ends. 

This  is  termed  "setting  up  on  a  bight,"  and  the  object  is 
to  keep  the  hearts  from  slueing.  Or,  secure  one  end  of  the 
laniard  and  set  up  on  the  other,  one  turn  at  a  time,  by  means 
of  stout  luffs  hooked  into  a  strap  on  the  laniard  and  into 
another  strap  on  the  standing  part  of  the  bobstay  or  shroud. 
Fig.  302,  Plate  51. 

T^atiiarclH  for  wire  rigging  are  of  the  same  size  as 


Plate  49 


Tf T 


RIGGING    SHIP.  87 

the  ringing  itself;  for  hemp  ringing  as  used  formerly, 
laniards  were  one-half  the  size  of  tne  corresponding  shroud, 
stay,  &c. 

Laniards  are  four-stranded  hemp.  It  is  considered  bet- 
ter to  clap  straps  on  the  laniard  when  setting  up  than  to 
turn  in  catspaws,  either  with  or  without  toggles  thrust  in 
them,  as  the  strap  does  less  damage  to  the  laniard  and  does 
not  nip  it  out  of  shape.  All  straps  should  be  smaller  than  the 
rope  around  which  they  are  taken,  to  insure  a  good  hold. 

Il.ig-g-iiig"-iii  BowKprit.  When  a  vessel  is  fitted 
as  a  ram,  the  bowsprit  and  jib-boom  must  be  so  arranged 
as  to  be  readily  gotten  out  of  the  way  in  clearing  ship  for 
action.  For  this  purpose  the  bowsprit  is  either  fitted  to 
rig  in,  or  to  be  lifted  clear  of  the  bows. 

Fig.  295  shows  the  general  arrangement  of  a  rigging-in 
bowsprit.  The  spar  is  rectangular  in  section,  and  projects 
horizontally  ;  its  rigging  is  simplified  as  much  as  possible. 
The  bobstay  and  fore-topmast  stays  go  to  the  cap  or  to  a 
dtrap  just  inside  the  cap ;  the  f orestays  set  up  inside  the 
rail,  and  the  bees  are  dispensed  with.  The  bowsprit  runs  in 
on  the  forecastle,  as  shown  in  the  figure,  being  held  in 
position  when  rigged  out  bv  a  fid  forward  of  the  heel  bitts, 
temporary  gammoning  ana  a  boom-iron  (fitted  with  interior 
rollers)  at  the  bows.  The  heel  of  the  jib-boom  secures  in  a 
clamp  above  the  bo^^sprit-iron,  Fig.  296. 

LiOTver  IMastn.  Proceed  now  to  rig  the  lower 
masts,  and  send  up  first  the  trestle-trees,  as  follows  : 

Trestle-trees,  The  mast-head  girtlines  should  be  stout 
enough  to  send  up  the  trestle-trees ;  if  not,  send  up  heavy 
whips  on  each  side,  and  lash  their  blocks  at  the  lower 
mast-head,  over  the  tenon  or  just  below  it.  The  men 
required  to  work  aloft  are  sent  up  by  the  girtlines. 

rlace  the  trestle-trees  on  deck,  forward  of  the  mast,  Fig. 

307,  and  take  out  the  after  chock,  as  the  forward  one,  by 
having  to  support  the  heel  of  the  topmast,  is  more  securely 
bolted  and  not  intended  to  be  removed.  Hitch  the  ends  of 
the  whips  to  the  forward  ends  of  the  trestle-trees,  and  stop 
down  on  the  top  side,  along  to  the  after  ends.  Bend  on  a 
guy  from  forward,  sway  aloft,  and  as  the  after  ends  of  the 
trestle-trees  rise  above  the  bibbs,  cut  the  stops  and  work 
them  into  their  places.    Send  up  the  after  chock  and  bolt  it. 

Whole  Tops  are  sent  aloft  with  the  two  girtlines  used  in 
sending  up  the  trestle-trees,  and  a  good-sized  single  or 
double  tackle,  hooked  to  a  strap  abaft  tne  mast  and  directly 
between  the  girtlines,  as  in  Fig.  308. 

Place  the  top  on  the  deck  abaft  the  mast,  with  the  for- 
ward part  uppermost.  Overhaul  down  the  girtlines  and 
tackle,  pass  the  ends  of  the  former  underneath  the  rim  and 
make  them  fast  to  their  own  parts,  around  the  after-part  of 
'  the  top,  stopping  them  out  to  each  girtline-hole,  as  in  Fig. 

308.  Hook  the  lower  block  of  the  mast-head  tackle  to  a 


88  RIGGING   SHIPS. 

stout  strap  around  the  after-part  (to  which  a  j^uy  is  also 
attached,  leading  aft),  and  secure  the  standing  parts  of  the 
tackle  and  girtlines  to  the  pigeon-hole  by  means  of  a 
squilgee-toggle,  over  which  the  bights  are  laid.  The  mast 
head  tackle  should  be  passed  underneath  the  top.  Bend  on 
a  tripping-line  to  the  toggle  (which  should  be  greased), 
man  tne  tackle  and  girtlines  and  sway  away,  pulling  up 
steadily  on  all.  When  the  forward  rim  comes  up  to  the 
block,  jerk  on  the  tripping-line  (which    disconnects   the 

{)arts  and  permits  the  girtlines  to  go  out  to  the  side,  and 
ead  oflf  fair) ;  sway  on  the  tackle  until  the  lubbers-hole  is 
clear  of  the  mast-head,  and  lower  away  by  means  of  the 
girtlines,  sending  the  top  aft  or  forward  with  the  tackle 
and  guy  as  need  be.  The  cross-trees  are  either  secured  to 
the  top  before  sending  it  aloft,  or  sent  up  by  means  of  the 
girtlines  first. 

Haljf  Tops.  The  half  tops  are  placed  on  deck  with  the 
outer  rims  uppermost,  on  their  respective  sides  of  the  deck. 
Pass  a  strap  or  lashing  around  the  centre  of  each,  steadying 
it  in  its  place  by  a  small  lashing  through  one  of  the  f  uttock 
holes.  Overhaul  down  the  whips  used  in  sending  up  the 
trestle-trees,  and  bend  each  to  the  strap  around  the  haff  top 
of  its  respective  side.  Sway  the  halves  up  close  to  the 
blocks,  and  let  them  hang  there  until  the  cross-trees  are 
sent  aloft  and  bolted  in  their  places.  Then  lower  the  halves 
down  and  secure  them  ;  sway  up  the  upper  cross-trees  and 
bolt  and  confine  the  whole  with  iron  bands.    Fig.  309. 

Now  send  up  and  place  the  bolsters,  which  are  made 
of  soft  wood  and  covered  with  three  or  four  thicknesses 
of  tarred  parcelling,  and  then  get  over  the  lower  pendants, 
which  are  swayed  up  by  the  girtlines.  If  the  mast 
needs  support  while  the  rigging  is  being  sent  aloft,  the 
pendant  tackles  may  now  be  hooked  ana  hauled  taut,  but 
they  are  dispensed  with,  if  possible,  as  being  very  much  in 
the  way. 

Lower  Irt/ig-^in^.  As  the  routine  of  rigging  is 
nearly  identical  on  all  the  masts,  the  method  for  the  fore 
will  answer  for  a  description  of  the  others. 

In  the  merchant  service,  as  soon  as  the  lower  pendants 
are  over,  the  lower  mast  is  steadied  by  the  pendant  tackles, 
the  topmast  is  pointed  about  four  or  five  feet  above  the 
lower  mast-head,  and  to  it  are  attached  the  girtlines  for  the 
shrouds,  after  the  manner  of  a  derrick.  Navy-yard  riggers 
proceed  as  follows : 

To  Send  xxp  tlie  SIii'oikIk.  In  heavy  ships, 
two  girtlines  will  be  required  to  support  the  weight  of  tne 
shroud  ;  the  block  of  the  main  girtline  being  toggled  to  the 
midship  girtline-hole  in  the  top;  the  second,  or  ** short" 
girtline,  being  at  the  mast-head  tenon  and  worked  in  the 
top.  Send  hands  aloft  with  marline-spikes,  tar,  slush,  com- 
mander,* &c. 

*  Commander ;  a  large  wooden  maul. 


RIGGING   SHIP.     •  89 

Now  proceed  to  get  the  shrouds  up,  and  over,  in  the 
order  of  their  succession,  Fig.  310.   jOiof  the  ends  of  the  main 
jPrtline  together,  and  fit  a  toggle  in  one  part,  just  above. 
Thrust  this  between  the  two  parts  of  the  first  pair  of  star- 
board-forward shrouds,  from  out,  in,  somewhat  more  than 
^e  length  of  the  mast-head  below  the  eye-seizing,  and  put 
^  stop  around  both  parts  to  retain  the  toggle  in  its  place. 
Jjjop  the  girtline  along  the  shroud  towards  tlie  eye,  and  at 
^^e  croimiy  and  sway  aloft.     When  as  high  as  the  top,  bend 
^^  tho  short  mast-head  girtline  just  below  the  eye-seizing, 
^feing  the  end  from  in,  out,  and  stop  it  as  in  the  other 
^e.    Cut  the  lower  girtline  adrift,  as  tne  shroud  comes  up, 
5^d  steady  it  to  the  hand  of  the  man  aloft,  who  will  bear 
|2^  6ye  over  the  mast-head,  and  cast  off  the  upper  girtline. 
5^^e  it  fair  and  beat  it  down  with  the  wooden  commander, 
a^i^S  careful  to  carry  the  shroud  well  aft,  as  the  angular 
tx\  V  ^  of  the  strain,  in  setting  up,  has  a  constant  tendency 
*^  Oring  it  forward.* 

Send  up  the  port  forward  pair  in  the  same  manner.  We 
mi^ht  now  rouse  the  legs  of  the  shrouds  well  down  amid- 
ships, i.  e.,  in  a  line  parallel  with  the  mast,  to  give  the  eyes 
a  good  fit  on  the  bolsters,  and  set  up  all  four  legs  at  the 
same  time,  with  the  pendant  tackles,  to  ensure  getting  the 
eyes  well  down,  in  place.  But  this  is  seldom  done,  and  we 
proceed,  as  a  rule,  to  get  over  the  other  pairs  of  shrouds  in 
their  proper  order  witnout  stopping  to  set  up.  It  is  well  to 
remember  that  too  much  care  cannot  be  taken  to  beat  the 
ejes  well  down  in  their  places  at  once,  and  in  this  connec- 
tion attention  mav  be  called  again  to  the  effect  of  the  eves 
settling  down  at  the  mast-head,  and  the  means  suggested  in 
the  previous  chapter  for  avoiding  slack  after  shrouds. 

To  Send  VLy>  tlio  l-<^<>i-o-mi<l-sTit  Sta.vs. 
All  the  shrouds  having  been  got  over,  shift  the  girtlines 
from  the  top  up  to  the  mast-head,  and  lash  them  to  the 
sides  and  well  aft.  Dip  them  down  through  the  lubber's- 
hole,  and  bend  the  starboard  one  to  the  fore-stays  below  the 
crotch,  stopping  it  to  the  starboard  legs  ;  bend  the  port 
girtline  on  in  the  same  manner  to  the  port  legs,  and  sway 
aloft,  cutting  the  seizings  as  the  legs  reach  the  top.  Fig.  312. 
Use  a  third  girtline  overhauled  down  forward  of  the  top, 
and  bent  to  the  stays  below  the  crotch,  to  assist  in  raising 
the  stays.  Pass  the  collar-lashings  (one  end  of  each  lashing 
is  spliced  into  one  of  the  eyes  oi  its  stay),  and  either  rest 
'-'ic  collars  on  the  lower  rigging  or  on  a  lieavy  cleat  some- 
times placed  for  the  purpose  on  the  after  side  of  the  mast. 
The  stays  are  now  seized  around  the  thimbles  of  their  upper 
hearts,  if  this  has  not  been  done  in  the  rigging  loft ;  the 

*  U  wiU  save  troable  aloft  if  the  eve  of  the  shroud  i*^  bent  forward  b<»fore 
gfwng  up,  and  stopped  to  the  legs,  which  lays  it  fair  for  goiiija:  over.  Cast  off  the 
stop  from  the  less  when  the  eye  comes  through  the  lubber's- hole,  and  use  the 
stop  to  assist  in  nauling  down  the  eye  when  over.     Fig.  811. 


90  '      RIGGING   SHIP. 

lower  hearts  should  be  found  in  their  places  shackled  to  the 
fore-stay  straps  on  the  bowsprit,  or  to  eye-bolts  on  the  fore- 
castle. These  straps  are  iron  bands  passing  around  under 
the  bowsprit ;  one  end  of  the  strap  has  an  eye  for  the  heart, 
and  the  other  an  eye  for  the  forelock  which  secures  it. 
Reeve  oflE  the  stav  laniards. 

On  the  ^tstnding*  oT  IMat^tsj,  Experiment 
proves  that  by  raking  masts  forward^  in  a  vessel  of  ordi- 
nary form,  we  increase  the  tendency  to  pitch,  besides 
increasing  the  difficultv  of  trimming  the  yaras  on  account 
of  their  confinement  when  hy  the  wind.  The  vessel  is  given 
an  increased  readiness  to  wear,  but  with  a  corresponding 
indisposition  for  coming  to,  and  an  increased  need  of  lee 
helm  to  keep  her  to  the  wind.  In  scudding,  this  disposition 
to  fall  off  increases  the  danger  of  being  brought  by  the 
lee. 

When  masts  are  stayed  perpendicular  to  the  keel,  the 
wind  acts  in  a  horizontal  direction  on  the  sails,  and  the  ob- 
jectionable features  of  the  preceding  plan  are  avoided. 

Finally,  when  masts  rake  aft,  there  is  an  increase  in  the 
after  sail  of  the  ship,  a  disposition  to  approach  rather  than 
recede  from  the  wind,  the  tendency  to  pitch  is  obviated, 
and  the  difficulties  of  bracing  due  to  forward  staying  are 
avoided.  . 

The  general  custom  is  to  stay  the  foremast  plumb,  or 
with  a  rake  aft  varying  from  }  to  1  inch  to  the  foot,  the 
mainmast  rakiuj^  1^  inches  to  the  foot,  and  the  mizzen 
IJ^  inches  to  the  foot. 

Hta^vingr  tlie  I-^^oi-eniast.  The  foremast  is 
stayed  by  means  of  a  double  purchase  leading  forward  to 
the  bowsprit,  and  two  pendant  tackles  hooked  to  the  for- 
ward legs  of  the  pendants,  the  after  pendant  tackles  being 
set  up  to  eye-bolts  well  aft.     Fig.  313. 

With  these  purchases  and  the  wedges  eased  up,  the  mast 
can  be  stayed  either  plumb  or  with  a  slight  rake,  as  required. 
The  amount  of  rake,  if  any,  is  determined  by  the  constructor, 
and  a  plumb-line  is  made  to  plumb  the  deck  at  a  distance 
from  the  after-part  of  the  mast  equal  to  the  amount  of  the 
rake  for  the  length  of  the  plumb-line  used.  If  the  line  is 
hung  from  the  mast-head,  seventy  feet  from  the  deck,  a 
rake  of  half  a  inch  to  the  foot  should  cause  it  to  plumb  the 
deck  thirty-five  inches  from  the  after-part  of  the  mast,  &c. 
Lateral  staying  is  effected  by  measurement  with  a  small 
line,  secured  at  the  centre  of  the  after-part  of  the  mast-head 
and  carried  to  the  water-ways  on  either  side  in  line  with 
the  after-part  of  the  mast.  Bucklinj2^  a  lower  mast  and  get- 
ting it  out  of  a  vertical  plane  are  by  no  means  uncommon. 
In  such  a  case  the  ])reparati()ns  above  described  for  staying 
must  be  made  and  tlie  wedges  knocked  out. 

Tlie  mast  being  in  th(^  right  position,  belay  and  rack  the 
falls,  put  in  the  wedgi's  for  a  full  due,  and  put  on  the  mast 


Plate  5f 


RIGGING   SHIP.  91 

coat,  which  is  used  to  keep  the  wat^r  from  rotting  the  mast 
at  the  partners.  It  is  made  of  heavy  canvas  and  painted, 
and  covers  the  heads  of  the  wedges  and  the  mast  up  to 
eighteen  inches  above  the  deck. 

To  set  xxp  the  Lo^wei*  Sta^vn^  Fig.  313.  At 
a  distance  eight  or  ten  feet  up  the  stay  clap  on  one  block  of 
a  "stay  luff '"(double  purchase),  having  canvas  underneath 
to  avoid  chafe,  and  hook  the  other  block  into  a  strap  on  the 
stay  laniard.  Into  the  fall  of  the  stay  luff  hook  the  lower 
block  of  a  pendant  tackle,  and  having  got  the  stays  taut, 
rack  the  laniards  and  proceed  to  set  up  the  shrouds. 

To  set  up  tlie  Shroixds.  The  laniards  are 
fitted  in  the  riggmg-lof t,  having  a  laniard  knot  (a  Mathew 
Walker  knot  snowing  two  or  three  parts)  cast  into  one  end. 
This  knot  rests  against  the  unscored  hole  in  the  upper  dead- 
eye,  which  is  forward  in  the  starboard  shrouds,  aft  in  the 
port  shrouds,  and  inside  on  both  sides.  Reeve  off  the  lan- 
iards through  the  upper  and  lower  dead-eyes,  the  hauling 
end  always  coming  up  from  the  lower  dead-eye. 

Place  canvas  on  the  shroud  about  half-way  up  to  avoid 
chafe,  and  tail  the  upper  block  of  a  rigging  luff  (gun  tackle 
purchase)  over  it.  Hook  the  lower  block  of  the  luff  to  a 
strap  on  the  end  of  the  laniard,  and  lead  the  fall  of  the  luff 
up  to  the  pendant  tackles  as  in  Fig.  315.  The  luff  tails  should 
be  dogged  on  long  so  as  not  to  nip  the  shroud. 

Set  up  all  the  snrouds  in  this  manner,  a  pair  on  each  side 
at  a  time,  racking  the  laniards.  The  rigging  is  left  standing 
in  this  condition  as  long  as  circumstances  may  permit,  to 
give  it  a  chance  of  settling  in  its  place,  when,  with  the  same 
purchases  used  before,  the  stays  and  then  the  shrouds  are 
set  up  for  a  full  due.  The  final  setting  up  should  not  be 
given,  if  avoidable,  during  very  wet  or  cold  weather. 

The  rigging  being  set  up  for  a  full  due,  rack  the  laniards, 
seize  on  the  sheer  poles  with  a  cross  seizing  to  keep  the 
dead-eyes  from  slueing  (on  account  of  the  tendency  to 
unlay  in  the  shrouds),  naving  a  strip  of  tarred  canvas  or 
leather  underneath  to  prevent  chafe.  Secure  the  ends  of 
the  laniards  by  hitching  them  around  the  strap  of  the  upper 
dead-eye  thimble  above  the  sheer  pole,  as  in  Fig.  318,  bring- 
ing the  end  down  inside  the  other  parts  and  securing  it 
with  three  seizings.  Remove  the  racking  from  the  laniard 
to  bring  an  equal  strain  on  all  parts.  Finally,  send  down 
the  rigging  luffs. 

In  setting  up  the  stays  temporarily,  one  end  of  the 
laniard  is  splicea  around  the  upper  heart ;  take  two  or  three 
turns  through  both  hearts,  set  up  and  rack  the  laniard. 
When  setting  up  for  a  full  due,  reeve  off  the  remaining 
turns,  set  taut,  cut  the  rackings  and  set  up.  Rack  again 
with  stout  rackings  ;  come  up  the  tackles  and  pass  riding 
turns  of  the  laniard,  heaving  each  turn  taut  in  succession. 
Put  several  good  seizings  on  the  upper  turns  of  the  laniard, 


92  RIGGING   SHIP. 

the  end  of  the  laniard  being  stopped  in  between  the  turns 
out  of  sight.  The  rackings  are  removed  and  only  the 
seizings  remain. 

Fi^.  317  shows  a  proposed  form  of  dead-e^re  of  metal.  It 
is  similar  to  the  modern  dead-eye  of  the  British  service. 

Remarks  on  the  tension  given  to  rigging.  It  is  of  inore 
value  to  have  a  moderate  and  equal  strain  on  each  shroud, 
rather  than  a  great  strain  upon  all  the  shrouds. 

Much  of  the  trouble  experienced  in  former  days  with 
hemp  lower  rigging,  by  reason  of  stretching,  is  obviated  by 
our  present  use  of  wire  rope.  But  in  placing  the  eyes  of 
the  snrouds  over  the  mast-head,  the  permanent  position  of 
the  eye  may  be  lost  sight  of  in  the  endeavor  to  complete 
the  operation  in  as  short  a  time  as  possible.  The  conse- 
quence is  that  the  eyes  of  the  rigging  keep  shifting  their 
position  on  the  mast-head  for  many  months  afterwards, 
producing  slack  rigging.  5^  was  suggested,  after  getting 
up  the  first  pair  or  shro\?Js,  to  set  up  each  two  jjairs 
separately  at  the  time  they  are  placed  over,  but  this  is 
seldom  done.  On  the  other  hand,  the  beating  down  of  the 
eye  upon  the  mast-head  should  be  carefully  attended  to, 
to  insure  a  permanent  and  solid  bearing. 

With  regard  to  the  stays,  particularly  when  the  after- 
parts  of  the  collars  are  not  rested  on  supporting  chocks,  any 
settling  of  the  eyes  of  the  rigging  causes  the  stay  to  settle 
also,  but  the  slack  shroud  is  much  more  likely  to  receive 
attention  than  the  stay.  The  final  result  is  a  Truckling  of 
the  mast  at  the  partners,  or  else  an  attempt  is  made  to 
overcome  the  increased  rake  by  setting  up  the  topmast 
stay,  since  the  rake  will  be  more  apparent  at  the  height  of 
the  topmast-head  than  at  the  lower  mast-head.  The  con- 
sequence of  hauling  forward  the  head  of  the  topmast,  with 
a  comparatively  slack  lower  stay,  is  to  strain  the  head  of 
the  lower  mast,  owin.^  to  the  leverage  of  the  heel  of  the 
topmast  and  the  play  in  the  lower  cap.  Some  officers  will 
recollect  at  least  one  sloop-of-war  in  which  the  lower  mast- 
head was  sprung  in  this  way.  The  conclusion  is,  that  no 
setting  up  even  of  the  two  after  shrouds  should  be  under- 
taken witnout  an  examination  of  the  lower  stay,  which  will 
probably  be  found  to  require  a  pull  even  more  than  the 
rigging. 

A  serious  evil  arises  from  setting  up  rigging  too  taut, 
which  is  particularly  noticeable  in  small  vessels. 

Let  the  shrouds  of  a  schooner  be  pulled  up  as  taut  as 
harpstrings,  then  the  liability  is  that  when  she  goes  to  sea 
she  will  lose  her  masts ;  for  when  she  rolls,  the  shrouds, 
which  we  will  further  suppose  to  be  half  worn,  and  witli 
little  give,  keep  the  mast-head  to  windward,  while  the  ten- 
dency" of  the  rest  of  the  spar  is  to  buckle  to  leeward,  and 
this  IS  particularly  the  case  when  reefed  down. 

To  Hat  tie  I>o>^"ii.    Draw  a  line  parallel  to  that 


p-iE^o?  ria^os 


RIGGING  SHIP.  0:J 

of  the  vessel's  sheer  across  the  shroud-legs  on  both  sides 
through  the  points  where  it  is  intended  to  seize  on  the  lower 
ratlines,  so  that  the  latter  may  correspond  with  the  line  of 
the  sheer-poles.  If  these  marks  are  continued  up  to  the 
trestle-trees  at  the  proper  di&tance  (fourteen  inches;  apart, 
the  work  of  rattling  down  can  be  carried  on  in  several  parts 
of  the  riggiuj^  at  once,  without  referring  constantly  to  the 
measuring  stick. 

Hook  or  shackle  the  futtock-shrouds*  to  the  plates  in  the 
top  and  to  the  f  uttock  band,  and  set  them  up,  observing  to 
have  the  points  of  the  hooks  inboard,  so  that  bights  of  rope 
from  aloft  shall  not  catch  over  tliem.  Girt  or  swifter  the 
shrouds  in  by  securing  a  piece  of  ratline  stuff  to  the  for- 
ward shroud,  take  it  aft  and  around  the  next  shroud  and 
haul  as  taut  as  possible,  drawing  the  two  shrouds  together. 
Repeat  the  operation  with  the  next  shroud,  and  so  on  to 
the  after  shroud,  girting  all  in  together,  nipperine  each 
turn  with  a  hitch.  Place  three  or  four  swif tering  nnes  in 
the  rigging  at  equal  distances  apart.  Lash  oars  or  spars 
athwart  the  rigging,  about  four  f e^t  apart,  for  the  men  to 
stand  on  while  at  work. 

The  ratlines,  Fig.  319,  are  usually  of  eighteen-thread 
stuff,  fitted  with  a  small  spliced  eye,  thrust  once  and  a  half. 
This  eye  is  seized  on  to  the  first  shroud  with  marline, 
Figs.  820-321,  or  with  a  rope-yarn,  twisted  up  and  rubbed 
smooth,  placing  each  ratline  fourteen  inches  from  the  pre- 
ceding one.  A  clove  hitch  is  then  formed  outside  around 
the  next  leg,  put  on  so  that  the  crossing  of  the  hitch  will  lie 
with  the  lav  of  the  rope,  and  the  ratline  hove  taut,  with  a 
marline-spike.  In  this  manner  it  is  made  to  reach  the  last 
shroud,  and  then  seized  on  as  at  the  commencement ;  every 
fifth  or  sheer  ratline  being  extended  to  the  swifters  and 
after  shrouds,  which,  with  these  exceptions,  are  omitted 
when  there  is  any  great  spread  between  the  swifter  and 
shroud  next  abaft,  or  between  the  after  shroud  and  the  one 
next  forward  of  it. 

The  eye-seizing  of  the  ratline  must  be  passed  so  that  the 
eye  will  lie  in  a  horizontal  plane,  and  witn  the  strand  first 
tucked  uppermost  (if  the  otner  part  of  the  splice  were  upper- 
most it  would  form  a  pocket  for  water).  Having  splicea  in 
the  marline,  pass  it  around  the  shroud  through  the  eye  of 
the  ratline,  back  around  the  shroud,  and  so  on  as  in  Figs. 
'520  and  321,  the  turns  of  the  seizing  crossing  in  the  eye.  In 
cutting  a  ratline,  say  starboard  side,  the  stuff  being  thorough - 
footed  and  stretched,  take  one  end  of  the  coil  and  carry  it 
into  the  rigging  at  the  height  for  the  ratline.  Hitch  it  to 
the  after  shroud,  keeping  end  enough  to  reach  to  the  for- 
ward one,  clove-hitching  loosely  around  each  shroud  from 
aft  forward.     If  you  have  not  end  enough,  render  more 

*  At  sea  tliere  is  generally  an  \x^\y  chafe  between  the  lower  and  the  fattock 
•broads,  to  prevent  which  go^i'l  irou  Scotchmen  should  be  seized  to  the  former. 


94  RIGGING   SHIP. 

through  the  loose  hitches.  When  the  forward  shroud  or 
swifter  is  reached,  form  the  eye  in  the  end  of  the  ratline  and 
seize  it  on,  then  work  back  toward  the  after  shroud,  tauten- 
ing the  clove-hitches.  When  the  after -shroud  is  reached, 
you  can  mark  the  exact  place  for  the  after-eye,  and  cut  the 
ratline  at  the  proper  place  without  waate.  If  in  the  port- 
rigging,  proceed  in  the  same  way,  except  that  the  temporary 
hitches  are  put  on  from  forward  aft,  as  riggers  generally 
work  from  right  to  left  when  seizing  on  and  hitching  the 
ratline  for  a  full  due. 

If  the  eye  has  been  badly  measured,  and  the  ratline  is 
lust  too  long  to  be  seized  on,  but  not  long  enough  to  allow 
for  turning  in  a  new  eye,  heave  turns  in  it  with  the  lay  of 
the  stuff  until  shortened  up,  or  if  it  is  too  short,  a  few  turns 
may  similarly  be  hove  out.     This  is  called  an  Irish  splice. 

Now  come  up  the  girts  employed  in  swiftering  in  the 
shrouds,  which  tautens  the  rigging.  After  which,  square  any 
shroud  ends  which  may  have  required  turning  in  afresh, 
capping  the  ends.     Send  down  the  spars  and  blacken  down. 

In  sparring  down  rigging  the  forward  ends  should  be 
square  with  each  other,  the  spare  ends  aft.  In  rigging. of 
nine  shrouds  one  man  should  clap  on  four  ratlines  in  an  hour. 

The  lower  ratlines  as  far  up  as  the  ends  of  the  shrouds, 
are  now  made  of  rod  iron,  to  prevent  getting  out  of  shape 
when  the  rig^ng  is  manned  previously  to  laying  aloft. 

The  description  of  rattling  down  is  ^ven  here  as  in  its 
natural  order  under  the  head  of  lower  rigging ;  but  instead 
of  rattling  down  at  this  stage  of  the  work,  nggers  usually 
fit  a  few  temporary  ratlines  for  their  own  use  in  getting 
up  and  down  from  aloft,  and  postpone  fitting  the  regular 
ratlines  until  after  all  the  rigging,  masts  and  yards  are  in 
place. 

nropiiia.HtH.  We  suppose  the  ship  to  be  in  the  stream, 
to  show,  while  ringing,  the  methods  adopted  for  getting  the 
various  spars  on  board. 

Tow  the  topmast  alongside  with  the  head  forward,  and 

Sarbuckle  it  on  board.  Then  secure  a  large  buH's-eye  to  the 
ounds  on  each  side,  in  the  same  plane  with  the  lower 
sheave  hole ;  hitch  the  end  of  a  hawser  at  the  lower  mast- 
head, above  the  eyes  of  the  rigging,  leading  through  the 
hole  in  the  trestle-trees,  and  reeve  the  other  end  through 
one  of  the  bull's-eyes  on  the  topmast  and  the  sheave-hole  ; 
thence  up  through  the  opposite  bull's-eye,  and  a  block 
lashed  at  the  mast-head,  through  the  lubber's-hole,  as  in 
Fig.  322,  Plate  58.  leading  it  to  the  deck,  and  clapping  on  a 
pendant-tackle,  or  take  the  hawser  to  the  capstan.  With 
this  purchase,  sway  the  mast  up  and  down  the  lowermast.* 
Should  the  topmast  prove  too  long,  the  head  must  be  swayed 
up  outside  the  top  rim ;  then  open  the  deck-scuttle,  and 
lower  the  mast,  until  clear  of  the  top  rim  ;  sway  it  up,  and 

*  Supposing  it  to  be  the  foremast. 


RIGGING  SHIP.  95 

point  it  through  the  trestle-trees  and  round-hole  of  lower 
cap.  The  latter  is  sent  up  "  before  all,"  with  the  girtlines, 
immediately  after  rieeinff  the  lowermast,  by  bending  them 
on  through  the  round-nole,  and  stopping  them  along  to  the 
after-part,  Via.  323,  observing  to  keep  the  bolts  upf^rmosf, 
so  that  they  do  not  come  in  contact  with  the  top  rim,  &c. , 
in  the  cap's  passage  aloft.  When  in  the  top,  place  it  right 
side  up  over  the  square  hole  in  the  trestle-trees  fair  tor 
pointing  the  topmast. 

Now  i>ass  a  stout  strap  through  the  fid-hole  of  the  topmast, 
to  which  hook  both  the  pendant-tackles ;  take  off  the  bull's- 
eyes  at  the  hounds  and  mast-head,  unreeve  the  hawser,  and 
prepare  for  shipping  the  cap,  which  is  done  as  follows  : 

To  Ship  the  Lo^wex*  Cap,  Fig.  324.  The 
topmast  being  pointed  through  the  round  hole  of  the  cap, 
slue  the  cap  as  nearly  fore  and  aft  as  the  doublings  of  the 
mast  will  admit,  with  the  square  hole  aft.  Pass  a  secure 
lashing  through  the  cap  eye-bolts  and  over  the  topmast- 
head,  and  give  the  lashing  as  much  drift  as  possible,  for 
which  purpose  the  head  of  the  topmast  shoula  be  several 
feet  above  the  upper  part  of  the  cap.  Now  sway  up  on 
the  pendant  tackles  until  clear  of  tne  tenon  of  the  lower 
mast,  then  slue  the  cap  around,  as  it  hangs  in  the  lash- 
ing, until  its  square  hole  is  fair  with  the  tenon.  If  the 
lashing  has  not  been  given  drift  enough  to  pennit  of  slue- 
ing  the  cap  fair,  the  topmast  itself  must  be  slued  by 
means  of  a  lon^  heaver  thrust  in  the  fid-hole  and  worked 
by  guys  from  its  ends.  This  ou^ht  not  to  be  necessary. 
Sena  up  the  capshore  (with  a  laniard  attached,  to  secure 
it  aloft)  and  lower  away,  beating  down  the  cap  into  place, 
and  tacking  over  a  piece  of  sheet-lead  as  a  protection  from 
the  weather. 

HTo  send  up  the  Topmast  Cross-Ti^eew. 
Fig.  325,  Plate  59.  Cast  off  the  lashings  and  sway  the 
topmast-head  a  few  feet  above  the  cap.  Lash  a  couple  of 
stout  burton-blocks  to  the  tenon,  send  the  fdlls  down  abaft 
for  the  cross-trees  (placed  on  deck  well  abaft  the  mast). 
Secure  the  lower  blocks  to  the  after  ends  of  the  trestle- 
trees  on  the  upper  side,  and  stop  the  standing  parts  along 
the  forward  ends,  in  the  same  manner  as  that  resorted  to  in 
sending  up  the  lower  trestle-trees ;  having  a  guy  from  the 
mainmast-head  (if  the  fore-topmast  cross-trees),  to  keep  them 
clear  of  the  top  in  going  aloft.  Sway  up  on  the  burtons, 
bear  off,  cut  the  stops  as  necessary,  and  land  them  on  the 
lower  cap,  where  they  should  be  securely  lashed,  having  the 
forward  part  inclined  upward,  with  the  chock  resting 
against  the  topmast.  Oast  off  the  burtons,  remove  the 
buxsksfrom  the  tenon  or — ^if  girtlines  are  used  to  get  the 
cross-trees  aloft  (as  is  sometimes  done) — ^shift  them  at  once 
to  the  after-horns,  ready  for  the  rigging ;  lower  away  on 
the  pendant-tackles,  until  the  cross-trees  come  fair  over  the 


00  RIGGING   SHIP. 

mast-head,  cutting  them  forward,  or  aft,  as  may  be  neces- 
sary. 

To  H/igr  TTopmatiBt.  Now  sway  up  on  the  pen- 
dant-tackles, and  lodge  the  cross-trees  on  the  nounds  oi  the 
topmast,  prying  up  the  after-end,  and  beating  them  down 
in  their  places.  Hook  the  top-blocks  in  the  lower  cap  and 
reeve  the  top-pendants,  by  passing  eachpointed  end  through 
its  respective  olock,  and  sheave  m  the  heel  of  the  topmast, 
arid  clinching  it  to  the  eye-bolts,  then  hook  the  top-tackles 
to  straps  on  the  other  ends,  and  remove  the  fid-strap  and 
pendant-tackles  used  in  pointing  the  topmast.    Send  up  and 

{)lace  the  composition  funnel  (square)  over  the  topmast,  its 
ower  edge  resting  on  the  trestle-trees  and  fitted  with 
flanges  to  receive  the  bolsters,  which  are  well  protected 
with  tarred  parcelling.  The  gin-bar,  if  not  sent  up  with 
the  cross-trees  must  now  be  placed.  It  consists  of  a  stout 
flat  bar  of  iron  placed  across  the  top-mast  and  trestle-trees 
between  the  doublings  of  the  mast,  with  links  for  the  g^n- 
blocks. 

Send  up  next  the  burton  pendants  which  shackle  to  bolts 
in  the  under  side  of  the  trestle-trees.  Using  girtlines  from 
each  after-horn  of  the  cross-trees,  and  an  eye  girtline  from 
the  topmast  tenon,  proceed  to  get  up  the  shrouds  and  stays 
in  the  following  order,  after  the  manner  employed  m 
getting  up  lower  rigging,  except  that  ttvo  pair,  starboard 
and  port  snrouds,  come  up  together. 

First.  Starboard  and  port  shrouds,  in  pairs. 

Second.  Backstays. 

Third.  Fore-and-aft-stays  and  jib-stay,  in  one,  the  latter 
uppermost. 

The  ends  of  these  shrouds  and  stays  are  allowed  to  hang 
down  outside  the  top  in  their  proper  directions,  on  each  side, 
forward,  or  aft  as  the  case  may  be. 

To  Send  xip  tlie  Topmasst  Cap,  Fig.  326. 
Shift  the  girtlines  from  the  cross-trees  to  the  topmast-head, 
lashing  the  blocks  below  the  tenon ;  send  down  the  ends  for 
the  topmast-cap,  which  is  sent  up  from  forward  with  the 
after-part  uppermost,  the  ends  oi  the  girtlines  hitched  to 
the  forward  eye-bolts,  and  stopped  down  toward  the  after- 
part  of  the  cap,  similar  to  the  mode  of  sending  up  lower 
trestle-trees.  It  is  slipped  into  place  on  the  tenon  of  the 
topmast-head  by  the  men  aloft,  cutting  the  stops,  as  neces- 
saiy. 

The  topmast  cap  may  be  shipped,  with  the  assistance  of 
the  topgallant-mast,  in  a  similar  way  to  that  followed  in 
placing  the  lower  cap,  but  the  method  given  is  much  the 
easiest. 

If  the  topmast  is  fidded,  and  topgallant-mast  is  not  aloft, 
riggers  frequently  handle  the  topmast-cap  as  follows,  par- 
ticularly in  stripping  ship.  A  suitable  small  spar  (studdmg- 
sail  yard)  is  pointedthrough  the  round  hole  of  the  cap  and 


»c 


RIGGING   SHIP.  97 

the  cap  is  securely  lashed  to  the  spar.  The  spar  is  con- 
trolled by  two  whips  whose  blocks  are  lashed  to  the  mast- 
head below  the  cap.  The  whip  ends  secure  to  the  spar^  one 
near  its  heel  and  tne  other  a  little  below  the  cap  and  not  in 
the  same  vertical  plane  as  the  first  whip.  By  means  of 
these  whips  the  spar  (and  cap)  can  be  lifted  and  slued  as 
required. 

Keeve  the  topmast-stays  through  the  bees  in  the  bow- 
sprity  turn  them  around  the  thimbles  of  their  hearts  and  clap 
luffs  on  them  to  steady  the  mast  when  Adding ;  reeve  on 
aAoo  the  laniards  of  the  backstays,  and  tend  the  stays  and 
backstays  while  the  mast  is  being  swayed  aloft  by  the  top- 
tackles  and  fidded.  The  topmast  being  fidded,  reeve  off  the 
laniards  of  the  topmast  rigging  andprepare  to  set  up. 

To  Set  ixp  Topmast  ^Ri^g-ing*.  Hook  the 
lower  blocks  of  a  rigging  luff  to  a  strap  on  the  laniard ; 
tail  the  upper  block  to  the  shroud  six  or  eight  feet  above  the 
upper  deaa-eye,  hook  the  top  burton  into  the  end  of  the  luff. 
Having  riven  the  mast  the  proper  stay,  by  means  of  the 
luffs  on  the  topmast  stays  and  backstairs,  set  up  the  shrouds 
in  a  manner  similar  to  that  adopted  in  the  case  of  lower 
^SS^^?*  Stays,  backstays,  and  snrouds  should  all  be  first 
set  up  temporarily,  and  later  for  a  full  due,  in  the  order 
named. 

For  light  rigging^  a  runner  may  be  used  instead  of  a 
riggine  luff,  in  setting  up.  Fig.  316,  the  top-burton  being 
hooked  in  the  thimble  of  the  runner.  Avoid  the  use  of 
catspaws  in  the  laniards,  unless  the  ends  are  long  enough  to 
admit  of  cutting  off  afterwards.  The  rigging  being  set  up, 
lash  on  the  sheer  poles,  secure  the  ends  of  the  laniards  ana 
come  up  the  rackings  on  them.  Lash  on  the  f uttock  staffs 
below  the  eyes  of  the  topmast  rigging  and  inside  of  the 
shrouds.  These  are  of  rod  iron,  well  served  and  leathered 
in  order  not  to  chafe  the  topgallant  rigging  which  passes 
over  them  in  its  course  to  the  top.  Seize  the  forward  cat- 
harpin  leg^  on  each  side  to  the  forward  shroud  and  the 
after-ones  abaft  the  mast  to  the  after-shroud  on  the  oppo- 
site side.  The  two  cat-harpins  thus  cross  abaft  the  mast 
and  are  seized  together  in  the  cross.  General  view  of  eyes 
of  topmast  rigging,  Fig.  331. 

When  ready  to  rattle  down,  girt  in,  and  proceed  precisely 
as  in  rattling  down  lower  rigging,  but  without  omitting 
ratlines  at  any  shroud. 

Sometimes,  after  the  lower  and  topmasts  are  rigged,  a 
tarpaulin  coat,  fitting  snugly,  is  placed  over  the  eyes  of  the 
rigging,  as  a  protection  from  weather.  This  answers  very 
well,  and  if  painted,  does  not  detract  from  the  neat  appear- 
ance of  the  mast-head. 

«Til>-!Booni.  Being  in  the  stream,  bring  the  boom 
alongside  with  the  head  forward,  and  reeve  a  spare 
piece  of  rope  (studding-sail  halliards  if  at  hand),  through 
the  shoave-holes  in  each  end,  a  sufficient  number  of 
times,  and  make  it  fast.     Overhaul  down  the  main  pen- 


^8  RIGGING   SHIP. 

dant-tackle,  and  hook  it  into  a  cuckold's  neck  formed  in 
the  bight  of  the  span,  having  the  boom  to  hang  slightly 
heel  heavy.  Sway  it  up,  bearing  it  clear  of  the  ship's  side 
— ease  it  inboard,  and  land  it  in  the  gang[way^ ;  unreeve  the 
span,  and  carry  the  boom  forward,  pointing"  it  through  the 
bowsprit-cap,  and  reeve  the  heel-rope,  whicn  is  done  as  fol- 
lows :  Pass  one  end  through  a  single  block,  hooked  to  an 
eye-bolt  on  one  side  of  the  bowsprit-cap ;  thence  through 
tne  sheave  in  the  heel,  and  clinch  it  to  the  other  bolt,  on  tne 
opposite  side  of  the  cap.  Man  the  heel-rope,  and  rig  the 
boom  out,  until  the  shoulders  are  just  forward  of  the  dow- 
sprit  end.  *  Put  on  the  band  if  not  already  on.  This  band  is 
fitted  with  eyes  on  each  side  and  underneath  for  the  jib- 
guys  and  martingale. 

The  foot-ropes  are  fitted  with  eyes  in  their  outer  ends 
which  seize  to  the  jib-guys  close  to  the  shackle  on  the 
band.  The  foot-ropes  are  then  stopped  out  to  the  guys,  that 
on  the  starboard  side  for  a  suflScient  distance  to  keep  it  clear 
of  the  fiying  iib-boom.  Turks-heads  are  worked  on  the  foot- 
ropes  at  equal  distances,  to  keep  the  men  from  slipping  on 
account  ot  the  inclination,  or  steeve,  of  the  boom.  The  inner 
ends  of  the  foot-ropes  are  formed  into  eyes  which  are  seized 
to  the  upper  bolts  in  the  bowsprit  cap  after  the  jib-boom 
has  been  rigged  out.  Thus  fitted,  the  foot-ropes  should  be 
long  enough  to  allow  the  men  who  go  on  the  boom  to  stand 
with  the  lower  parts  of  their  breasts  against  it.  Reeve  the 
jibstay  through  the  inner  sheave-hole  of  the  boom  end. 
Dway  the  dolpnin-striker  to  its  place  by  means  of  a  tackle 
from  the  bowsprit  cap  and  a  whip  from  the  jib-boom  end 
and  hook  it  to  its  eye-bolt ;  shackle  to  it  the  lower  end  of 
the  jib-martingale  and  the  back-ropes.  Fig.  333  shows  jib- 
boom  end,  ana  Plate  52,  general  view  of  head-booms  with 
detail  of  whisker  and  dolphin  striker.  Place  the  jib-guvs 
over  the  whisker  ends  (see  Whiskers)  ship  the  wythe  for  tne 
flying  jib-boom  :  man  the  heel-rope  and  rig  out,  placing  the 
heel  m  the  saddle  and  clamping  it.  Unreeve  the  heel-rope, 
set  up  the  jib-guys,  when  ready,  and  the  jib-martingale,  the 
latter  being  set  up  by  pulling  on  the  back-ropes.  Lastly, 
set  up  the  ]ib-stay. 

The  jib-netting  is  made  of  ratline  stuflf,  with  6-inch 
meshes,  and  laces  to  the  guys  and  whiskers. 

A^liifslters  are  swayed  on  board  with  a  tackle  from 
the  forward  swifter.  A  whisker  is  got  into  place  ready  for 
rigging  by  means  of  a  jigger  from  the  fore-topmast  stay, 
hookea  to  a  strap  about  one-third  the  length  of  the  whisker 
from  its  outer  end,  and  another  jigger  from  the  bowsprit 
cap  to  its  inner  end.  When  far  enough  out  the  whisker  is 
hooked  to  a  bolt  in  the  bees.  When  hooked,  put  on  the  jib 
guy,  which  is  fitted  with  a  neat  eye  to  go  over  the  whisker 

*  In  handling;  a  large  boom,  it  will  be  necessary  to  have  a  tackle  from  tUe 
fore-stay  hooked  to  a  strap  on  the  head  of  the  boom,  to  raise  and  guide  it  through 
the  cap. 


RIGGING   SHIP.  99 

end,  and  then  the  whisker  jumper.  This  jumper  goes  over 
the  whisker  with  an  eye,  and  sets  up  to  the  cutwater,  or  it 
may  lead  through  a  clump  block  on  the  cutwater  to  the 
ship's  head  where  it  is  set  up. 

When  the  flying-jib-boom  has  been  placed  and  ri^c^ed, 
the  flying-jib-guys  are  rove  through  a  hole  in  the  whisKer, 
or  through  a  thimble  strapped  (with  wire  rope)  to  the 
whisker,  outside  of  all,  thimble  on  top.     Jib  and  flying- 

i'ib  guys  set  up  to  the  bows,  or  cathead,  with  three  scor^ 
tearts. 

The  whisker  being  rigged,  slack  the  stay  jiggers,  which 
serve  as  lifts,  and  haul  on  the  jib-guys  to  brmg  the  whiskers 
athwartship.  For  detail  of  rigging^  on  whisker,  see  Plate  52^ 
Fig.  305,  wnere  standing  part  of  forward  guy  is  omitted  to 
avoid  confusion. 

nPopg-a^llant  i^fa^sttsi.  Get  the  topgallant-mast  on 
board  by  means  of  the  mast  rope.  Hook  the  topgallant  top- 
block  to  a  bolt  in  the  topmast  cap,  and  reeve  the  mast  rope 
first  through  the  block,*  then  through  the  thimble  of  a  stout 
lizard,  the  tail  of  which  is  hitched  m  the  royal  sheave-hole  ; 
lastly,  through  the  sheave  in  the  heel,  and  cast  an  over- 
hand knot  in  the  end,  or  hitch  it  around  the  mast  to  its  own 
Sart.  When  the  topgallant  mast  is  on  board,  and  up  and 
own  forward  of  the  lower  mast,  secure  it  there  temporarily 
by  a  lashing  around  the  head  from  the  lower  stay  collar, 
passed  clear  of  the  mast  rope ;  cast  off  the  hitch  in  the  end 
of  the  mast  rope  and  carry  the  standing  part  aloft,  hitching 
it  to  a  bolt  in  the  topmast  cap,  on  the  side  opposite  to  where 
the  block  is  hooked.  Fig.  327.  Set  taut  the  mast  rope, 
cast  off  the  stop  at  the  stay  collar  and  sway  the  mast  aloft, 
bending  a  tripping-line  to  a  bolt  in  the  heel  to  guy  the  mast 
clear  on  its  passage  up.  Point  the  head  of  the  royal-mast 
and  sway  it  up  three  or  four  feet  above  the  topmast  cap, 
taking  off  the  lizard,  which  is  now  of  no  further  use. 
When  the  topsail  yard  is  in  its  place,  the  gate,  a  broad  iron 
band  across  tne  forward  part  of  the  trestle-trees,  hinged  on 
one  side,  should  be  opened  while  the  mast  is  being  swayed 
aloft  to  enable  it  to  pass  up.  The  gate  is  closed  as  soon  as 
the  heel  has  cleared  the  topsail  yard,  and  the  swinging  end 
secured  with  a  pin. 

nTopg-aillant  IRig-gliig-,  &:e.  Lash  a  stout  girt- 
line  block  to  the  topmast  cap  on  each  side,  and  send  down 
the  ends  of  the  whips  abaft  all  for  the  jack  and  funnel, 
fitted  in  one,  Fig.  328.  The  rim  of  the  funnel  is  rounded  off 
to  prevent  chafe.  A  grommet  fitted  on  the  funnel  acts  as 
a  bolster  for  the  rigging.  Land  the  funnel  on  the  topmast 
cap,  lash  it  temporarily,  lower  on  the  mast  rope  till  the 
royal  mast-head  is  about  fiush  with  the  cap  ;  cast  off  the 
girtline  and  place  the  funnel.  Sway  up  again  on  the  mast 
rope  and  point  the  royal  mast-head  Veil  clear  of  the  funnel. 
Then  witn  the  girtline  from  the  cap,  sway  aloft  and  get 
over  the  stays  and  rigging  in  the  following  order : 


100  RIGGING   SHIP. 

First,  Fore-topgallant  stay. 

Second,  Flying-jib  stay. 

Third,  Shrouds. 

Fourth,  Back  stays. 

The  eyes  of  this  rigging  are  made  to  fit  the  funnel 
exactly.    Fig.  330. 

A  clump-block  seized  between  the  topgallant  shrouds,  be- 
low the  eye,  is  for  the  topgallant  lift.  Tass  the  ends  of  the 
topgallant  shrouds  'over  the  f  uttock  staffs,  and  thence  into 
the  top,  where  thev  are  to  be  set  up  with  hearts.  Do  not 
clamp  these  shrouds  into  the  horns  of  the  cross-trees  until 
swaved  aloft,  as  it  gives  just  so  much  more  gear  to  over- 
haul. The  mast  can  be  steadied  sufficiently,  until  fidded, 
by  the  fore  and  aft  stay  and  back  stays.  Take  the  back 
stays  to  the  channels,  and  reeve  the  fore  and  aft  stay 
through  its  sheave  in  the  jib-boom. 

R^oyal  liC/ig-gliig'.  Send  up  by  means  of  the  girt- 
line  at  the  topmast  cap  the  royal  band,  with  the  rigging 
fitted  upon  it  as  described  In  the  previous  chapter.  Place 
the  band  on  the  mast-head,  Fig.  329,  reeve  the  royal 
shrouds  through  the  arms  of  the  jack  to  the  top,  take  the 
b^ck  stays  to  tne  Channels  and  the  fore  and  aft  stay  through 
its  sheave  in  the  flying-jib-boom,  when  the  latter  is  reaay 
for  rigging  out. 

A  small  clump-block  for  the  royal  lift  is  seized  in  be- 
tween the  shroud  and  back  stay,  below  the  band. 

Place  the  truck,  with  signal  halliards  rove  and  spindle 
and  lightning  conductor  (copper  wire)  attached,  man  the 
mast  rope  and  swav  up  the  mast,  overhauling  well  the 
royal  shrouds,  &c.  When  the  mast  is  fidded  and  the  fiying- 
jib-boom  is  rigged  out  and  clamped  (see  below),  set  up  the 
stays,  back  stays  and  shrouds  with  liggers,  not  forgetting 
to  clamp  the  topgallant  shrouds  in  tne  noms  of  the  cross- 
trees  before  setting  up. 

The  Fove-Topg-allaiit  Sta.v  reeves  through 
the  outer  sheave  in  the  jib-boom,  the  fore-royal  through  tne 
hole  in  the  fiying-jib-boom,  outside  the  sheave  for  the  flying- 
jib  stay. 

The  jril:>  and  F'lyino'-Jib  Staj^  reeve  through 
the  inner  sheaves  or  holes  in  their  respective  booms. 

The  IVIain  Topg^allant  wta>^  reeves  through 
a  hole  in  the  after-part  of  the  fore-cap,  setting  up  in  tne 
fore-top.  During  continued  exercises  in  sending  up  and 
down  topgallant-masts  this  stay  is  frequently  led  down  to 
the  deck,  abaft  the  fore-mast. 

The  jMaln  It^o^yal  Stay  reeves  now  through  the 
after  chock  of  the  fore-topmast  cross-trees,  so  that  if  the  fore- 
topgallant-mast  goes  the  main  royal-mast  is  not  in  danger. 
In  sending  up  topgallant-masts  the  main  can  be  stayed  with- 
out waiting  for  the  fore.    Sets  up  in  the  fore-top. 

The  3f;izzeii  Topg-allant  Stay  reeves  over 


RIGGING   SHIP.  101 

a  small  roller  in  the  after-part  of  the  main-cap.     Sets  up 
in  the  main-top. 

The  IMCizzen  lEtoysLl  Stay  leads  through  a 
sheave  in  the  after  chock  of  the  main-topmast  trestle-trees, 
and  down  into  the  main-top. 

All  these  stays  set  up  with  hearts  and  laniards. 

Fly ing— J  il3-l>oom.  Figs.  304  and  332.  Sway  it  on 
board  with  a  span,  as  directed  for  the  jib-boom,  and  rest  it 
on  the  head-ran  ready  for  going  out.  Hang  the  heel  by  a  slip 
Tope  from  the  fore-topmast  staj^s,  reeve  off  the  heel  rope 
through  a  block  secured  to  the  jib-guy,  through  the  sheave 
in  the  heel  of  the  boom,  securing  the  end  to  the.  neck  of  the 
wythe.  Pull  out  on  the  heel  rope  and  point  the  end  of  the 
flying-jib-boom  through  the  wythe,  with  the  shoulders  clear 
of  the  jib-boom  end.  rut  on  tne  head  of  the  flving-jib-boom, 
the  band  fof  iron)  fitted  with  eyes  for  the  flying-jib  guys 
on  each  siae,  and  one  eye  underneath  for  the  flying  martin- 
gale. Reeve  the  end  of  the  flying  martingale  through  a 
sheave  in  the  end  of  the  dolphin  striker,  and  the  guys 
through  the  holes  (or  thimbles)  at  the  whisker-boom  ends. 
Reeve  also  the  flymg-jib  and  fore-royal  stays  in  their  re- 
spective sheaves,  ana  under  the  cleats  on  the  dolphin 
striker.  Seize  the  foot  ropes  to  the  shackles  for  the  flying- 
jib  guys,  stopping  them  out  a  short  distance  to  the  guys, 
and  seize  the  inner  ends  (when  the  boom  is  rigged  out)  to 
the  jib  g^ys.  Rig  out,  taking  off  the  slip  rope  from  the 
fore-topmast  stays,  clamp  the  neel  to  the  side  of  the  cap, 
unreeve  the  heel  rope.  Set  up  the  flying-jib  martingale, 
then  the  fore  and  aft  stays,  lastly  the  royal  back  staj'^s, 
shrouds,  and  flying-jib  guys. 

Observe  that  in  staying  all  masts  the  stay  is  usually  set  up 
first  and  then  the  bacK-stays,  if  any,  and  lastly,  the  shrouds. 

TopKail  "i^ai'ds?.  Having  towed  the  yard  off  to 
the  ship,  say  on  the  port  side  with  the  starboard  yard-arm 
forward,  lash  a  large  single  block  at  the  topmast-head, 
into  a  strap  sufficiently  long  to  permit  it  to  hang  clear 
of  the  trestle-trees.  Through  this  reeve  a  hawser  down 
(outside  of  all;,  and  bend  it  on  to  the  slings  of  the  yard, 
either  stopping  it  to  the  forward  (in  this  case  starboard) 
quarter,  with  stout  lashings,  or  use  a  lizard,  and  secure 
tne  ship's  side  from  chafe  by  fenders  and  skids.  Hook  the 
port  pendant  tackle  also  to  a  strap  on  the  after-quarter,  and 
man  it  and  the  hawser  (taken  to  the  capstan),  swaying  the 
yard  on  board,  which  must  be  kept  from  canting  aft  against 
the  mast  by  means  of  a  purchase  or  guy  leading  from  for- 
ward. Ease  the  lizard  (or  stops)  as  necessary,  sway  on  the 
pendant  tackle  until  clear  of  the  ship's  side,  and  lower 
away,  landing  the  yard  as  you  had  it  alongside  (viz.,  with 
the  starboard  yard-arm  forward),  in  the  port  gangway,  on 
chocks,  which  should  also  be  placed  underneath  the  inner 
quarters,  to  keep  the  yard  from  becoming  bowed  in  the 


102  RIGGING   SHIP. 

slings  through  its  own  weight.     Now  cast  off  the  hawser 
and  tackle  and  prepare  for  rigging. 

It  is  customary  to  place  the  fore-topsail-yard  in  the  port 
gangway  for  rigging,  and  the  main-topsail-yard  in  the 
starboard. 

For  detail  of  slings  see  Fi^  336,  of  yard-arm,  339. 

T>oixl3le  Topsail  iTarcls.  In  the  merchant 
service  the  single-  topsail  is  rarely  met  with.  There  are  sev- 
eral patents  of  the  double  topsail  rig.  The  original  inventor 
was  an  American  shipmaster  named  Howe. 

There  are  two  topsails  and  two  topsail  yards.  The  lower 
topsail  yard- is  trussed  to  the  lower  cap,  being  supported  by 
a  crane  underneath,  the  heel  of  the  stay  of  which  works  in 
a  socket  on  the  forward  side  of  the  mast.  Slings  are  not 
used.  The  outer  yard  arms  have  short  jackstays  fitted  on 
the  upper  side  to  which  the  clews  of  the  upper  topsail  are 
shackled  instead  of  being  hauled  out  by  sheets. 

The  upper  topsail  yard  is  fitted  and  hoisted  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  ordinary  topsail  yard.  There  are  several 
patents  for  rolling  the  upper  topsail  up  as  the  yard  comes 
down  either  around  the  yard  or  around  a  rolling  spar  on  the 
forward  side  of  the  yard.  The  lower  topsail  is  fitted  with 
sheets  and  clewlines,  the  clewline  blocks  being  placed  well 
out  on  the  yard  on  account  of  the  short  leech.  In  large 
ships  double  topgallant  sails  are  sometimes  carried. 

<r^ij.ar*tei?  I31oel£H  are  iron-strapped,  with  friction- 
rollers,  shackled  to  bands  on  the  quarters  of  the  yard,  un- 
derneath. In  case  of  accident  compelling  the  use  of  a  rope 
strap,  it  should  be  single  with  lashing  eyes.  There  should 
be  separate  bands  ana  blocks  for  the  clewlines,  as  shown 
in  Fig.  336.  If  not,  the  quarter  block  is  either  double  for 
the  topgallant  sheet  and  topsail  clewline,  or  treble,  if  the 
topsail  reef  tackle  leads  under  the  yard. 

Bixrton  Strap^ii.  Iron  bands  a  few  feet  inside  of 
the  yard-arms,  with  an  eye  in  the  upper  part  to  which  the 
top  Durton  may  be  hooked. 

Bolt  ioi-  rXeacl-KMi-iiify-,  Fig.  372,  Plate  72.  A 
bolt  on  the  forward  side  of  the  yard,  just  inside  the  shoulder 
and  well  up  on  the  yard  ;  or  it  may  be  an  eye  in  the  shoulder 
band. 

Bacliei'  Tor  Ileacl-Kai-inor,  Fig.  372,  Plate  72, 
is  a  broad  piece  of  sennit  nailed  around  the  yard,  inside  ana 
clear  of  the  topgallant  sheet,  and  fitted  with  a  thimble  in 
its  hanging  end.  The  head  of  the  topsail  is  hauled  out  bv  the 
turns  of  the  liead-earing  taken  through  the  bolt  and  held  up 
on  the  yard  by  the  turns  taken  through  the  backer,  as  will 
be  described  more  fully  under  Bending  Sails.  For  backer, 
see  Fig.  372. 

Jaclc  Sta.yjsi  for  bending  are  of  rod  iron,  those  for 
reefing,  on  the  topsail  yard,  may  be  of  wire  rope,  rove 
through  staples  abaft  tlie  bending  jack-stay  on  the  upper 


RIGGIKG   SHIP. 


103 


part  of  the  yard,  outer  ends  going  over  the  yard-arm  with 
eyes,  the  inner  ends  set  up  to  each  other  in  the  slings  by 
means  of  smaJl  eye-lashings.  A  i'od  iron  jack-stay  often 
replaces  it.    Fig.  372. 

Foot  !Ror>e!S.  These  are  of  hemp,  fitted  with  an 
eye  going  over  tne  yard-arm.  They  are  worme^^l  and  the 
splice  served.  The  neck  of  the  splice  lies  a  little  abaft  the 
top  of  the  yard,  so  as  to  be  clear  of  the  topgallant  sheets. 
Foot-ropes  are  fitted  rove  through  the  stirrups,  and  the  ends 
taken  aoaft  the  mast  {when  the  yard  is  crossed),  and  secured 
to  the  opposite  quarters  on  topy  by  means  of  an  eye-lashing 
passed  over  the  yard,  round  on  the  forward  side,  under- 
neath, up,  and  back  throujB^h  the  eye  again,  a  sufiicient 
number  of  times ;  after  which  two  half  hitches  are  taken 
around  all  parts  to  secure  the  end.  This  plan  of  fitting 
them  is  recommended,  on  account  of  the  facility  with  which 
the  men  can  j^et  on  and  off  the  yard. 

Instead  of  the  eye  the  outer  ends  of  foot-ropes  may  be 
fitted  with  hooks  connecting  to  an  eye-bolt  on  the  after-side 
of  the  shoulder-band,  or  else  as  described  under  Flemish 
HoBSBS.  Inner  ends  of  foot-ropes  omitted  in  Fig.  336  to 
avoid  confusion. 

Stirnnxps  are  fitted  with  an  eye  in  the  lower  end  ^no 
thimble),  through  which  the  foot-rope  reeves  and  to  which 
it  is  seized.  The  upper  ends,  fitted  with  small  eyes,  are 
seized  to  the  jack-stay  staples. 

Flemisli  Ho]:*ses.  These  are  spliced  around  a 
thimble  on  the  pacific  iron  for  that  purpose,  and  the  eye  in 
the  other  end  secured  on  top  of  the  vard  to  the  iack-stay, 
the  length  of  the  yardarm  inside  of  the  sheave  hole,  with  a 
rose-seizing.  These  are  foot-ropes  for  the, yard-arm  men 
when  reefing,  &c.  It  would  be  better,  as  is  already  done 
on  some  modem  ships,  to  do  awav  with  the  flemish  horses 
by  carrying  out  the  foot-rope  to  the  pacific  iron,  fitting  the 
necessary  extra  stirrups.  * 

Tye  Blooks  are  iron-strapped  and  connected  by  a 
bolt  to  a  band  around  the  slings  of  the  yard  ;  or,  in  case  of 
two  tyes,  the  tye-blocks  shackle  to  bands  fitted  at  the 
slings,  at  a  distance  apart  equal  to  the  diameter  of  the* 
topmast.  The  bands  are  joined  by  a  span,  which  is  used 
for  the  purchase  to  hook  in  when  sending  the  yard  up 
and  down.  In  case  of  an  accident  to  the  straps  of  tye- 
blocks,  requiring  them  to  be  fitted  with  rope-straps,  it  is 
well  to  remember  that  two  single  straps  are  needed  to 
make  the  block  stand  fair  on  the  yard. 

I^o,in*oI.  A  parrel  fitted  of  wire  rope  is  commonly 
used.     This  consists  of  a  long  ana  a  short  leg,  leathered 

•  The  flemish  horso  was  introduced  when  lifts  and  brace-bh)ck  straps  went 
over  the  ytfrd-arm  with  eyes,  and  it  enabled  these  to  be  removed  or  jnit  ov- 
without  coming  up  anything  but  the  inl)<)ard  lushing:  of  the  flemish  horse. 
Now  that  all  this  gear  is  differently  fitted,  a  separate  outboard  foot- rope  ie 
superfluous,  and  is  going  out  of  use. 


104  RIGGING   SHIP. 

singly,  marled  together,  and  again  leathered  in  the  wake  cf 
the  mast,  Fig.  33G.  Eyes  are  spliced  into  the  ends  of  the 
two  legs,  and  stout  quarter  seizings  placed  on  both  close  to 
the  eyes  of  the  short  leg.  The  long  leg  then  passes  around 
the  quarter  of  the  yard,  half  the  diameter  of  the  topmast 
from  the  centre,  and  secures  to  the  short  one  by  a  rose- 
seizing  on  the  upper  after  side.  When  the  yard  is  crossed 
the  remaining  leg  is  passed  on  the  opposite  side  and  secured 
in  the  same  manner.  There  are  additional  seizings  through 
holes  in  the  jaws  to  keep  the  parrel  in  place.  In  time 
these  parrels  will  probably  be  replaced  by  an  iron  cylinder, 
sliding  up  and  down  the  topmast,  to  which  the  topsail  yard 
is  secured  by  a  truss  similar  to  the  one  on  the  lower  yard. 
This  cylinder,  or  tub,  keeps  the  yard  well  trussed  to,  and 
its  lower  edge  is  low  enough  to  keep  the  yard  off  the  cap. 

Urace  lJlocls:&^.  Iron-strapped,  with  friction- 
rollers^  and  shackle  to  the  after-bolts  m  the  shoulder-band, 
block  sheave  standing  up  and  down.  In  case  of  accident 
to  the  strap  or  bolt,  use  a  grommet  strap  arouud  the  yard, 
single  strap  around  the  block,  the  two  straps  connected 
by  lock  thimbles. 

Litit.^  are  four-stranded,  hemp,  and  blacked.  Hook  to 
the  shoulder-band,  reeve  through  lower  sheave  of  a  sister 
block  seized  in  between  the  swifter  and  next  shroud  in  the 
topmast  rigging,  just  below  the  eyes,  thence  to  the  top, 
where  they  turn  up  through  clump  blocks.  Set  up  with 
jiggers. 

•Jewel  I31oekH.  Single,  rope  or  iron  -  strapped, 
hook  to  the  pacific  iron  with  sister  hoolcs.  Not  put  in  place 
until  the  studding  sail  gear  is  rove  off. 

Tvesis.  Flexible  wire  rope.  The  lower  end  has  a 
thimble  spliced  in,  to  which  hooks  the  fly-block.  Passing 
through  the  mast-head  gin-blocks,  they  reeve  through  the 
tye-block  on  the  yard  from  out,  in,  thence  up  through  the 
topmast  trestle-trees,  and  made  fast  around  tne  mast-head. 
The  heel  of  the  topgallant-mast  is  scored  out  on  purpose  to 
admit  the  tye. 

Small  ships  have  a  single  tye  only,  which  in  this  case 
reeves  through  a  sheave  in  the  topmast,  instead  of  a  gin- 
block.  Bell's  purchase  (see  Topsail  Halliards)  is  used  in 
connection  with  such  tyes. 

The  length  of  the  tyes  should  be  such  that  the  fly-blocks 
will  be  square  with  the  lower  cap  when  the  yard  is  down. 

See  that  the  yard  is  fitted  with  boom  irons,  reefing  cleats, 
saddles  (inboard  from  sheave  holes)  for  topgallant  sheets, 
&c.,  and  prepare  for  sending  it  aloft.* 

Hook  a  stout  double  purcnase  from  the  topmast-head  to 
the  tye-band  (or  a  strap)  in  the  slings  of  the  yard,  Fig.  335. 

*  It  may  be  noted  here  that  tlie  iron  work,  bands*,  &c.,  described  in  connection 
with  the  jard  fittings  are  all  in  place,  as  a  rule,  before  the  yard  is  sent  on  board, 
and  are  enumerated  only  to  com[)lete  the  list  of  the  fittings.  In  former  times 
nearly  all  of  the  above  described  fittings  were  of  rope. 

9 


Plate  59 


RIGGING    SHIP.  105 

Coil  the  lifts  on  the  quarters  of  the  yard  (stopping  them  to 
the  jack-stays),  and  reeve  marrying-lines  for  the  braces, 
observing  to  dip  the  starboard  (or  upper)  one  over  the 
lower  stav.  Overhaul  the  top-burtons  from  aloft,  and  hook 
them  to  the  yard-arms  ;  as  also  a  fore-and-aft  tackle  to  the 
slings  to  keep  the  yard  from  chafing  against  the  mast,  as  it 
goes  up. 

Man  the  purchase  and  walk  away,  taking  through  the 
slack  of  the  starboard-burton,  keeping  control  of  the  port 
^or  lower)  yard-arm,  and  placing  a  mat  under  it  to  prevent 
injury  to  "the  deck.  As  soon  as  the  upper  yard-arm  is 
well  up  and  clear  of  the  lower  stay,  commence  crossing  by 
^keeping  to  the  slack  of  the  fore-and-aft  tackle,  hauling  on 
the  lower  burton  and  starboard  brace.  Reeve  the  lifts 
through  the  sister-blocks,  and  as  the  yard  rises  above  the 
lower  cap,  square  it :  bring  to  and  pass  the  parrel.  Reeve 
the  tyes,  hook  the  fly-block  with  the  halliards  rove,  and 
take  the  strain  from  the  burtons  and  purchase,  which  may 
now  be  unhooked,  and  the  latter  sent  down,  together  with 
the  fore-and-aft  tackle.  Observe,  lastly,  to  place  a  block  of 
wood  between  the  slings  and  lower  cap,  to  keep  the  yard 
from  bowing,  in  case  the  halliards  should  be  slacked  or  let 
go  ;  or,  as  sometimes  practised  in  large  ships,  have  a  mid- 
ship-lift fitted,  of  such  a  length  as  not  to  permit  the  yard  to 
touch  the  cap. 

N.B. — This  routine  supposes  the  yard  to  be  lying  in  the 
port  gangway,  with  the  starboard  yard-arm  forward, 

Lio^vei*  "Vai'clss.  Of  the  many  methods  suggested 
for  getting  a  lower  yard  on  board,  the  following  may  be 
selected  as  the  safest  and  most  seamanlike  : 

The  yard  is  towed  alongside,  on  the  starboai^d  side,  with 
the  port  end  forward.  Top  up  the  fish-boom.  Fig.  3o7,  by 
its  topping  lift  T,  the  upper  block  being  hooked  at  the  fut- 
tock  band.  Swing  the  boom  around  to  the  starboard  side 
with  the  usual  forward  and  after  guys.  (For  description  of 
fish-davit,  see  Ground  Tackle.)  Should  there  be  no  sheave 
in  the  boom,  as  at  A,  lash  a  block  at  tliat  point.  Lash 
together  two  large  single  blocks,  as  at  B  and  C.     Reeve  a 

Eendant  through  A  and  B,  securing  the  outboard  end  to  the 
ead  of  the  boom,  and  take  a  turn  with  the  other  end  of  the 
pendant  at  the  sheet  bitts. 

Through  the  block  C  reeve  a  hawser,  make  fast  to  the 
bight  above  C  the  lower  block  of  a  treble  purchase  from  the 
topmast-head.  The  other  end  of  the  hawser  is  secured  at 
the  slings  of  the  yard,  and  stopped  along  the  port  yard-arm 
to  the  pacific  iron,  with  rope  stops. 

Protect  the  hammock  rail  where  the  yard  is  to  be  landed 
by  blocking  up  in  the  netting  above  the  level  of  the  rail. 

When  ready,  tow  the  after  (starboard)  yard-arm  out 
from  the  ship,  keep  it  end  on  to  tne  vessel  with  a  guy  from 
forward.     Walk  away  with  the  treble  purchase,  and  as  the 


ion  RIGGING    SHIP. 

yard  comes  over  the  rail,  cast  off  the  stops  in  succession ; 
the  pendant  easinj^  the  yard  in  to  the  mast.  Use,  in  addi- 
tion, a  fore-and-aft  tackle,  and  thwartship  jiggers  to  assist 
in  placing  the  yard  across  the  nettings.* 

Sliii«r-l>aii<lK,  These  are  two  stout  iron  bands  Roing 
around  the  yard,  each  side  of  and  near  the  centre,  and  con- 
nected by  an  iron  span,  to  which  the  slings  are  attached  by 
means  of  the  slip-hook,  or  "  pelican  "  hook.    Plate  39. 

There  may  be  two  additional  bands,  one  on  each  side,  for 
preventer  slings,  or  for  the  jeer-blocks,  if  the  latter  shackle 
to  the  yard  instead  of  lashing. 

Tlio  Oixaiii-Hlingrts  are  sent  aloft  by  one  of  the 
top-burtons,  and  fit  over  the  lower  cap  in  a  saddle  for  the 
purpose,  or  they  may  be  fitted  with  two  shackles  that  secure 
to  the  eyes  of  a  crescent,  bolted  over  the  cap.  A  back- 
lashing  abaft  the  mast,  about  one-third  the  doublings  from 
the  mast-head,  keeps  the  strain  on  the  slings  in  a  vertical 
direction.     Plate  39. 

Ti'iiss«-l>aiicl?<«  Iron  bands,  outside  the  sling-bands, 
to  which  the  arms  of  the  truss  are  secured.  See  also 
Fig.  338. 

15s:iel£<>i*  and  Staple  loi*  Heacl-earingr. 
There  is  usually  an  eye  in  the  shoulder-band  for  the  head- 
earing.  In  its  absence,  a  grommet  strap  of  small  rope  is 
put  on  the  yard-arm  first,  with  a  thimble  seized  in  on  top. 
Backer  of  rope  plaited,  fitted  similar  to  the  one  on  topsail 
yard. 

T^it"tK  are  of  wire.  In  large  ships  they  are  rove  as 
luffs,  with  the  double  block  at  the  cap,  and  single  block 
hooking  to  the  shoulder-band.  The  standing  part  hooks  to 
the  breech  of  the  vard-arm  block,  or  to  a  bolt  on  the  shoul- 
der-band.  In  smaller  vessels  the  lift  is  a  gun-tackle  pur- 
chase, the  standing  part  hooking  to  the  breech  of  the  upper 
block.  Lower  lift  blocks  at  the  cap  are  of  iron,  the  fore 
usually  has  additional  sheaves  (the  after  ones)  for  the  lower 
boom  topping-lift. 

The  end  of  the  lift  on  deck  is  turned  up  around  a  thimble, 
into  which  a  double  (or  lighter)  purchase  is  hooked. 

I3i'aeo'-l:>locli>s.  Iron  strapped,  with  friction-rollers, 
hook  to  shoulder-band,  sheave  up  arid  down. 

<^xiai'tei"-131ocltw  for  the  topsail-sheets,  are  iron- 
strapped  and  shackle  to  the  band,  underneath  the  yard, 

*  For  the  mnin  yard  tlie  fish-booiu  is  taken  aft  and  the  heel  secured  in  one 
of  the  jeer  bolts  forwarl  of  the  mast.  In  the  case  from  which  this  description  is 
taken,  the  main-yard  of  the  "Colorado"  was  the  spar  handled.  There  were 
no  precautions  necessary,  except  as  alcove  stated  in  protecting  the  netting.  The 
ship  was  in  port,  at  Hong  Kong,  the  waistljoats  remained  hoisted,  and  the  gang- 
way ladder  shipped.  The  spar,  110  feet  long  and  weighing  nearly  10  tons,  waa 
landed  on  board  inside  of  20  minutes.  Treble  purchase  6-inch  fall.j  hawser 
10  inch,  pendant  4i-inch  hemp,  stops  on  the  yard  and  hawser  2  J -inch  manilla. 
In  the  absence  of  tlie  fish-boom,  use  any  suitable  spar  as  an  outrigger. 


RIGGING    SHIP.  107 

Plate  39.  In  case  of  accident  to  the  strap  or  bolt,  seize 
the  5[uarter-block  into  a  doubled  grommet-strap  with  a  round 
seizing,  the  bights  being  secured  to  the  yard  on  top  by  a 
rose-seizing. 

Clevr-Ci-ax'net-moeliH,  Plate  39,  are  iron- 
strapped  with  friction-rollers,  and  hook  to  a  band  around  the 
yard,  being  forward  and  inside  of  the  quarter-blocks.  They 
should  be  ntted  with  a  link  or  swivel.  In  case  of  accident 
requiring  them  to  be  rope-strapped,  use  single  strap  with 
lasning  eyes,  the  latter  seized  together  on  top  of  the  yard. 

Ciiiarter*-Ii*<>nis,  Fig.  347  6,  for  the  topmast-stud- 
ding-sail-booms,  are  screwed  to  iron  bands  on  the  yard  about 
two-thirds  out,  and  are  fitted  to  clamp  and  unclamp  around 
the  boom. 

]3o<>iia  IroriH  for  the  same  spars  are  keyed  to  the 
ends  of  the  pacific-irons,  and  fitted  with  a  roller  in  the 
lower  part.     Fig.  334,  also  Fig.  347. 

Kixi'ton.  Sti*fipH.  iron  bands  with  eyes  at  top, 
fitted  to  the  yard  inside  the  sheave  for  topsail  sheets. 

•J^icliHtays^  both  for  bending  and  reefing,  are  of 
iron,  the  former  with  staples,  the  latter  passing  through 
eye-bolts  on  the  yard  above  the  bending  jack-stay. 

K'oot  Xl.opefe«.  Fitted  similar  to  those  on  the  top- 
sail yard ;  the  outer  end  hooks  to  the  shoulder-band.  Fig. 
334.  The  foot-ropes  cross  forward  of  the  mast,  each  inner 
end  secured  to  the  opposite  arm  of  the  truss  and  seized  to 
the  arm  on  its  own  side.  The  two  foot-ropes  are  seized 
together  where  they  cross. 

The  necessary  cleats,  &c.,  having  been  attached  to  the 
yard,  it  is  sent  aloft  by  ^the  jeers ;  should  these  not  be 
available,  use  two  pendant-tackles.  In  either  case,  hook 
both  top-burtons  to  tne  burton-straps  on  the  yard,  and  reeve 
and  man  the  braces  and  lifts — the  latter  rove  single  until 
the  yard  is  aloft.  Keep  the  yard  clear  of  the  mast  by  a 
fore-and-aft  tackle. 

The  jeers  are  two  double  (better  treble)  purchases,  the 
upper  blocks  in  small  vessels  being  secured  permanently  to 
the  chain  slings  aloft.     (See  Jeeb  Blocks). 

The  lower  blocks  lash  around  the  yard  on  either  side 
of  the  slings ;  the  upper  blocks  hang  by  long  lashings  or 
chain  slings  from  the  lower  cap,  over  the  forward  part  of 
the  top  rim. 

Swaj  aloft,  keeping  control  of  the  fore-and-aft  tackle ; 
when  high  enough  key  the  truss,  hook  the  slinks,  square 
the  yard  by  the  lifts  and  braces,  unhook  the  jeers,  bur- 
tons, &c. 

The  cross-jack  yard  differs  somewhat  in  its  fittings  from 
the  fore  and  main,  as  no  sail  is  set  upon  it.  The  braces 
hook  to  a  band  well  inside  the  shoulders,  so  that  the  brace 
(which  leads  forward)  may  clear  the  main  topmast  back- 
stays. 


108  RIGGING    SHIP. 

The  cross-jack  yard  is  got  on  board  by  a  purchase  from 
the  topmast  head,  and  swayed  aloft  by  the  same  purchase 
and  the  burtons. 

The  lower  yard  is  sometimes  taken  first  in  order,  in 
rigging  ship,  but  by  sending  the  topsail-yards  up  first,  time 
may  be  saved. 

T'opg-allant-A^iiiulK.  The  yard  being  alongside, 
sway  it  on  board  with  the  yard-rope,  rove  tnrough  the 
sheave-hole  in  the  topgallant-masthead,  hooking  it  to  the 
slings,  and  stopping  it  down  to  the  forward  yard-arm. 

The  fittings  are  as  follows,  Figs.  3J:0  and  341  : 

Hliii«fw«  An  iron  band  around  the  center  of  the  yard, 
with  a  link  for  the  hooks  on  the  yard-rope. 

l*iii*i*el.  A  grommet  on  each  side  of  the  slings  fits 
around  the  yard  and  the  jaws,  a  score  being  cut  in  the  lat- 
ter. Both  grommets  are  leathered,  and  are  seized  to  form 
eyes  abaft,  abreast  the  opening  of  the  jaws.  A  third  grom- 
met strap,  also  leathered,  is  seized  to  one  of  the  eyes,  and, 
when  the  yard  is  crossed,  passes  around  the  mast,  and 
lashes  to  the  other  eye.  In  port,  exercising,  a  single  lash- 
ing is  substituted  for  the  third  grommet-strap.  Instead 
of  the  first  two  grommets  there  might  be  eyes  m  the  jaws, 
but  these  foul  in  sending  the  yard  up  and"  down,  and  are 
liable  to  get  knocked  out. 

If  the  the  topgallant-yard  is  not  provided  with  jaws  the 
parrel  is  formed  as  above,  or  with  a  long  and  short  grom- 
met. The  larger  strap  is  long  enough  to  go  around  the 
yard  and  meet  the  short  one,  being  secured  by  a  lashing  of 
small  stuff.     Both  straps  leathered. 

C.^imi'tei'  IJloeliK.  These  are  double,  iron- 
strapped,  friction-rollers,  and  hook  to  a  band  on  the  yard. 

Hti-sip  !<>!•  tlie  J_^iziii'cl«  A  grommet  strap 
slipped  over  the  yard  with  a  thimble  seized  in  the  bight, 
on  top  of  the  yard,  the  strap  itself  being  a  few  feet  from 
the  slings,  and  called  a  quart  erst  rap.  To  prevent  slipping 
this  quarter-strap  should  be  seized  to  the  jackstay. 

liiiekei^  liiKl  CJi'iiig-li*  !<>!•  Ilesicl-oni'iiijr. 
Backer  same  as  on  top-sail  yard.  Instead  of  a  head-earing 
staple,  there  is  a  small  cringle  worked  into  the  eye  of  the 
foot-rope,  clear  of  the  royal  sheet.     Figs.  341.  b, 

r^oot-JL^opes^,  Fig.  341.  Fitted  with  eyes  to  go 
over  the  yard-arms.  At  sea  the  inner  ends  generally  cross 
abaft  the  mast  (preventer  parrel)  and  in  port  they  cross  for- 
ward of  the  mast.  These  inner  ends  are  variously  secured. 
They  may  be  fitted  with  an  eye,  lashing  to  the  yard  with  a 
flat-seizing,  eye  abaft  and  on  top  of  the  yarcl.  Or,  for 
convenience  in  shifting,  these  ends  of  the  foot-ropes  may 
be  fitted,  as  in  Fig.  340,  with  sister  hooks  to  connect  with 
the  thimble  of  a  strap  on  the  quarters  of  the  yard.  Or, 
finally,  if  the  neck  of  the  eye-bole  for  the  quarter-block  is 
long  enough,  the  ends  may  hook  there;. 


Plate  61 


iniK.33S 


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RIGGING  SHIP.  109 


Hending-  .Tsvclc  Sttx;^'^  of  iron.  There  is  no  reef- 
ing jack-stay. 

I^ift,  Fig.  341  a.  Single,  with  a  round  eye,  the  splice 
of  which  is  served.  The  eye  goes  over  the  yard-arm  when 
swayed  up  for  crossing.  The  lift  is  cut  long  enough  to 
reach  the  top  after  reeving  through  the  bull's-eye  or  cmmp- 
block  between  the  topgallant  shrouds.  It  is  marled  to  the 
eye  of  the  brace,  so  that  both  lift  and  brace  go  on  and  off 
together,  the  double  eye  being  leathered. 

The  lift  and  brace  may  have  their  ends  secured  to  eyes 
projecting  from  an  iron  ring  which  is  leathered  and  goes 
over  the  yard-arm. 

Ui'aces!.  Fitted  with  an  e}^e  in  the  end,  marled  to 
the  lift,  or  hooked  into  the  iron  ring  above  described.  It 
may  be  single  or  a  whip  and  pendant. 

Mll<>l•tel•^*,  Fig.  341  a,  are  in  length  a  little  less  than 
half  the  yard,  the  outer  end  spliced  into  the  thimble  of  an 
eye-bolt  at  the  yard-arm  ;  the  inner  end  has  an  eye  for  the 
tripping-line,  and  is  secured  by  a  stop  to  the  slings  when 
not  in  use. 

I^o  d*os8K  n  Toi><inllsxn1  ^"fii-cl.  Fig.  342. 
The  yard  rope,  having  a  lizard  attached  (overhauled  down 
forward,  and  outside  of  all),  is  rove  through  a  ffood-sized 
grommet  passed  over  the  upper  yard-arm  and  nooked  to 
the  link  in  the  sling-band,  the  lizard  being  rove  through  the 
upper  quarter-strap  thimble,  and  hitched  to  the  one  on  the 
opposite  quarter.  Take  the  eye  of  the  lower  lift  and  brace 
in  the  topmast  rigging,  and  that  of  the  upper  one  to  the 
opposite  side  of  the  topmast  cap,  and  sway  aloft.  When 
the  upper  yard-arm  rises  within  reach  of  the  man  on  the 
topmast  cap,  take  off  the  grommet ^  slip  on  the  lifts  and 
braces  over  the  snorters,  gathering  up  the  slack  of  the 
lower  one,  and  sway  away  until  the  slings  of  the  yard 
are  well  above  the  topmast  cap,  take  through  the  slack  of 
the  lower  lift,  then  talce  a  turn  of  the  parrel-lashing  abaft 
the  mast,  through  the  eye  in  the  opposite  strap,  tend 
the  lifts  and  braces,  slack  up  the  Uzard,  and  **sway 
across,"  squaring  the  yard,  and  passing  the  parrel  for  a 
full  due. 

Note. — The  outer  ends  of  snorters  are  generally  plaited 
like  sennit,  that  they  may  lie  flat,  and  permit  the  eye  of  the 
lift  and  brace  to  fit  over  snugly. 

tlo^yal  ^^ai*cls«  The  routine  of  rigging  and  cross- 
ing is  precisely  similar  to  that  of  the  topgallant  yards  ;  the 
differences  being  that  the  quarter-blocks  are  single,  there 
are  no  backers,  and  the  foot-ropes  never  cross  abaft  the 
mast. 

In  many  ships  small  hand  grommets  are  worked  around 
the  jack-stays  for  the  men  to  hold  on  by  when  at  sea. 


110  TRY8 AIL-MASTS,   GAFFS  AND  BOOMS. 


TRYSAIL-MASTS,  GAFFS  AND  BOOMS. 

These  spars  are  usually  swayed  on  board  by  means  of 
the  fore  or  main  yard  and  stay  tackles:  purchases  most 
frequently  in  use,  and  convenient  at  tnis  stage  of  the 
equipment. 

Ti'jV'ft^ail-^i^M^^^tK.  The  trysail-mast  is  shipped  bv 
means  of  a  tackle  hooked  to  a  strap  above  the  f uttock-band, 
the  head  being  pointed  through  a  hole  in  the  after-chock, 
and  the  heel  (over  which  the  hoops  are  passed)  stepped  in  a 
socket  or  mortise,  on  the  fife-rail,  or  on  the  deck.  After 
which,  the  head  is  secured  by  a  lashing  through  a  B-cleat 
underneath  the  top,  or  with  iron  keys  ;  copper  having  been 
put  on  in  the  wake  of  the  gaff. 

The  spanker-mast  may  oe  fitted  with  an  iron  spindle  in 
the  heel,  stepping  into  the  heel-strap  of  the  spanker-boom. 

Cjra.ll  is.  Figs.  343  and  344.  The  plan  at  present  gener- 
ally adopted  in  the  service  for  trysail  and  spanker  gaffs 
is  to  fit  them  with  jaws  and  in  connection  with  a  trysail- 
mast,  there  being  hoops  on  the  gaff  and  trysail-mast  for 
bending  the  sail.  Gaffs  may  be  seen  in  some  vessels  secured 
directly  to  the  lower  mast  by  means  of  .eye-bolts  within 
each  other,  like  lock  thimbles.  Another  plan  is  to  have  a 
scored  batten  secured  on  the  after  side  of  the  mast  in  place 
of  a  trysail-mast,  with  metal  slides  furnished  with  bending 
loops  sliding  up  and  down  in  the  c^roove  of  the  batten.  In 
this  case  the  gaff  attaches  to  a  sliding  chock,  which  also 
moves  up  ana  down  in  the  score  of  the  batten,  ''railway 
fashion,    as  it  is  termed. 

The  ordinary  gaff  first  described  may  be  fitted  with  a 

Kermanent  span  of  wire  rope  or  chain,  from  the  shoulder 
and  to  the  after  part  of  the  cap,  and  a  similar  throat 
pendant  shackling  to  the  upper  part  of  the  gaff  between 
the  jaws  and  to  a  bolt  under  the  top ;  or,  tlie  span  and 
throat  pendant  may  be  replaced  by  peak  and  throat  hal- 
liards, sometimes  rove  in  one,  as  described  under  running 
rigging.     The  blocks  for  these  halliards  are  iron-strapped. 

vangs  are  fitted  with  a  pendant  that  hooks  into  a  band 
on  the  siioulder  of  the  gaff. 

The  vang  pendants  having  been  liooked,  the  gaff  is  sent 
aloft  by  means  of  its  halliards,  or  by  a  top  burton  hooked 
into  a  strap  around  the  peak  pendant  and  another  tackle 
from  under  the  top,  shacKliiig-  the  pendants  as  soon  as  the 
gaff  is  aloft,  and  passing  the  jaw  rope  or  parrel. 

In  view  of  the  frequent  use  of  trysail  gaffs  as  derricks  in 
raising  weights  through  the  hatches  which  they  plumb,  the 
gaffs  and  their  fittings  should  be  as  substantial  as  possible. 

A  very  important  part  of  the  fitting  of  a  gaff  is  the 
saddle  (a),  Fig.  344,  Plate  04.  This  consists  of  a  block  of 
wood,  which  bolts  in  between  the  jaws  and  is  hollowed  out 


Plate  62 


-f^^^ 


H^g.338 


L_ 


TBY8AIL-MASTS,   GAFFS  AND  BOOMS.  HI 

to  fit  the  mast.  It  facilitates  the  hoisting  of  the  gaff,  for  at 
whatever  angle  it  may  be,  the  same  smooth  surface  of  the 
saddle  is  presented  to  the  mast. 

Saddles  are  particularly  useful  in  small  vessels  where 
the  eaff  is  frequently  lowered  and  hoisted. 

Tne  «panfccr-g^aff  should  always  be  fitted  with  throat  and 
peak  halliards  to  hoist  and  lower,  as  necessary  ;  for  other- 
wise it  would  be  almost  impossible  to  reef  the  sail.  In 
brigantines  and  schooners  it  is  not  unf  requently  the  case 
that  eye-bolts  are  attached  to  each  side  of  the  jaws,  for 
preventer  lashings  in  heavy  weather ;  and  a  single  block 
(grommet-strapped)  is  put  over  the  gaff  end  for  a  down- 
haul  :  vangs  being  dispensed  with  as  useless,  on  account  of 
the  sharp  angle  at  which  they  act,  in  consequence  of  the 
height  of  the  gaff. 

booiiiH.  That  for  the  spanker  is  neatest  if  shipped 
with  a  goose-neck  to  an  eye-bolt  on  the  mizzen-mast,  Fig. 
345,  and  fitted  with  an  iron  oand  over  the  boom-end  for  the 
topping-lift  and  the  guys,  both  of  which  connect  to  it  with 
sister  nooks.  The  sheet-blocks  are  best  if  strapped  with 
rope-groDMnets,  on  account  of  the  jerks  and  checks  in  jib- 
bing, which  render  eye-bolts  liable  to  snap  and  break  at  the 
necK.  These  blocks  are  fitted  with  clip-hooks  if  the  eye  is 
up  and  down.  The  foot-ropes  hook  into  a  band  on"^  the 
boom  end,  and  seize  to  eyes  on  the  sheet  band.     Fig.  346. 

The  topping-lifts  (one  on  each  side)  are  usually  fitted 
with  sister  hooks  in  the  end  and  hook  to  an  iron  band, 
about  one-fifth  of  the  extreme  length  of  the  boom  from  the 
outer  end  ;  while  the  running  parts  reeve  through  blocks,  at 
each  side  of  the  mizzen  tressle-trees,  and  thence  to  the  deck, 
where  gun-tackle  purchases  are  attached.  In  men-of-war 
of  the  smaller  class,  and  in  the  merchant  service,  the 
topping-lift  is  not  unfrequently  single,  and  rove  through  the 
gaff -end,  and  a  roller  in  the  after-part  of  the  mizzen-topmast 
tressle-trees ;  the  end  is  turned  up  around  a  thimble  into 
which  a  jigger  is  hooked. 

On  the  main-boom  of  brigantines  and  schooners  the 
topping-lift  is  usually  fitted  with  the  standing  part  secured 
at  the  mainmast-head  by  hooking  in  an  eye-bolt  of  the 
wythe  ;  while  the  lower  end  is  spliced  around  a  double 
block,  in  which  a  fall  is  rove,  leading  through  a  single  one. 
and  a  sheave  in  the  boom.  In  this  class  of  vessels  the  clew 
of  the  sail  shackles  to  a  band  around  the  boom.  A  heavy 
strap  (which  is  cleated  forward),  with  thimbles  at  each  sid(\ 
is  put  around  the  boom  at  the  sheet-block  for  the  booni- 
tacjcle  pendant,  which  is  fitted  with  a  hook  in  the  after-end 
and  a  thimble  in  the  forward,  and  is  used  only  in  going  large. 

The  boom  is  got  in  its  place  by  means  of  the  throat-hdiy 
hards  and    topping-lift,  assisted  by  guys  and  thwartship 
tackles,  as  requisite. 
Stuclclinsr-So.il    JiooniK.      That  for  the   lower 


112  TRYSAIL-MASTS,    GAFFS  AND  BOOMS. 

Studding-sail  is  fitted  with  an  iron  goose-neck  and  key, 
which  connects  to  a  bolt  in  the  forward  part  of  the  fore- 
channels,  and  is  shipped  either  by  means  of  the  fore  and 
main  yard-tackles,  or  with  tackles  on  the  fore  topmast  back- 
stay and  forward  swifter  of  the  fore-rigging.  On  the  outer 
end,  about  two-thirds  from  the  goose-neck,  an  iron  band  is 
fitted  on  the  boom,  having  eye-bolts  on  the  forward,  upper, 
and  after  sides,  for  the  topping-lift  and  the  guy-blocks ;  moor- 
imj  pendants  with  large  thimbles  in  the  lower  ends  for  the 
boats,  and  a  Jacob' s  ladder  are  hooked,  when  in  port,  to  the 
boom.  The  eyes  for  the  pendants  are  underneath  the  boom, 
and  those  for  the  Jacob's  ladder  are  on  the  upper  after  side. 

The  topping-lift  is  of  wire,  it  hooks  to  the  upper  eye- 
bolt  in  the  band  on  the  boom,  reeves  through  a  metal  block 
hooked  to  an  eye  in  the  bolt  which  shackles  the  fore  brace- 
block  to  the  yard,  thence  through  a  block  at  the  lower  cap- 
usually  the  after  sheave  of  the  lift-block.  The  inboard  ena 
of  the  topping-lift  is  turned  up  around  a  thimble,  into  which 
a  purchase  is  hooked. 

The  guy-blocks  are  iron-strai)ped  and  hook  to  the  band. 

When  the  boom  is  rigged  out  in  port  a  life-line  is  seized 
to  the  topping-lift,  about  breast-high  from  the  boom,  with 
its  inner  end  secured  inboard  in  the  chains,  in  line  with  the 
boom. 

When  the  boom  is  not  in  use  it  is  hauled  alongside  by  the 
after-guy,  and  rests  in  cranes,  shipped  for  the  purpose  in 
the  waist,  the  topping-lift  being  unnooked  and  tncea  up  out 
of  the  wav. 

The  lower  boom  is  so  called  at  sea,  and  is  known  as  the 
swiiiqing-hooin  in  port. 

'lOpiiiitKt  Htixclcliiig'-Sitil  15c><>lll^4•  Round, 
spruce,  or  yellow  pine  spars,  unpainted  excepting  their  pro- 
jecting ends.  The  outer  end  is  fitted  witn  a  permanent 
tack  block,  swivelled  upon  it.  Fig.  347,  and  in  line  with  the 
axis  of  the  boom,  or  else  there  is  an  iron  pin  driven  through 
the  boom  vertically,  near  its  outer  end,  Fig.i348. 

The  inner  end,  or  heel,  has  a  deep  score  lor  a  heel-lashing 
when  the  boom  is  rigged  out.  Outside  of  this  score  there 
are  two  holes  bored  in  the  boom,  one  up  and  down,  and  one 
fore  and  aft.  Fig.  347.  A  erommet  strap  is  worked  through 
each  hole,  one  having  a  thimble  for  the  in-and-out  jigger, 
and  the  other  a  thimble  for  the  tricing-line. 

The  inner  strap  is  fitted  through  tne  hole  bored  fore  and 
aft,  in  line  with  tne  score.  It  is  used  for  the  boom  tricing- 
line.     Splice  a  heel-rope  around  the  neck  of  this  inner  strap. 

Unclamp  the  quarter  iron.  Fig.  347  6,  on  the  yard,  and 
prepare  for  sending  the  boom  aloft. 

Carry  out  a  whip  on  the  fore-yard,  secure  it  well  up  on 
the  fore-lift.  Hook  a  clew-jigger  from  the  lower  cap  to  one 
of  the  grommets  on  the  heel  of  the  boom ;  the  whip  from 
the  fore-yard  is  hitched  to  the  boom  far  enough  out  to  clear 


Plate  63 


iri«.330 


iTiiS/i  I  i.       a 


l' 


TRYSAIL-MASTS,   GAFFS  AND  BOOMS.  113 

the  quarter-iron,  using  the  heel-lashing  for  a  back-lashing. 
Have  a  gnj  from  forward,  sway  away  on  whip  and  clew- 
jigger,  keeping  the  outer  end  uppermost.  Land  the  boom 
on  the  quarter-iron.  Now  sway  up  on  the  heel  and  point 
the  boom  fair  through  the  boom-iron.  The  blocks  for  the 
lower  studding-sail    halliards    and    topmast    studding-sail  ! 

tack,  when  placed,  go  over  with  straps  fitted  to  go  neatly 
around  the  boom-end,  and  are  kept  from  slipping  in  by  the  i 

iron  pin  above  referred  to.  \ 

When  the  tack-block  is  a  permanent  one,  with  a  swivel,  ' 

the  halliard-block  hooks  with  sister-hooks  to  the  neck  of  the  ' 

swivel  for  the  tack.  i 

The  above  blocks  are  taken  off  in  port,  except  the  swivel-  ' 

ling  tack-block,  wliich,  when  fitted,  is  a  fixture. 

Clamp  the  quarter-irons,  hook  the  boom  tricin^-line,  rig 
out  to  the  square  mark  and  take  off  the  clew  jigger  and 
whip.     Lastly,  seize  a  hook  horizontally  on  the  vard,  just  i 

inside  the  burton  strap,  with  the  point  outboard,  for  the 
purpose  of  securing  the  boom,  when  setting  the  sail,*  and  I 

shirt  the  in-and-out  jigger  ready  for  use. 

Top-jarallant  Htiiclfliiig'-^inil  T^ooitik^,  Fig. 
349,  are  rigged  nearly  in  the  same  manner,  but  have  no  hal-  I 

liard-block  at  the  outer  end,  and  the  tricing-line  goes  directly 
through  the  inner  hole  in  the  boom  (no  grommet),  with  a 
Mathew  Walker  knot  in  the  end.  There  is  no  quarter-iron  ; 
instead,  a  quarter-strap  of  rope  mav  be  fitted.  This  forms 
a  figure  eight  around  the  yard  and  boom,  seized  where  it 
crosses  on  the  yard.  One  end  is  split  to  form  two  eyes. 
The  other  end  has  one  eye  (all  eyes  leathered),  and  the  two 
ends  are  held  together,  when  the  boom  is  rigged  out,  by  a 
toggle.  The  toggle  is  taken  out  as  soon  as  the  boom  is 
rigged  in,  to  be  ready  for  tricing  up.     Fig.  350. 

Instead  of  the  rope  quarter-strap,  some  ships  use  a  rope 
jackstay,  seized  to  tne  eye  of  the  topsail  lift,  and  set  up  to 
Its  opposite  in  the  slings  of  the  yard!  In  this  case  a  becket 
is  fitted  in  the  heel  of  tne  boom,  which  toggles  to  a  travelling 
bull's-eye  on  the  jackstay. ' 

The  tricing-line  leads  from  the  top  up  through  a  single 
block  seized  to  the  forward  swifter  of  the  topmast  riggings, 
close  up  to  the  eyes,  thence  down  to  the  boom,  where  it  is 
rove  through  a  single  block,  and  is  then  secured  to  the  heel 
of  the  boom.  When  it  is  required  to  rig  the  boom  out,  the 
tricing-line  is  converted  into  an  in-and-out  jigger,  thus  : — 
The  tricing-line  is  let  go  in  the  top,  and  the  single  block, 
through  which  it  passes  at  the  heel  of  the  boom,  is  taken 
out  on  the  vard,  takiing  out  the  bight  of  the  tricing-line  with 
it,  and  hooks  to  a  thimble  on  the  yard. 

The  boom,  when  required  for  setting  the  sail,  is  secured 

*  The  heel-lashine  is  passed  over  the  book,  and  back  tbroagb  tbe  score  in 
the  boom,  and  two  hair-hitches  taken  with  the  end  around  all  parts. 


lU  RUNNING    RIGGING. 

by  means  of  a  lashing  passed  over  a  hook  on  the  yard, 
like  that  for  the  topmast  studding-sail  boom,  already  men- 
tioned. 

The  booms  on  the  topsail-yard  are  usually  sent  up  by  the 
halliards,  rove  through  a  block,  secured  to  the  forward- 
swifter  of  the  topmast  rigging,  the  boom  being  slung  in  a 
span. 

RUNNING  RIGGING. 

Besides  enabling  us  to  measure  for,  and  cut.  standing 
rigging,  a  fore-and-aft  draft  of  the  ship  gives  the  length  of 
all  running  rigging.  To  measure  for  main-topsail  clew- 
lines, for  example,  supposing  them  to  be  double,  take 
twice  the  distance  from  the  clew  of  the  main-topsail,  Fig. 
284,  Plate  43  ,  to  the  quarter-block  on  the  topsail-yard,  to 
which  add  the  distance  thence  to  the  deck,  plus  end  enough 
to  lead  out ;  double  this  to  get  the  other  clew-line  and 
divide  by  six  to  reduce  it  to  fathoms,  and  so  for  any  other 
rope.  One  half  of  each  upper  yard  should  be  represented 
as  on  the  cap,  in  order  to  measure  for  lifts,  &c. 

When  a  rope  leads  direct  and  is  not  exposed  to  unneces- 
sary friction,  it  is  said  to  have  a  clear  or  a  fair  lead,  an 
extremely  desirable  condition,  and  one  too  frequently  neg- 
lected. 

Rope  supplied  in  coil  has  had  turns  hove  in  it  in  the  coil- 
ing. To  get  these  turns  out,  the  rope  must  be  '*  thorough- 
footed."  To  do  this,  if  the  rope  is  right-handed,  lay  the  coil 
-flat,  with  that  end  inside  wnich  goes  around  ''with  the 
sun"  (to  the  right),  now  haul  that  end  up  through  the 
coil  and  coil  it  down,  left-handed.  Then  dip  the  new  upper 
end  down  through  and  coil  again  left-handed,  and  repeat  a 
third  time.  The  rope  is  then  stretched,  and  the  gear  cut 
and  rove  oflF.     First  in  importance  may  be  mentioned  : 


BRACES. 

Foi-e-T5i*tiO€^K,  Fig.  351.  Hemp,  left-handed,  stand- 
ing part  of  wire  to  extend  forward  of  smoke-stack.  Stand- 
ing part  hooks  to  eye-bolts  in  the  bibbs  or  to  the  neck  of  the 
brace-block  bolt  at  the  bibbs,  as  in  Fig.  3516,  thence  through 
blocks  on  the  yard  from  up,  doiDt,  back  through  other 
blocks  on  the  outside  of  bibbs  and  down  to  sheaves  in  the 
fife-rail  (usually  from  aft,  forward) . 

iVJ[aiii-JE3raees<«  Standing  part  hooked  into  the 
bumpkins  aft,  or  into  an  eye  in  the  breech  of  the  block, 
then  through  brace-blocks  from  down,  up,  back  to  othei*» 
on  the  bumpkin  {inside  the  standing  parts)  and  through 
sheaves  or  leaders  in  the  bulwarks. 

On  board  large  ships  where  there  is  much  drift  to  the 


BRACES.  1 1  ^ 

main-brace,  it  will  be  found  very  convenient  to  fit  the 
standing  part  with  a  jigger,  thus  :  Into  the  end  of  the  brace 
splice  a  single  block,  and  to  the  eye  in  the  strap  of  the 
brace-block  on  the  bumpkin,  hook  the  double  block  of  a 
jigger.  Reeve  the  fall,  the  hauling  part  leading  in  through 
the  bulwarks  with  the  hauling  part  of  the  main-brace. 
After  haulinfi^  the  main-brace  moderately  taut  in  the  usual 
way,  a  few  hands  on  the  jiffger  fall  on  the  standing  part 
will  get  the  brace  as  taut  as  desirable.*    Fig.  353. 

It  is  usual  to  have  a  permanent  timenoguy  f  leading  from 
the  mizzen  rigging  to  the  main-brace,  the  object  being  to 
keep  the  bi^ht  of  tne  brace  from  fouling  the  quarter-davits 
whdQe  working  ship. 

The  same  has  been  found  needful  in  the  main  rigging- 
on  board  very  long  ships  to  avoid  fouling  the  waist  davits. 

The  timeno^y  is  seized  to  the  standing  part  of  the 
brace,  the  hauling  part  reeving  through  a  thimble. 

OroHs^ack:  Mracess.  The  standing  parts  hooked 
into  the  strap  of  a  double  blockt  hooked  to  an  eve-bolt  on 
each  side  of  the  mainmast,  in  a  line  with  the  yarcig — thence 
to  the  brace-blocks  from  down,  up,  and  back  to  the  inner 
sheaves  of  those  on  the  mainmast. 

Fore-topsail  13races.  Standing  parts  fitted 
with  eye-splices  lashed  together  abaft  the  mam  topmast- 
head,  laid  along  in  the  doublings  of  the  collar  of  the  main 
topmast-stay,  and  stopped  down  on  each  side  to  and  below 
the  crotch,  to  avoid  chafe  from  the  foot  of  the  sail  and  brace 
blocks  ;  thence  forward  and  down  through  the  brace-blocks 
to  clunap-blocks,  seized  to  the  main-stav,  Fig.  ;351,  at  the 
fork.  Thence  through  blocks  at  the  bibbs  to  the  main  fife- 
rail.   Lead  there  through  sheaves,  usually  from  forward,  aft. 

>Iaiii-topsail  Uraces^.  Standing  part  hooks  to 
an  iron  traveller,  which  moves  up  and  down  the  mizzen 
topmast  to  shift  the  strain  lower  down  as  it  becomes  greater 
(if  the  mizzen-topsail  is  reefed  or  taken  in),  thence  to  the 
yard  and  down  to  hanging  blocks  on  the  mizzen-mast, 
about  half  way  between  the  top  and  the  deck. 

>XiKKeti-topKail  Hi'noes.  The  standing*  parts 
hook  to  the  strap  of  a  block  at  each  side  of  the  main  cap : 
thence  to  the  yard  from  down,  up,  back  to  the  blocks,  and 
so  down  through  the  lubber's-hole  to  the  deck. 

All  the  above  braces  are  of  hemp,  left-handed. 

l^ore-top-orallant  Bi*acew  are  usually  rove 
single,  the  standing  parts  going  over  the  yard-arins  with 

*  Tlie  same  principh*  may  be  variously  apfilied,  as  to  a  main  tnck.  tlie  slieet 
of  a  Bchooner's  lu^  rore«ail,  &c. 

f  A  timenoguy  18  aiiy  piece  of  rope  placed  to  ])revent  riprging  from  chutinjr 
or  fouling. 

1  The  outer  sheave  is  for  the  mizzen  top-bowline. 

$^  Otherwise,  the  angular  action  of  the  brace  would  cant  the  yard  either  up 
or  down,  and  consequently  slack  one  or  the  other  of  tlie  mizzen-topsail  leeche*. 


11*:>  BRACES. 

the  lifts,  thence  through  span-blocks  on  the  main-topmast^ 
stay  collar,  and  others,  under  the  eyes  of  the  topmast 
rigging — whips  (the  standing  parts  of  which  are  secured  to 
the  deck)  being  attached  to  the  ends,  in  large  ships.  The 
whip-blocks  should  be  iron  bound  with  swivel-eyes.  Brace 
of  hemp,  whip  of  nuniila. 

>Xaiii-t<>p-jrnllnrit  T^i*ii<*€*8<«  l^ide  preceding, 
and  substitute  nnzzcu  tor  "main."  Brace  hemp,  whip 
manila. 

>rizzeii-tc>i>-pfalljiiit  lifsi <*<*!<•  Through  small 
blocks,  underneath  the  main-topmast  cross-trees,  or  seized  to 
the  main-topmast  backstays.     Brace  single,  manilla  rope. 

K'oiH^-i-o.vsil  Ui*sVeeK  are  single  (without  whips), 
and  rove  like  the  top-gallant  braces,  except  that  they  are 
taken  to  the  main-top-gallant  mast-head.  The  blocks  are 
now  generally  made  of  metal,  and  hook  to  eyes  in  the 
funnel,  or  are  seized  to  the  top-gallant  rigging. 

ZVXiiiii-i'o.^'sil  lli*ivc?OK.  Same  as  fore-royal  braces, 
except  taken  to  >n/zzen-top-gallant  mast-head. 

>Xizzc*ii-i'<>.vnl  IJi-acroK.  Single,  and  through 
sheaves  in  the  after-chock  of  the  main-topmast  cross-trees. 
All  royal  braces  are  of  manilla  rope. 

''l^opiiiiist  Htiulcliiijr->^siil-l><><>iii  lii*ai'€*M 
may  be  either  single,  going  over  the  boom-end  with  a  run- 
ning-eye and  leading  through  a  tail-block  on  the  forward 
swifter  of  the  main  rigging  ;  or  double,  with  a  pendant  and 
whip  leading  to  the  mam  rigging. 

l*i"#*veiit<*i"  IJi'iiee!^  are  fitted  with  a  pendant 
and  whip,  the  former  going  round  the  yard,  hooking  to  its 
own  part,  and  the  latter  led  to  the  deck,  well  aft,  when  for 
bad  weather.     When  rove  for  action,  they  are  led  forward.. 


HALLIARDS. 

^^op^<s^il-lInllisll•<l^«•  Where  double  tyes  and 
gins  are  used,  the  standing  part  of  the  halliards  is  spliced 
to  a  single  block  (which  is  iron-strapped  and  fitted  with  a 
swivel),  in  the  channels,  on  ea(*h  side,  and  then  rove 
through  a  double  one  hooked  to  a  thimble  in  the  end  of 
its  respective  tye.  A  double  purchase  is  used  in  heavy 
ships.* 


*  Bell's  ])iirrha8e,  as  usuttlly  fitted  for  the  mizzon -topsail  halliards.  Tho 
tye  used  is  single,  of  flexible  wire,  reeving  through  the  sheave  in  the  topmasU 
Tlie  four  blocks  are  single  (see  Fig.  354) ;  block  A  shackles  into  tye  abaft  the 
luast,  blocks  B  and  C  an*  in  the  after  part  of  the  mizzen  chains,  one  on  each  side 
of  the  ship  :  block  D  is  at  the  height  of  the  lower  mast-head  when  the  topsail- 
yanl  is  on  the  cap,  but  close  down  to  the  leading  block  on  deck  when  the  yard  is 
hoisted.  The  parts  markt^l  1  and  2  are  securely  seized  together  at  A.  Power 
gained  is  as  7  to  1,  friction  not  considered.  Fig.  855  shows  a  similar  parchaoe. 
for  heavier  yards. 


HALLIARDS.  1 1 7 

Top-jarallant  FIt:i.lliiii-clH  ;  rove  off  on  going  to 
sea.  The  top-gallant  yard  ropes  being  rove  in  the  jack- 
blocks,  a  '*  snort  yard  rope  "  reeves  through  the  sheave  in 
the  mast  with  sister-hooks  in  one  end,  hooking  to  the  slings 
of  the  yard,  and  a  thimble  is  then  seized  into  the  other  end, 
for  the  top-gallant  purchase.  This  is  a  tackle  hooked  into 
the  lower  trestle-trees,  fall  sent  on  deck.  To  unreeve  the 
short  yard  rope  on  going  into  port,  turn  out  the  thimble. 

The  long  yard  rope  is  coiled  down  in  the  top,  ready  for 
use  in  sending  down  the  yard  if  necessary. 

K/O.val-IIalliai'clK  are  best,  if  fitted  with  a  gun- 
tackle  purchase,  thus  :  The  yard-rope,  being  rove  in  a  leader 
on  deck,  is  passed  through  a  single  block  fitted  with  a  strap 
having  an  eye,  and  toggled  on  abreast  the  top,  as  repre- 
sented in  Fig.  352,  Plate  fKl.  In  the  event,  then,  of  having 
to  send  the  yard  down,  it  is  onlv  necessary  to  take  off  the 
block,  whicn  will  leave  the  yardi-rope  clear  for  running. 

The  strap  of  the  block  may  be  a  temporary  one  and  made 
of  a  selvagee  and  the  yard-rope,  Fig.  00:2  (a). 

Tlii»oat-IIixlliiii*<l?^.  If  for  a  spanker  or  trysail, 
they  usually  consist  of  a  purchase  rove  through  double  and 
single  blocks  ;  the  former  hooked  to  a  bolt  on  the  under 
side  of  the  after  lower  chock,  and  the  latter  to  a  band  and 
eye-bolt  at  the  jaws  of  the  gaff ;  the  hauling  part  leading 
through  the  upper  block  from  aft  forward,  to  the  deck.  In 
brigantines  and  vessels  with  a  boom-mainsail,  both  blocks 
are  double. 

l^e«,l£-Halliai'cls<«  The  best  plan  for  peak-halliards 
is  to  reeve  them  as  follows  :  Hook  the  standing  part  into  the 
breech  of  the  mast-head  block  (which  is  double),  and  reeve 
thence  tlirough  the  inner  block  of  the  gaff,  from  aft  for- 
ward; then  up  through  the  port  sheave  of  the  mast-head 
block,  out  through  the  block  at  the  gaff-end,  from  forward 
aft ;  and  lastly,  back  to  the  sheave  of  the  mast-head  block. 

The  merit  of  this  system  will  be  api)arent,  if  we  consider 
that  the  hauling  part,  by  being  rove  last,  at  the  gatt'-eiid. 
permits  the  peak  to  drop  the  instant  the  halliards  are  let  go. 

The  stanaing  part  may  be  rove  through  the  third  sheave 
of  the  block  (treble)  at  mast-head,  and  have  a  small  single 
block  spliced  in  the  end,  through  which  re(*ve  a  whip  ;  this 
enables  the  peak  to  be  pulled  up  taut.  The  latter  plan  is 
adopted  by  all  large  schooners  and  sloops,  and  is  on  the 
same  principle  as  applying  a  purchase  to  the  standing  part 
of  the  main  brace. 

Htoiixi-Sta.vwail  ITa-lliai-cljs!.  The  fore-storm 
staysail-stay,  fitted  of  rope  of  the  proper  size,  having  in  its 
upper  end  a  stout  iron  toggle  covered  with  leather,  toggles 
into  the  crotch  of  the  fore-stay.  The  lower  end,  after  pass- 
ing through  the  hanks  of  the  sail,  reeves  throug;h  a  stout 
bulrs-eve  strapped  to  the  bowsprit,  and  sets  up  with  a  luff. 
The  halliards  are  sometimes  a  luff,  and  sometimes  a  gun- 


118  HALLIABDS. 

tackle  purchase.  The  lower  block  hooks  to  the  head-cringle 
of  the  sail,  the  upper  to  an  eye-bolt  under  the  top,  or  to  a 
strap  around  the  collar  of  the  fore-stay. 

This  gear  is  rove  only  on  the  probabilities  of  bad  weather. 

Jil>  stud  Topiiiast-Stay»ail  Ha.llia,i*d.» 
are  rove  through  the  upper  sheave  of  iron  fiddle-blocks, 
hooked  to  a  bolt  in  eacn  side  of  the  topmast  trestle-trees, 
thence  through  hanging  blocks  in  the  after-gart  of  the 
trestle-trees,  to  keep  them  clear  of  the  topsail  tyes  and 
lifts.  The  jib-halliards  are  double,  and  reeve  through  a 
block  in  the  head  of  the  sail,  with  the  standing  part  half- 
hitched  and  lashed  to  the  crotch  of  the  stay  collar.  Hal- 
liards of  manilla.  The  staysail-halliards  are  single,  with 
sister-hooks  to  the  head-cringle  and  a  whip,  the  T)lock  of 
which  comes  just  below  the  hanging  block  when  the  sail  is 
taken  in.     Pendant  hemp,  whip  manilla. 

The  lower  sheaves  of  the  fiddle-blocks  serve  for  the  top- 
sail buntlines. 

The  jib-halliards  should  be  led  on  the  starboard  side,  and 
those  for  the  staysail  on  the  port — ^a  rule  which  is  self- 
evident,  when  we  remember  tnat  the  latter  is  set  on  the 
port  topmast-stay.  The  method  of  fitting  these  halliards 
with  whips,  is  not  approved  of  by  seamen  generally,  on 
account  of  the  liability  to  tangle  and  get  foul  in  hauling 
down  the  sail ;  and  the  obvious  necessity  of  separating  the 
parts  widely  from  each  other. 

Note,  whenever  a  whip  is  used,  as  in  the  foregoing,  it 
is  well  to  use  an  iron-strapped  swivel-block,  splicing  the 
pendant  into  the  eye  of  the  swivel,  to  avoid  cable-laying. 

I^^l  vii:ig--,Til>  Jtl£Lllia.i*clH9  manilla,  are  rove  single, 
througn  a  small  iron  fiddle-block  hooked  to  an  eye  in  the 
lower  rim  of  the  funnel  (on  the  port  side)  under  the  eyes  of 
the  rigging,  and  connected  to  tne  head-cringle  on  the  sail 
by  means  of  sister-hooks.  In  large  ships,  however,  they 
are  sometimes  rove  double,  and  the  standmg  part  seized  to 
the  splice  of  the  stay  on  the  under  side.  Tne  small  iron 
fiddle-blocks  are  for  flying-jib  halliards,  topgallant  bunt- 
lines,  and  topgallant  bunt-jigger. 

All  iron  hanging  blocks,  like  those  above  described  for 
head  halliards,  as  well  as  those  for  the  topoail-tyes,  are 
commonly  known  as  "  j/m"  blocks. 

GS-ail-to j;>jsail  IJa^llisii^clK  are  single,  and  in  barks 
and  ships,  are  rove  through  a  sheave  in  the  topgallant 
mast-head,  and  attached  to  the  yard  with  a  fisherman's 
bend;  or  if  the  sail  is  triangular  in  shape,  to  the  head- 
cringle,  with  a  sheet-bend.  On  board  oi  schooners  and 
hermaphrodite  brigs,  they  are  rove  through  a  sheave  in 
the  topmast-head. 

LoAvei*  Stnclclingr-Sail  Ha^llia^i^ds.  The 
outer  halliards  reeve  through  the  lower  sheave  of  a  fiddle- 
block,  which  is  strapped  with  a  long  pendant,  and  hooks  to 


MAIN  BRACE   OF  A  FIRST   RATE 


SHEBTS.  119 

a  strap  around  the  topmast-head  above  the  eyes  of  the 
rigging;  thence  to  the  halliard-block  at  the  end  of  the 
topmast  studding-sail-boom^  and  attached  to  the  yard  with 
a  fisherman's  bend,  or  a  studding-sail  halliard-bend.  The 
upper  sheave  of  the  fiddle-block  is  for  the  topmast  studding- 
sail-boom  toppine-lif t,  when  one  is  used.  Or  they  are  rove 
through  a  span-block  on  each  side,  which  is  secured  with 
lashing-eyes  above*  the  topmast  rigging,  and  forward  of  the 
shrouds,  the  hoisting  part  leading  on  deck  through  the 
cross-trees  and  the  lubber's-hole.  The  inner  halliards  are 
usuallv  formed  out  of  the  fore  clew-jigger,  hooked  to  the 
inner  head-cringle  of  the  sail  and  to  the  cap. 

Topmast  Stn.clcling'-Sail  IIctllia.i*d.s  are 
rove  on  each  side  through  a  single  block  hooked  to  the 
topmast  cap ;  thence  abaft  the  topsail-yard,  through  the 
jewel-block,  and  so  to  the  deck,  where  they  are  attached  to 
the  central  part  of  the  studding-sail  yard  with  a  fisherman's 
or  studding-sail  halliard-bend. 

Toi^prallant  Stri.d.cling--Sail  IIsiUiaKclH 
are  rove  on  each  side,  through  a  single  block  (which  is 
fitted  with  a  rope-strap  and  tail),  hitched  above  the  eves  of 
the  topgallant  rigging ;  thence  abaft,  to  the  jewel-block, 
and  so  to  the  top,  where  they  are  bent  to  the  studding-sail 
yard,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  halliards  previously  men- 
tioned, the  hoisting  part  being  sent  down  to  the  deck  abaft, 
and  clear  of  all. 

The  halliard-blocks  at  the  mast-head  are  much  neater 
when  fitted  with  lashing-eyes. 

All  the  studding-sail  nalliards  are  manila. 


SHEETS. 

Fore  and  IVIain  Sheets.  The  standing  parts 
are  connected  to  eye-bolts  on  the  outside  of  the  bulwarks 
with  sister-hooks,  just  forward  of  the  sheaves  for  the 
hauling  parts  :  thence  they  are  rove  up  through  the  blocks 
at  the  clews  ot  the  sail,  and  back,  inboard  through  the  bul- 
wark sheaves.     Hemp,  tapered.    Fig.  357. 

Topsail  Slieets.  When  aouble,  as  on  board  of 
first-rates,  the  st£^nding  parts  are  clinched  around  their  own 
parts  and  go  around  the  yard-arms  outside  of  all,  and  thence 
rove  from  out  in,  through  the  sheet  blocks  to  the  yard 
sheaves,  and  the  quarter-blocks  in  the  slings  ;  being  led, 
lastly,  to  the  bitts  on  deck,  forward  of  the  mast.  If  smgle, 
they  are  simply  secured  to  the  clew-cringle  with  hooks  ; 
but  where  chain  is  used,  they  are  connected  by  small  stout 
iron  shackles. 

Topsail  sheets  are  usually-  hemp,  Fig.  356: 


I*'i0  SHEETS. 

Toji^g-allant  a^ncl  Xloj^al  Sheets  are  always 
single.  The  former  hook  to  the  clews  of  their  respective 
sails,  and  the  latter  have  a  sennit  eye,  which  fits  over  a 
toggle  on  the  clew  of  the  royal.  Topgallant  sheets  reeve 
through  the  topsail-yards,  to  the  a/Ter-sheaves  *  of  the 
quarter-blocks,  thence  they  are  led  through  the  lubber's- 
hole  to  the  deck.  Royal  sheets  are  rove  in  the  same  way. 
except  through  the  sheaves  and  quarter-blocks  of  the  top- 
gallant yards,  and  thence  through  thimbles  on  the  f uttock- 
staflfs  of  the  topmast  rigging  (abreast  of  the  second  shrouds), 
to  the  top  or  deck,  as  may  be  preferred. 

These  sheets  are  of  hemp. 

Stc>i*iii-Stit.VKiiil  HlieelK  are  temporarv  pur- 
chases, and  consist  usuallv  of  stout  luflfs  hookei  (and 
moused)  to  the  clew-cringles,  and  brought  well  aft,  in 
order  to  form,  as  near  as  possible,  a  line  with  the  foot  of 
the  sail.  The  hauling  part  should  then  lead  from  the  for- 
ward'\Aoc\ij  by  which  a  greater  purchase  is  obtained  ; 
although  the  reverse  of  this  is  advocated  by  many  seamen, 
on    account  of    the    difficulty  sometimes    experienced    in 

getting  a  turn  with  the  belaynig-end,  in  consequence  of  the 
apping  of  the  sail ;  but  this  objection  will  be  entirely 
overcome,  if  the  sheet  be  hauled  aft,  and  the  foot  taut, 
before  hoisting. 

'"l^i'.VKiiil  Hlie€^ts<.  The  best  plan  for  fitting  these 
is  to  have  a  pendant  attached  to  the  clew  of  the  sail  for  the 
sheet  to  hooK  into,  as  it  saves  the  trouble  of  "lighting  uj)" 
the  blocks  to  hook  and  unhook  in  shifting  the  sheet,  as  in 
wearing  ship,  &c.  The  sheet  is  an  ordinary  luflf  and  hooks 
well  aft  to  an  eye-bolt  in  the  deck. 

•Iil>  micl  l''oi>iiiiiHt-Wtai.VKnil  Hlio^^tK.  Both 
of  these  are  fitted  with  a  hemp  pendant  and  manilla  gun- 
tackle  purchase,  as  follows  : 

The  pendant,  which  is  wormed  and  served,  shackles  into 
the  clew-iron,  and  has  a  single  block  spliced  into  the  in- 
board end.  The  other  block  oi  the  purchase  hooks  to  an  eye- 
bolt  in  the  deck.  A  third  single  block  is  often  hooked  into 
the  deck  abaft  the  purchase-block,  as  a  leader  for  the 
hauling  part,  f 

The  deck  blocks  for  the  staysail  sheets  are  forward  of 
those  for  the  jib. 

The  standing  parts  of  these  head  sheets  hook  into 
beckets  in  the  breech  of  the  pendant  block. 

r<^lyiiig;'-jil>  Hlieetss,  may  be  single,  but  are  gen- 

*  In  v<»ssel8  whore  the  quarter- blocks  fixe  thrcefoJd,  the  topgallant  sheet  i3 
rove  in  tlie  iiUddle  sheave. 

f  The  ]M)sition  of  the  bolls  and  bhx-ks  (or  sheaves)  must  be  such,  that  the 
sheet,  when  taut  shall  form  a  line  at  ripht  anv:1es  with  the  hiff  of  the  sail — for 
otherwise,  either  the  foot  or  the  letMJh  would  become  slack,  and  the  jib  thus  be 
deprived  of  a  pfreat  portion  of  its  efficacy.  Head  sheets  should  have  a  cuckold's 
neck  in  the  end  to  prevent  un reeving,  by  accident,  as  in  a  tHjuall. 

10 


/ 


SHEETS.  121 

erally  fitted  with  a  pendant  and  whip,  hemp  and  manilla. 
The  pendant  shackles  or  hooks  into  the  clew-iron,  the  stand- 
ing part  of  the  whip  secures  to  the  whisker  or  to  the  head- 
raol,  and  the  whip  reeves  through  a  block  on  the  end  of  the 
pendant,  a  thimble  on  the  whisker  and  in  on  the  forecastle, 
forward  of  the  stay-sail  sheets. 

The  object  of  the  pendant  is  to  keep  the  weather  whip- 
block  to  windward  of  the  stay,  if  possible,  and  it  is  fitted 
accordingly,  sometimes  reeving,  itself,  through  the  thimble 
on  the  wnisker,  the  whip  coming  inside  of  it. 

Sp£i,nl£er*  Slieetm^  are  rove  in  one  with  the  guy. 
The  standing  parts  are  hooked  to  the  shoulder-band,  and 
rove  to  the  (double)  block  in  each  quarter ;  thence  through 
the  sheet-blocks  on  the  boom  from  forward  afty  and  back 
to  the  second  sheaves  of  the  double  olocks. 

Booiii-iiia>iiiH£i.il  SIieetH.  In  small  craft,  as 
schooners,  &c.,  a  purchase  of  double-blocks,  and  working 
on  a  traveller,  is  used ;  but  in  larger  vessels,  two  (attached 
by  separate  straps,  and  hooked  to  eye-bolts  in  each  quarter) 
are  employed  to  manage  the  boom — the  hauling  parts  in 
either  case  leading  from  the  upper  block.  This  latter 
method  is  by  far  the  better,  as  every  one  who  has  had  to 
"jibe"  a  boom-mainsail,  with  a  single  sheet  and  crotch- 
ropes,  in  heavy  weather,  will  bear  witness  to. 

Cr£tii-topsa.il  Sheets  are  formed  of  a  single  piece 
of  rope,  which  is  middled,  and  the  bight  passed  througn  the 
clew-cringle  of  the  sail ;  the  ends  being  thrust  also  through 
the  bight,  are  led  down  on  each  side  of  the  gaff  to  a  belaying 
cleat  on  the  boom,  near  the  jaws. 

Stu.dding'-so.il  Sheetfs.  Those  for  the  lower 
studding-sail  consist  of  a  single  piece  of  rope,  passed 
through  the  inner  clew-cringle  like  those  for  the  gaff-topsail 
(or  the  two  parts  may  be  seized  together),  ana  in  setting 
the  sail,  one  sheet  is  rove  from  forward  aft,  through  a 
thimble  or  block  on  the  goose-neck,  in  order  to  bring  the 
clew  close  down  to  the  boom,  and  the  other  led  inboard  over 
the  hammock-rail,  on  the  forecastle,  by  which  to  haul  on 
board  the  sail,  when  taking  it  in. 

In  fitting  a  topmast  studding-sail,  two  sheets  are  also 
required,  which  are  attached  to  the  clew  in  the  same  man- 
ner as  those  for  the  lower  studding-sail.  One  (called  the 
short  sheet),  being  passed  forward  of  the  topsail,  and  aft 
through  a  thimble  (seized  to  the  jack-stay  or  quarter-iron) 
on  the  outer  quarter  of  the  lower  yard,  into  the  top,  where 
it  is  belayed  to  a  cleat ;  and  the  other,  or  deck-sheet,  being 
led  to  the  forecastle,  forward  of  the  yard.  The  sheets  and 
down-haul  are  always  made  up  with  the  sail. 

The  topgallant  studding-sail  sheet  is  simply  spliced  into 
the  clew  of  the  sail  (having  parcelling  on  it  tor  two  or  three 
feet  below,  to  avoid  chafe  from  the  foot-rope  of  the  topsail- 
yord),  and  led  mto  the  top,  where  it  is  hitched  around  the 


1*22  TACKS. 


forward-swifter,  or  it  may  be  led  on  deck,  where  it  may  be 
made  of  much  service  when  taking  the  sail  in,  in  a  fresh 
breeze.    The  above  sheets  are  manilla. 


TACKS. 

F'or-e  a,iicl  IVIaiii  Taclis  are  hemp,  tapered, 
rove  double,  Fig.  357  (except  now  and  then  on  board  of 
small  vessels,  where  they  are  single).  The  standing  part, 
which  is  wormed  and  served  for  a  fathom  or  so  from  the 
end  (as  a  protection  from  wet^,  is  hooked  to  the  bumpkin* 
and  rove  through  the  tack-block  at  the  clew  of  the  sail — 
then  back  through  a  leading-block  inside  of  the  standing 
part,  and  a  hole  in  the  bulwarks. 

Stixdclingr-sail  Taclis^  manilla,  hook  to  the 
tacks  of  their  respective  sails,  and  are  rove  from  in  outy 
through  the  blocks  at  the  boom-ends.  That  for  the  topmast 
studdmg-sail  is  led  aft,  through  a  tail-block  on  the  for- 
ward-swifter of  the  main-rigging ;  and  the  tack  of  the  top- 
gallant  studding-sail,  through  a  leader  tailed  around  the 
dead-eye  of  the  after  topmast  shroud. 

The  top-gallant  studding-sail  tack  is  befit,  not  hooked. 

Note.  The  double  blo6k  in  the  main  rigging  for  the  tack 
and  boom-brace  should  not  be  tailed  to  tne  snrouds,  as  it 
hauls  them  out  of  line  and  stretches  them  undulv.  It  should 
rather  hook  to  the  eye  of  a  long  pendant,  which  hooks  far 
enough  aft  in  the  main-chains  to  form  a  line  with  the  tack, 
and  passes  through  a  lizard  at  the  proper  place  in  the  main 
riggmg. 

Spanliei"  »ncl  13oom.-iiiainsail  Tack 
(X^aHliiii^»-i)^  are  passed  through  the  cringle  (into  which 
they  are  spliced),  and  an  eye-bolt  on  the  upper  side  of  the 
boom. 

The  spanker-tack  lashing  is  more  frequently  passed 
around  the  spindle  of  the  spanker-mast  step. 

Trysail-taeli  Lasliing-K  are  passed  around 
the  foot  of  the  trysail  mast,  on  a  line  with  tne  foot  of  the 
sail,  or  through  an  eye-bolt  in  the  after  part  of  the  fife-rail. 

Where  the  trysail  is  fitted  "  railway-fashion,"  the  lower 
end  of  the  grooved  batten  has  a  chock  to  keep  the  sliding 
hanks  in.     This  chock  has  an  eye  for  the  tack  lashings. 

Note.  In  laying-to,  in  a  small  vessel,  under  a  balanced^ 
reefed  (boom)  mainsail,  the  tack  of  the  sail  should  be  lashed 
up  to  tne  jaws  of  the  gaff,  and  the  whole  hoisted  several 
feet  up  the  mast  by  means  of  the  throat-halliards.  In  this 
way  the  sail  is  elevated  to  the  wind  above  the  waves,  and 

*  The  main  tack  hooks  to  a  bolt  and  block  in  each  of  the  waterways,  or  deck, 
forward  of  the  gangway,  being  rove  like  the  fore,  through  the  block  on  the  clew 
of  the  sail,  standing  part  forward. 


TACKS.  123 

in  the  event  of  being  boarded  by  a  quarter  sea,  it  cannot 
lodge  in  the  belly  of  tne  sail,  but  will  pass  between  it  and 
thel)oom. 

rra,ek»  of  Hestd  Sa.ils.  All  head  sails  have  a 
cringle  in  the  tack  with  an  iron  thimble.  To  secure  the 
jib  tack  there  is  a  bail,  Fig.  333,  or  horse-shoe  of  iron, 
spanning  the  upper  part  of  the  jib-boom,  inside  the  stay. 
The  two  ends  of  the  bail  have  eyes,  throuj^h  which  j^asses 
the  pin  for  the  sheave  of  the  jib-stay.  On  this  bail  are 
sister-hooks,  which  hook  into  the  tack  thimble. 

The  flying-lib  tack  is  fitted  in  precisely  the  same  way, 
the  bail  being  held  in  its  place  by  the  pin  of  the  sheave  for 
the  flying-jib  stay.    Fig.  332. 

Both  nails  have  projecting  eyes,  well  down,  for  the 
down-haul  blocks. 

For  the  staysail  is  fltted  a  lon^  strap,  with  sister-hooks 
in  the  upper  end.  The  strap  is  seized  to  the  topmast-stay, 
and  has  drift  enough  for  the  foot  of  the  staysail  to  clear  the 
heel  of  the  jib-boom.  The  hooks  in  the  strap  hook  into  the 
staysail  tack  thimble. 

This  does  away  with  the  necessity  of  tack  lashings. 


CLEWLINES. 

dew-O-aniets  are  used  only  on  the  courses. 
Lead  from  the  deck  to  the  clew-jrarnet  block  under  the 
yard  from  in  out,  through  the  clew  block  in  the  sail,  stand- 
ing part  taken  between  the  head  of  the  sail  and  the  yard, 
and  made  fast  to  the  arm  of  the  truss. 

Topsail  Clewlines.  For  small  ships  may  be 
single,  or  single  with  a  whip.  For  large  vessels  rove  as 
follows  ;  From  the  deck  through  the  forward  sheave  of  the 
quarter- block  on  the  topsail-yard,  thence  through  the  clew- 
line block  on  the  sail,  the  standing  part  taken  up  between 
the  head  of  the  sail  and  the  yard,  ana  made  fast  to  the  neck 
of  the  tye-block. 

It  would  be  far  better  to  have  a  separate  block  in  the 

Jiuarter  of  the  yard  for  the  clewline,  the  same  as  is  fltted 
or  clew-garnets.  This  enables  the  clewline  to  be  unhooked 
and  shifted  to  the  cap  (as  is  often  done)  without  interfering 
with  the  topgallant  sheets.  Moreover,  such  a  block  has 
enough  play  to  give  a  fairer  lead  to  the  clewline  when  the 
sail  is  bellied  out  by  a  strong  breeze,  and 'the  sail  is  always 
hauled  up  snugger.    Fig.  336  shows  such  a  block,  fitted. 

Tope-allant  and  :R.oyal  Cle^wlines,  are 
both  sin^e,  are  bent  to  the  clews  of  the  sails,  and  rove 
through  the  quarter-blocks  of  their  respective  yards,  and 
thence  to  the  deck  bv  way  of  the  lubber's-hole.  Topgallant 
clewlines  rove  double  in  large  ships,  standing  part  secured 
to  the  neck  of  the  quarter-block. 


1 24  CX£WI.JNES. 

Lo'wef     Htiiclclin^r-s-^til      Ole^wllnow,    are 

simply  bent  to  the  clews  and  reeve  cibaft  the  saU.  through 
small  single  blocks  on  the  inner  end  of  each  lower  studding- 
sail  yard,  and  thence  are  led  inboard  to  a  tail-block  on  the 
forward  swifter  in  wake  of  the  futtock  rigging.  This  clew- 
line becomes  the  gear  tricing-line  when  the  sail  is  in.  The 
clewlines  are  frequently  lea  through  a  glut  in  the  beUy  of 
the  sail. 

Ii^ore  a^nd  jMain  Cleiv-jiorgrein^.  Each  con- 
sists of  a  gun-tackle  purchase,  hooked  to  the  clews  of  the 
courses  forward  and  to  eye-bolts  underneath  the  forward 
part  of  the  tops.  In  furling  sails,  they  are  found  very  useful 
for  rousing  the  clews  and  leeches  up  forward  of  the  yajrd  ; 
while  they  also  serve  the  purpose  of  inner  halliards  for  the 
lower  studding-sails,  and  are  often  employed  as  yard-arm 
jiggers  in  bending,  or  as  reef -tackles  in  reefing. 

Topwail  CJlew-Jig-g-ei^w.  Like  those  for  the 
courses.  They  are  found  very  convenient  in  taking  the  clews 
well  up  above,  and  forward  of  the  yard,  greatly  tecilitating 
the  operation  of  furling.  Upper  block  hooks  under  the  top- 
mast trestle-trees,  or  to  a  strap  fitted  around  the  forward 
cross-tree,  close  in. 

The  lower  blocks  of  clew-jiggers  are  secret  and  fitted 
with  a  pendant  and  sister-hooks.  All  clew-jiggers  should 
be  long  enough  to  reach  to  the  deck. 

t^oi^e  nncl  Alain  UnntlineH.  Usually  rove 
double  (i.  6.,  with  two  legs  on  each  side),  a  double  block 
hooked  under  the  top  and  a  sicivel-hlook.  are  used  in  reeving 
off  each  pair  of  legs.  The  swivel-block  resembles  a  fiddle- 
block  in  appearance,  except  that  both  shells  are  of  equal 
size,  and  their  ends  connected  by  a  swivel. 

Reeve  the  standing  part  of  the  buntline  through  the 
upper  sheave  of  its  swivel-block,  then  take  both  ends  of  the 
standing  parts  through  the  sheaves  of  the  block  under  the 
top,  from  aft  forward,  and  toggle  these  ends,  which  are 
fitted  with  eyes,  to  toggles  on  the  foot  of  the  sail. 

Through  the  lower  slieave  of  the  swivel-block  is  rove  a 
whip,  standing  part  made  fast  on  deck,  hauling  part  led 
through  a  sheave  in  the  fife-rail. 

Where  there  is  but  little  drift  between  the  top  and  the 
yard  for  the  buntlines  (and  leechlines)  there  are  fitted 
instead  of  blocks  under  the  top  a  pair  of  double  blocks  on 
each  side,  hanging  by  the  legs  of  a  short  pendant  from  a 
bolt  in  the  forward  part  of  the  lower  cap ;  sister-hooks  in 
the  bight  of  the  pendant  hooking  to  the  bolt.  The  inside* 
double  block  is  for  the  buntlines,  the  outboard  one  is  for 
the  leechlines.    Fig.  358. 

T<>|>Hiiil  Uiiiit linen  are  single,  and  rove  throup^h 
the  loiver  sheaves  of  fiddle-blocks  *  under  the  eyes  of  tne 

*  Upper  sheaves  of  fiddle-blocks  at  the  fore  for  the  jib  and  fore-topmast  stay- 


CLEWLINES,  ETC.  125 

topmast  ringing,  thence  forward  through  the  thimbles  of 
lizards  hitched  around  the  neck  of  the  tye-blocks  and  down 
to  the  foot-rope  of  the  sail,  to  which  they  toggle — ^the  haul- 
ing part  leading  to  the  deck  through  the  lubber^s-hole. 
They  shoidd  be  cut  long  enough  to  land  the  topsail  on  deck. 

'JTopSSkllELrxt  XJuntlineH  lead  through  the  blocks 
under  the  eyes  of  the  topgallant  rigging  and  toggle  to  the 
foot  of  the  sail,  the  hauling  parts  leading  on  deck. 

They  are  sometimes  fittea  with  two  legs,  one  toggled  to 
the  foot,  the  other  to  the  leech  of  the  sail,  so  that  when  the 
sail  is  taken  in,  the  leech  is  brought  along  the  yard  ready 
for  furling. 

Topgaflant  buntlines  have  lizards  at  the  slings  the  same 
as  topsail  buntlines. 

In  small  vessels  there  is  but  one  buntline.  It  is  spliced 
around  a  span,  both  ends  of  which  are  toggled  to  the  foot 
of  the  sail. 


BOWLINES. 

Fore  BoTV^lineg*.  A  single  rope ;  the  standing 
part  made  fast  to  the  breech  of  a  single  block,  hooked  to  a 
span  between  the  fore-stays  ;  the  hauling  end  rove  through 
tne  bull's-eye  hung  from  the  bowline  bridle,  back  through 
the  block  at  the  stay.  In  tacking,  &c.,  let  go  the  hauling 
end,  and  re-reeve  when  on  the  other  tack. 

IMiain  Bowlinew  consist  of  a  whip  and  runner — 
the  latter  reeving  through  the  thimble  in  the  bridle,  and 
belayed  to  the  fore  fife-rail ;  and  the  former  passing  through 
a  block  in  the  end  of  the  runner,  led  well  forward — ^tne 
standing  part  of  the  whip  being  secured  to  an  eye-bolt  at 
the  fore  fife-rail,  and  the  reeving  end  over  a  pin. 

In  tacking,  when  it  is  required  to  let  go  the  main  bow- 
line the  standing  part  of  the  runner  is  cast  off,  and  the 
whole  shifted  to  the  opposite  side,  ready  for  reeving. 

Top-Bo^wlineH.  The  fore  toggle  to  the  bridles, 
and  lead  forward  through  blocks  hooked  to  the  bees  and 
back,  inboard,  to  the  forecastle.  The  main  reeve  through 
single  blocks,  connected  to  bolts  in  the  after  rim  of  tne 
fore-top,  and  thence  to  the  deck  ;  and  the  mizzen,  through 
the  outer  sheaves  of  the  cross- jack  brace-blocks  on  tne 
main-mast. 


DOWN-HAULS. 
Jib  a^nd  Flying-Jito  I^own-liaixls,  are  each 


Bail  halliards.     At  the  main  and  mizzen  for  topsail  bunt  jigger  and  main  and 
mizzen  topmast  staysail  halliards,  when  rove.    . 


126  DOWN-HAULS,   ETC. 

bent  to  the  head  cringle  of  their  respective  sails,  and  after 
being  rove  through  a  few  of  the  upper  hanks,  and  a  single 
block  hooked  to  the  bail  (see  Tacks)  are  led  inboard.  Jib 
down-haul  port  side,  flying-jib  starboard  side. 

Should  the  bail  carry  away,  both  the  tack  and  down-haul 
blocks  would  be  adrift ;  it  is  therefore  safer  to  seize  the 
blocks  to  their  respective  guys. 

rropnia^Ht  Stavsail  I3oMrii-hAii.l.  Rove 
same  as  above,  comes  inboard  on  the  port  side,  down-haul 
block  seized  to  the  stay,  or  an  eye-bolt  in  the  bees. 

Studdinpr-^^il^  Oo^wn-haixls.  That  for  the 
topmast  studding-sail  is  bent  to  the  outer  end  of  the  yard- 
arm  and  rove  thence  through  a  thimble  on  the  leech,  to  the 
down-haul  block  at  the  tack,  leading  on  deck,  forward  of 
the  foresail,  across  the  forecastle  to  tne  opposite  side.  That 
for  the  topgallant  studding-sail  is  merely  bent  to  the  inner 
yard-arm  of  the  sail,  and  led  abaft  all  to  the  top. 

GraflP-topsall  Oo  wn-haul  (aiid  CleMT'line) 
is  led  from  the  after  clew  of  the  sail  (to  which  it  is  bent), 
through  a  single  block  at  the  head  of  the  sail  and  thence 
through  the  hanks  on  the  mast  down  to  the  deck. 


OUT-HAULS. 

Spctnkei*  Oixi>-lian.l.  Hooks  to  an  eye  in  the 
shoulaer-band  on  the  boom,  reeves  through  a  block  on  the 
clew  of  the  sail  and  through  the  sheave  in  the  boom,  belay- 
ingto  a  cleat  on  the  boom. 

i^eak  Oixt-liaui  consists  of  a  whip  and  pendant. 
The  latter  is  bent  to  the  peak  of  the  sail,  rove  through  the 
sheave  in  the  gaff,  and  at  a  distance  equal  to  the  len^h  of 
the  gaff,  has  a  single  block  turned  in,  through  whicn  the 
whip  is  rove.  The  standing  part  of  the  whip  is  made  fast 
under  the  top,  the  running  part  leads  through  a  single 
block  and  thence  on  deck. 

Louver  Stnddingr-sail  Ont-liaixl  is  con- 
nected by  sister-hooks  to  the  outer  clew  of  the  sail,  and 
led  through  a  single  block  (hooked  to  the  boom  with  clip 
hooks)  to  a  sheave  above  thai  for  the  gujr  in  the  bulwarks. 

Graff^topfe^ail  Ont-liaixl  is  hitched  to  the  clew 
of  the  sail,  ana  rove  through  a  sheave  at  the  ^aff-end,  down 
to  the  deck,  where  it  is  belayed  to  a  cleat  on  tne  boom. 

Ti?j^sail  Out-hauls.  They  are  always  single, 
and  attached  to  the  outer  head-cringle  of  the  sail,  bem^ 
rove  through  a  sheave  in  the  gaff-end  to  a  leader  hooked 
under  the  top,  and  having  a  whip,  which  is  led  thence  to 
the  deck* 


BEEF-TACKLES,   ETC.  1^7 


REEF  TACKLES. 

Topsail  reef -tackles  reeve  up  through  the  lubber's-hole, 
through  the  upper  sheave  of  a  sister-block  in  the  eyes  of  the 
topmast  rigging  (or  better,  through  a  single  block  at  the 
topmast  cap),  thence  through  a  sheave  in  tne  topsail  yard- 
arm  and  a  secret  block  on  the  leech  of  the  topsail.  The  end 
of  the  standing  part  secures  around  the  pacinc-iron. 

Sometimes  the  reef -tackles  are  fitted  thus  :  The  standing  I 

part  is  spliced  to  the  strap  of  a  block  shackled  to  the  leech 
of  the  sail,  below  the  close-reef  band,  thence  led  upward 
through  the  forward  sheave  of  a  double  block  on  the  yard- 
arm  outside  of  all,  down  through  the  block  on  the  leecn,  up 
to  the  remaining  sheave  of  the  double  block,  and  so  to  the 
after  sheave  of  the  quarter-block,  and  lastly,  through  the 
lubber's-hole  to  the  deck.  In  this  case  the  quarter-block  is 
three-fold,  if  there  is  no  special  block  for  the  clewline. 

Fore  a^nd  IMsLin  K^eet-penclants  are  hooked 
to  the  cringle  and  rove  through  a  single  block  with  lashing 
eyes,  fitted  to  the  yard  just  outside  the  lift.  There  is  a 
thimble  in  the  other  end  to  which  hooks  the  lower  block  of 
the  clew-jigger,  upper  block  being  hooked  at  the  cap. 

Instead  of  these  pendants  regular  lower  reef -tackles  are 
being  fitted.  These  consist  of  a  ^un-tackle  purchase,  the 
lower  block  hooked  to  the  reef-cringle,  upper  block  to  an 
eye-bolt  on  the  under  forward  part  of  the  yard-arm.  The 
hauling  end  leads  to  the  deck  through  a  block  seized  to  the 
arm  of  the  truss.  These  reef -tackles  are  cut  long  enough 
for  yard-arm  jiggers  in  bending  sail. 

LEECH-LINES. 

These  are  confined  to  the  courses  and  are  clinched  to  the 
leech — outer  one  about  one-third  down  from  the  head-earing 
cringle,  and  the  inner  one  about  two-thirds — and  thence 
rove  uj)  through  leading  blocks  on  the  bending  jack-stay  * 
to  the  inner  and  outer  sheaves  (respectively)  of  a  double 
block  hooked  under  the  top,  the  hauling  part  of  the  leech- 
line  reeving  through  fair  leaders  on  the  lower  rigging  to 
the  side  racK,  on  deck. 

See  also  lead  described  under  Buntlines.    Fig.  358. 
• 

*  These  blocks  should  be  so  placed  that  the  leech  of  the  sails  will  be  taut 
along  the  yard  'when  haaled  up,  and  fitted  with  straps,  which  permit  them  to 
hang  about  a  foot  below  the  yard— -a  plan  obviating  the  necessity  of  attending 
the  leech- lines  in  bracing  up.  The  hauling  parts  of  the  leech -lines,  after  pass- 
ing through  the  double  block  are  often  rove  through  a  large  thimble  or  hank 
tailed  to  the  lower  part  of  the  forward  f uttock-shroud.  This  keeps  them  from 
being  jammed  between  the  yard  and  the  rigging  when  braced  up. 


128  BBAILS,  GUYS,  ETC. 

Note.  In  large  ships  they  are  sometimes  temporarily 
rove  on  the  topsail-yards  (through  tail-blocks  on  the  for- 
ward swifters)  for  furling  sails,  where  the  leeches  are 
heavy. 

BRAILS. 

SpAnkeT*  e^nd  Trvsail  Brails  are  middled, 
and  the  bights  secured  to  their  respective  eyelet  holes  on 
the  leech  of  the  sail  by  cross-seizings,  the  ends  rove  through 
single  blocks  seized  to  the  hanks  on  the  trysail-mast. 

in  addition  to  the  brails  there  is  a  down-haul  for  hauling 
the  head  of  the  sail  down  on  the  gaff,  rove  through  a  block 
hooked  in  the  jaws  of  the  gaJff.  On  the  opposite  side, 
through  a  similar  block,  is  rove  a  clew  rope  for  taking  the 
clew  up  toward  the  throat. . 

A.  »la.l3  Z^ine  is  sometimes  used  on  the  foresail.  It 
is  rove  through  a  tail-block  secured  to  the  slings  of  the 
yard,  abaft,  and  hanging  down  clear  of  the  yard.  The  end 
is  taken  down  abaft  tne  sail  and  spliced  around  a  span 
fitted  with  eyes,  which  toggle  to  the  inner  buntline  toggles. 


GUYS. 

Lower  Boom  Grixvs.  When  double,  the  stand- 
ing part  of  the  forward  one  nas  an  eye,  seizing  to  the  jib- 
guy  just  forward  of  the  whisker,  seizing  to  cross  at  every 
turn  to  make  the  eve  lay  flat.  Rove  thence  through  a 
single  block  on  the  Tboom,  and  back  to  a  block  with  clip 
hooks  at  the  bees,  the  hauling  part  leading  inboard  to  the 
forecastle.  When  single,  they  connect  to  the  boom  by 
sister-hooks,  and  the  block  at  the  boom  is  omitted.  The 
after  guys  are  rove  in  the  same  manner,  except  abaft,  to  a 
bolt  in  the  side  and  a  sheave  in  the  chess-tree,  just  forward 
of  the  gangway. 

Spanker-boom  Grii^n.     Vide  Sheets. 


BUNT-JIGGERS. 

Bixnt^lg-grers  are  used  for  the  topsails,  course^  and 
sometimes  topgallant-sails.  Courses  and  topgallant  sails 
have  single  bunt-jiggers  (or  bunt-whips),  topsails,  a  whip 
and  pendant.  The  topsail  bunt-jigger  pendant  for  the  fore 
leads  through  a  single  block  lashed  to  the  topmast-stay  col- 
lar, close  in  to  the  trestle-tree.  For  the  main  and  mizzen 
through  the  starboard  and  port  upper  sheaves,  respectively, 
of  the  fiddle-blocks  at  the  mast-heads.  From  the  olock  the 
bunt-jigger  leads  down  forward  of  the  topsail,  under  the 


BUNT- JIGGERS,  ETC.  129 

focrt,  and  hooks  to  the  upper  glut.  The  after  end  of  the 
pendant  has  a  single  block  (an  iron-bound  swivel)  spliced 
m  and  a  whip  rove,  abaft  all,  to  the  deck. 

The  bunt-jiffgers  of  the  courses  lead  in  the  same  way, 
through  a  single  block  under  the  top.    Rove  single. 

Topgallant  bunt-jiggers  lead  in  a  similar  way  through  a 
small  iron  block  at  the  topgallant  mast-head,  and  into  the 
top. 

In  manv  vessels  topsail  bunt-jiggers  *  are  led  through  a 
single  block  hooked  to  the  eye-bolt  in  the  heel  of  the  top- 
gallant-mast. This  gives  a  better  lead.  When  sending  the 
mast  up  and  down,  the  block  is  transferred  to  a  small  strap 
on  the  collar  of  the  topmast-stay. 


CHANGES  IN  THE  LEAD  OF  RUNNING  RIGGING. 

The  above  list  comprises  the  principal  running  rigging 
of  men-of-war,  together  with  the  leads  usually  adopted.  It 
sometimes  happens  that  the  lead  of  the  gear  on  deck  is 
modified  for  special  reasons.  For  instance,  in  vessels  with 
little  quarter-deck  space,  the  hauling  part  of  the  fore-brace 
is  often  led  aft,  and  that  of  the  fore-topsail  brace,  forward. 
The  object  is  to  have  the  f oretopmen  nearer  to  tneir  own 
parts  of  the  ship  when  bracing  in  to  reef,  arid  to  keep  them 
out  of  the  way  of  the  men  on  the  main-topsail  brace. 

X^ea.d  of  Greai*  al>on.t  the  Smolce- 
Sta.ek.    In  making  long  passages  under  steam  against  a 

1)revailing  contrary  wind,  it  is  not  unfrequent  to  see  the 
ead  of  gear  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  smoke-stack,  tem- 
Eorarily  altered  for  the  preservation  of  the  rope.  The 
auling  part  of  the  fore  topsail-brace  and  both  parts  of  the 
fore-brace  are  brought  down  ;  the  standing  part  of  the  fore- 
brace  being  hooked  to  a  band  on  the  mainmast  ten  or 
twelve  feet  above  the  deck,  or  to  a  launch's  davit,  if  waist 
launches  are  carried. 

Main-topsail-sheets  are  unrove  from  the  quarter-blocks ; 
gear  about  the  mainmast  is  hauled  up  ana  covered  with 
tarpaulins.  All  this  takes  little  time  to  do,  and  in  the  event 
of  a  favoring  slant,  the  gear  can  be  readil^r  rove  off  for 
making  sail.  The  head  braces  have  a  fair  lead  when 
shifted  as  above  described,  and  if  a  favoring  breeze 
freshens,  or  seems  likely  to  hold,  preventer  braces  can  be 
clapped  on,  and  the  regular  ones  shifted  to  their  proper 
places  aloft  without  shortening  sail. 

Temporary  changes  similar  to  the  above  are  unobjec- 
tionable, in  so  far  as  they  affect  the  lead  aloft.    But  care 

*  The  tenn  bunt^ger  Ss  preferred  by  many  officers  to  the  more  correct  word, 
hurU-u^ip,  The  latter  is  likely  to  cause  confusion  in  hailing  the  men  aloft,  from 
the  similarity  of  its  sound  to  bunt  line. 


130 


CHANGES. 


should  be  taken  not  to  alter  leads  about  the  deck  except  for 

good  cause.  So  much  of  the  handling  of  gear  is  done  in 
le  dark  that  the  men  may  be  confused,  perhaps  at  a  criti- 
cal moment,  if  the  position  of  any  running  rigRinff  is 
frequently  varied  from  that  sanctioned  by  weU-establisned 
custom. 


CHAPTER    X. 


SAILS. 


Canvas  is  made  of  hemp,  of  flax,  or  of  cotton. 

All  canva43  used  in  the  navy  for  sails  is  flaxen,  made  in  ' 
cloths  of  eighty  yards  in  lenfftn,  and  in  breadth  of  twenty 
inches.  These  cloths  are  rolled  up  in  separate  packages, 
called  bolts.  The  stoutest  canvas  is  No.  1 ;  from  this  num- 
ber it  increases  in  fineness,  and  diminishes  in  strength,  to 
No.  9. 

In  selecting  canvas  for  sails,  considerable  practice  and 
close  observation  are  required.  A  good  test  is  to  bore  a  fid 
through  the  canvas,  when,  if  bad,  the  threads  are  easily 
broken. 

It  is  of  importance  that  canvas  should  have  a  good  and 
even  selvage,  and  be  free  from  tightness. 

There  is  a  great  deal  of  difference  in  the  stretching  of 
canvas — ^that  which  is  badly  struck  stretching  most. 

The  principal  sails  of  a  ship  are — ^the  courses,  or  sails  on 
the  lower  yards ;  the  topsails,  which  are  next  in  order 
above  the  courses,  and  the  top-gallant  sails,  which  are 
extended  above  the  topsails. 

For  sails,  see  Plate  4,  and  corresponding  reference  num- 
bers. 

In  all  quadrilateral  sails,  the  upper  edge  is  called  the 
head;  the  sides  are  called  the  leeches ;  ana  the  bottom,  or 
lower  edge,  is  termed  the  foot  If  the  head  is  parallel  to 
the  foot,  the  lower  comers  are  denominated  clews,  and  the 
upper  comers  head-earina  cringles. 

in  all  triangular  sails,  and  in  those  four-sided  sails 
wherein  the  head  is  not  parallel  to  the  foot,  the  foremost 
comer  at  the  foot  is  called  the  tack,  and  the  after  lower 
comer  the  clew ;  the  forward  comer  of  the  head  the  nock, 
the  after  comer  the  peak,  or  head.  The  foremost  edge  {or 
side)  is  called  the  fore-leech,  or  luff,  and  the  aftermost  edge 
the  after-leech, 

Stav  Sa.ils«  These  are  extended  upon  stays  be- 
tween tne  masts,  taking  their  names  from  the  stay  on 
which  they  set.  Those  used  in  the  navy  are  the  fore-top- 
mast staysail,  main-topmast  and  main -topgallant  staysail 
and  mizzen  topmast  staysail. 

Studdlngr  SO'IIm  are  set  out  beyond  the  leeches  of 

131 


132  SAILS. 

the  foresail,  topsail  and  topg:allant  sail,  also  beyond  the 
main-topsail  and  topgallant  sail,  being  known  as  the  lower, 
topmast  and  topgallant  studding-sails.  Their  upper  edges 
are  extended  by  studding-sail  yards,  the  lower  edges  dv 
booms  riffged  out  beyond  the  extremities  of  the  ship^s 
yards.  These  sails  are  used  only  in  favorable  winds  and 
moderate  weather. 

Additional  Sailn.  Above  the  royals  may  be  set 
sails  called  moonsails,  sky-scrapers,  &c.  In  the  navy 
nothing  is  set  above  royals.  In  the  merchant  service 
rarely  anything  above  a  skysail.  The  sails  usualljr  set 
forward  of  the  foremast  are  the  fore-topmast  staysail,  jib 
and  flying- jib.  Some  vessels  carry  outer- jibs,  jib-of-jibs,  or 
jib-topsails. 

Stoi'in-SailH  are  made  of  the  strongest  canvas, 
and  are  used,  as  the  name  indicates,  only  in  the  hieaviest 
weather. 

These  consist  of  the  fore^  main  and  mizzen  storm  stay- 
sails and  the  ^^  storm-mizzen.^'  The  storm-staysails  set  on 
the  respective  lower-stays,  or  better,  on  a  temporary  storm- 
stay,  toggled  in  the  collar  of  the  lower  stay. 

The  storm  mizzen  is  a  triangular  sail  set  abaft  the  miz- 
zen-mast  on  a  vertical  **stay,"  hooked  under  the  after 
trestle-tree,  and  set  up  on  deck. 

The  fore  and  main  trysails  are  also  used  in  bad  weather 
and  frequently  take  the  place  of  the  main  and  mizzen 
storm-staysails. 

The  term  light  sails  is  generally  understood  in  the  ser- 
vice to  apply  to  the  topgallant  sails,  royals,  flying-jib,  and 
studding-sails. 

Jibs  are  of  great  command  with  any  side  wind,  but 
especially  when  the  ship  is  close-hauled,  or  has  the  wind 
abeam ;  and  their  effect  in  casting  the  ship,  or  turning 
her  head  to  leeward,  is  very  powerful,  and  of  great  utility. 

Although  the  yards  on  the  foremast  are  termed  head-- 
yards y  yet  the  fore-topmast-staysail  and  the  jibs  alone  are 
Known  as  the  head-sails. 

The  after-sails,  which  are  those  that  belong  to  the 
mainmast  and  mizzenmast,  keep  the  ship  to  the  wind  ;  on 
which  account  ships  sailing  on  a  wind  require  a  head-sail 
and  an  after-sail — one  to  counteract  the  other,  so  that 
the  spanker  being  at  one  end  of  the  lever,  as  it  were,  and 
the  jibs  at  the  other,  they  are  of  great  assistance  in  steering 
and  working  a  ship. 

When  a  ship  sails  with  a  side  wind,  the  clews  of  the  fore 
and  main  courses  are  fastened  by  a  tack  and  sheet,  the  tack 
being  to  windward  and  the  sheet  to  leeward.  The  tack  is, 
however,  not  in  use  with  the  wind  aft,  whereas  the  sail 
is  never  spread  without  the  assistance  of  one  or  both  of  the 
sheets. 

When  on  a  wind,  ships  are  said  to  have  their  starboard 


Plate  69 


1^12.350 


3^i2.360 


l-"ia.301 


SAILS.    .  133 

(or  port)  tacks  aboard,  according  to  the  side  presented  to 
the  wind. 

On  the  other  hand,  schooners  have  their  port  (or  star- 
board) sheets  aft. 

Wnen  speaKing  of  topsails,  or  such  sails  as  are  set  hy 
halliards,  the  altitude  is  termed  the  hoist,  thus  one  topsail  is 
said  to  have  '^more  or  less  hoist"  than  another. 

When  speaking  of  courses  the  same  idea  is  conveyed  by 
the  word  drop,  as  one  mainsail  has  ^^  more  or  less  drop  "  than 
another. 

It  is  under  the  topsails  that  many  important  evolutions 
are  made,  and  they  are  justly  accounted  the  principal  sails 
in  a  ship. 

The  draft  of  the  ship  and  spars,  Fig.  284,  Plate  46,  is  of 
great  service  to  the  sail-maker,  as  well  as  to  the  boatswain, 
for  by  it  he  can  measure  for  and  cut  out  a  suit  of  sails. 

The  sailmaker  generally  makes  his  own  draft  to  work 
by. 

Were  a  sail  to  be  exactly  square,  there  would  be  little 
art  in  making  it.  But  a  ship's  sails  are,  mostly,  anything 
but  square ;  there  is  much  skill  required  in  the  arrangement 
of  every  cloth.  In  cutting  out  and  making  them  up,  it  is  a 
primary  object  to  adapt  and  cut  the  numerous  gores*  so 
that,  when  brought  together,  they  will  produce  the  ulti- 
mate form  required,  with  the  least  possible  waste  of  canvas. 
This  is  effected  by  so  casting  the  number  of  inches  contained 
in  each  gore,  that  when  they  are  brought  together  they 
shall  be  equal  to  the  number  contained  in  the  after  leech- 
cloth.  This  is  in  reference  to  fore-and-aft  sails,  but  the 
same  theory  applies  in  the  parts  of  square  sails. 

Sails  should  set  as  nearly  flat  as  possible. 

The  American  schooner  is  an  illustration,  where  even 
the  lib  is  frequently  laced  down  to  a  yard  or  boom,  fitted 
for  tne  purpose,  in  the  desire  to  have  everything  set  flat. 

In  pilot  Doats  and  yachts  the  sails  are  set  as  taut  and  as 
flat  as  the  sacking-bottom  of  a  bed.  The  utility  of  this  plan 
was  exemplified  in  the  race  between  the  yacht  "  America" 
and  the  English  yacht  squadron.  Going  free,  there  was 
not  much  difference ;  but  on  hauling  up  to  make  a  stretch 
to  windward  the  flat  canvas  of  the  **  America"  enabled  her 
to  distance  her  competitors. 

The  efficiency  of  the  '*  America's"  sails,  as  well  as  those 
of  all  of  our  small  craft,  is  due  to  their  goreless  shape,  the 
canvas  being  cut  as  much  as  possible  on  the  thread  or  woof, 
and  also  to  tne  practice  of  lacing  sails  down  taut  to  spars  or 
booms.  In  Fig.  359.  Plate  01),  the  foot  of  the  sail  is  gored, 
and  as  it  cannot  be  laced  down,  it  bellies  out  to  leeward,  on 
a  wind,  and  consequently  much  of  the  effect  of  the  wind  is 
lost. 

*  In  all  sails  those  cloths  which  are  cut  in  any  direction  except  straight 
with  the  thread  or  woof  are  said  to  be  gored. 


134  .    SAILS. 

In  Fig.  360,  Plate  69,  on  the  contrary,  the  only  gore  is  at 
the  mast  to  which  the  sail  is  attached ;  each  cloth  is  pulled 
downwards  bodily,  and  every  single  thread  is  stretched. 
There  is,  with  this  sail,  but  little  concave  surface,  and 
therefore  but  little  of  the  effective  pressure  of  the  wind  is 
lost.    The  same  principle  applies  to  all  sails. 

Cutting-  oiit  ^a^ilts.  Sails  are  cut  out  cloth  by 
cloth,  the  width  being  governed  by  the  length  of  the  yard, 

faflf,  boom,  or  stay ;  the  depth  by  the  height  of  the  mast, 
he  width  and  depth  being  given,  find  the  number  of  cloths 
the  width  requires,  allowing  for  seams,  tabling  on  leeches, 
and  slack  cloth  ;  and  in  depth,  allow  for  tabling  on  the  head 
and  foot.  Sails  cut  square  on  the  head  and  foot,  with  gores 
only  on  the  leeches,  as  some  topsails  are,  the  cloths  on  the 
head  between  the  leeches  are  cut  square  to  the  depth  ;  and 
the  gores  on  the  leeches  are  found  by  dividing  the  depth  of 
the  sail  by  the  number  of  cloths  gored,  which  gives  the 
length  of  each  gore.  The  gore  is  set  down  from  a  square 
with  the  opposite  selvage,  and  the  canvas,  being  cut  diago- 
nally, the  longest-goreoL  side  of  one  cloth  makes  the  shortest 
side  of  the  next :  consequently,  the  first  gore  being  known, 
the  rest  are  cut  oy  it. 

In  the  leeches  of  topsails  cut  hollow^  the  upper  gores  are 
longer  than  the  lower  ones.  By  drawing  on  paper  the 
gored  side  of  the  sail,  and  delineating  the  breadth  of  every 
cloth  by  a  convenient  scale  of  equal  parts  of  an  inch  to  a 
foot,  the  length  of  every  gore  may  be  found  with  precision. 

The  foot  of  square  sails  is  roached  so  as  not  to  Tbe  chafed 
by  any  boat,  netting,  or  stay,  that  may  stand  in  the  line  of 
tneir  middle  parts.  Topsails  are  hollowed  on  their  leeches, 
to  avoid  long  yard-arms  for  the  lower  reef  earings. 

Sails  are  supplied  to  vessels  complete,  with  points,  ear- 
ings, bowline-bridles,  beckets,  and  robands.  Their  edges 
are  tabled  and  stitched  to  the  bolt-rope.  The  tabling  of 
large  sails  is  strengthened  at  the  clews  and  foot  by  a  third 
fold  of  canvas  sewn  in  it.  The  tabling  and  clew-pieces  are 
sewn  on  the  after  side  of  square,  and  on  the  port  side  of 
fore-and-aft  sails. 

Sea^mss.  Sails  have  a  double  flat  seam,  and  should  be 
sewed  with  the  best  American-made  cotton  twine  of  three 
to  eight  threads,  and  have  from  one  hundred  and  eight 
to  one  hundred  and  sixteen  stitches  in  every  yard  in 
length.  It  is  the  erroneous  practice  of  some  sailmaters  not 
to  sew  the  seams  any  farther  than  where  the  edge  is  creased 
down  for  the  tabling ;  but  all  sails  should  be  sewed  quite 
home  to  the  end,  and,  when  finished,  should  be  well  rubbed 
down  with  a  rubber.  The  twine  for  large  sails  used  in  the 
navy  is  waxed  bv  hand,  with  genuine  beeswax. 

The  seams  of  courses,  topsails,  lower  staysails,  trysails, 
and  spanker,  are  1^  inches  wide.  After  the  larger  sails  have 
become  somewhat  worn,  they  are  sometimes  treble-seamed 


iliiJllijili;^ 


lilillilgssij^ 

— — *■ — ' — n * — — iiiii-LUJJ  [\ 


i" 


!i» 


/ijjfliji 

Muji " 

'Jimiiiit 


I'HilJliJll 
fi!fi[IM'li  '" 


SAILS.  135 

down  the  middle  of  the  seam^  to  strengthen  them.  Seams 
of  other  sails  are  1  inch  wide.  One  man  can  sew  100  yards 
in  91  hours,  single  seam. 

Tabling-s.  The  tablings  of  sails  are  of  a  propor- 
tionate breadth  to  the  size  oi  the  sail,  and  sewed  at  the 
edge  with  sixty-eight  to  seventy -two  stitches  in  a  yard. 

Holes.  Holes  are  made  by  an  instrument  called  a 
stabber,  and  are  fenced  round  by  stitching  the  edge  to  a 
small  ffrommet,  made  with  a  log  or  other  line.  When 
finished,  they  should  be  well  stretcned  or  rounded-up  by  a 
pricker  or  a  marling-spike. 

Sails  have  two  holes  in  each  cloth  at  the  heads  and  reefs 
of  courses,  top-sails,  and  other  square  sails ;  one  hole  in 
every  yard  in  the  luff  of  flying-jibs ;  and  one  in  every 
three-quarters  of  a  yard  in  the  luffs  of  other  staysails. 

Reef  and  head  holes  of  sails  have  grommets  of  small  line, 
worked  round  with  stitches. 

In  order  to  strengthen  sails,  the  holes  in  the  heads  and 
reefs  should  be  placed  thus  :  One  hole  to  be  made  in  the 
seam,  another  in  the  middle  of  the  canvas,  and  so  alter- 
nately ;  the  holes  in  the  seam  to  be  half  an  inch  lower  than 
the  hole  in  the  middle  of  the  canvas.  By  this,  the  strain 
would  lie  upon  the  holes  in  the  seam,  which  are  more  capable 
of  bearing  it  than  the  holes  in  the  middle  of  the  single  can- 
vas. It  is  likewise  recommended  to  cut  these  holes  witn  a  hol- 
lowpunch,  instead  of  making  them  with  a  stabber  or  pricker. 

ILiining's.  Sails  are  strengthened  with  additional 
canvas  at  those  places  most  exposed  to  strain  and  wear ;  in 
square  sails,  in  the  wake  of  cringles  along  the  leeches  on 
the  foreside,  called  leech-lining,  c.  Figs.  363  and  364,  in  the 
wake  of  buntlines  on  the  foreside,  called  buntline  cloths, 
g ;  across  the  foreside,  called  reef  and  belly-bands,  a  and  6 ; 
and  in  the  case  of  topsails  on  the  afterside,  called  the  top- 
linings  and  mast-linings,  e  and  /.  Fore-and-aft  sails  are 
strengthened  at  the  clews  by  pieces ;  and  jibs  sometimes 
with  a  strain-band.  There  is  also  the  foot-lining  d,  reef- 
tackle-pieces  A,  and  clew-pieces  i. 

The  clews  of  courses  and  topsails  are  formed  of  iron. 
The  cringles  for  earings,  reef -tackles,  bowlines,  &c.,  are 
formed  of  bolt-rope  strands,  worked  round  the  leech-rope, 
through  eyelet-holes  in  the  tabling.  The  rope  should  be 
new,  and  half-an-inch  smaller  than  the  rope  of  the  sail. 

The  reef -earing  and  reef-tackle  cringles  have  galvanized 
thimbles. 

Topsails  have  two  bowline-cringles  and  one  bridle  on 
each  leech.    Bowline-cringles  have  no  thimbles. 

Plate  70,  Fig.  363,  represents  a  topsail  bent  to  the  iron 
jackstay  of  a  topsail  yard ;  a'  a"  are  the  first  and  second 
reef -bands,  fitted  to  reef  with  beckets  and  toggles  on  the 
yard  :  a  a  the  third  and  fourth  reef -bands  with  reef-points  ; 
o  by  belly-bands— frequently  there  is  but  one;  c  c,   leech 


136  SAILS. 

linings  ;  rf,  r/,  foot  lining  or  band  ;  e,  top  lining;  /,  mast 
lining ;  a,  buntline  cloths  ;  h,  reef -tackle  pieces  or  bands  ; 
t  ty  head  tabling  and  head  holes  through  wnich  the  robands 
are  passed ;  all  these,  with  the  exception  of  the  top,  foot, 
and  mast  lining,  are  on  the  forward  side  of  the  sail. 

The  Greai*.  1,  the  lift;  2,  3,  reef -tackle:  4,  head- 
earing  ;  5,  6,  7,  8,  the  first,  second,  third  and  fourth,  or 
close-reef  cringle — the  earing  is  spliced  into  the  eyelet-hole 
below  the  cringle,  seized  to  it  and  bent  to  the  cringle  above ; 
9,  reef -tackle  cringle ;  10,  bowline  cringles,  bowfine  bridle 
and  toggle  for  bowline  ;  11,  iron  clew  or  spectacle — to  two 
of  its  eyes  splice  the  leech  and  foot-rope,  the  eye  and  splice 
being  leathered — to  the  third  eye  shackles  the  topsail  sheet- 
block  ;  12,  12,  buntline  toggles,  between  which  the  foot-rope 
is  usually  leathered ;  13,  14,  15,  gluts,  the  upper  two  abaft 
the  sail  and  the  lower  one  forward  of  the  sail  as  shown  in 
the  figure. 

Fig.  364  represents  a  course,  also  viewed  from  forward. 
The  lettering  and  numbers  of  the  details  are  the  same  as 
those  for  the  topsail. 

The  clew  of  the  course  (11),  viewed  from  forward,  is 
shown  in  an  enlarged  form,  leathered  on  flap  forward  be- 
tween eyes  of  spectacle. 

Generally  speaking,  topsails  have  three  gluts,  two  abaft 
and  one  forward  of  the  sail ;  the  upper  one  is  for  the  bunt- 
jigger  to  be  used  when  furling  sails.  The  second  is  for  the 
same  purpose  when  furling  with  a  single  reef,  and  the 
third,  forward  of  the  sail,  is  for  a  midship  buntline^  used 
for  hauling  up  the  slack  of  the  sail  in  taking  in  the  close 
reef. 

Courses,  Fig.  364,  have  two  reef  bands  on  the  foreside, 
each  being  one-sixth  the  depth  of  the  sail  in  the  middle 
from  the  head ;  with  a  belly-band  half  way  between  the 
lower  reef  and  the  foot. 

Topsails  have  three  or  four  reef -bands,  on  the  foreside, 
the  lower  of  which  is  at  half  the  depth  of  the  sail,  nearly  ; 
the  belly-band,  also  on  the  foreside,  is  halfway  between  tne 
lower  reef  and  the  foot. 

Top-gallant  sails  may  have  one  reef -band,  though  not 

Eointed,  as  it  is  rarely  ever  used.  A  topmast  studding-sail 
as  one  reef -band  for  setting  with  single  reefed  topsails.  A 
lower  studding-sail  has  a  rolling-reef.  None  but  the  last 
are  likely  to  be  of  much  use. 

Spankers  have  generally  two  reef -bands,  one  band  run- 
ning diagonally — termed  a  balance-reef. 

Frequently  the  term  balance-reef  is  applied  to  the  close- 
reef  in  fore  and  aft  sails,  particularly  on  board  of  "  fore-and- 
afters." 

The  jib  has  a  reef -band,  and  on  fore-and-aft  coasters  a 
bonnet  which  is  attached  to  the  foot  of  the  sail  by  means 
of  a  lacing.  The  lug-foresail  of  a  schooner  has  a  bonnet 
also. 


Plate  71 


PLAN 


iri|t.365 


i'iC.30tJ 


Fia:.367 


C^SSSSSS^Ni;^ 


Fi«.368 


Fi«.369 


Fi«.370 


FiE^ri 


SAILS.  1:37 

The  term  lug-foresail  is  applied  to  that  of  the  schooner, 
when  the  foresail  hauls  aft  by  a  sheet,  to  distinguish  it 
troia  aboomrforesail  where  the  toot  is  laced  down  to  a  boom. 

Hoping".  The  bolt-rone  sewed  on  the  hollow  or 
straight  leeches  of  square  sails,  is  put  on  with  suflBciency 
of  slack  canvas  to  admit  of  that  stretch  of  rope  which  arises 
from  the  constant  strain  upon  the  margin  of  such  sails ; 
and  the  necessary  allowance  for  the  stretch  of  the  whole  is 
made  in  the  calculation  of  dimensions  of  such  sails.  But  in 
the  leeches  of  fore-and-aft-sails,  as  also  in  the  round  foot  of 
spankers,  jibs,  &;c.,  &c.,  a  suflBcient  quantity  of  slack  rope 
is  introduced  to  keep  the  foot  from  curling  up,  to  leave  tne 
after-leech  of  these  sails  free,  and  also  to  compensate  for  the 
amount  of  stretch  which  those  parts  of  the  sails  above- 
named  are  constantly  liable  to. 

Spankers  are  made  with  an  allowance  of  stretch  of 
3^  inches  in  each  3  feet  of  the  foot,  H  in  each  3  feet  of  the 
head,  and  2^  in  each  3  feet  of  the  length  of  the  leech. 

Sails  are  always  bent  to  their  yard  or  gaff  with  the 
roping  next  the  spar,  otherwise  the  stitches  would  be  cut 
through  by  friction. 

In  square  sails  the  rope  is  always  sewn  on  the  af terside  ; 
in  fore-and-aft  sails,  generally  on  the  port  side.  The  roping 
of  the  foot  is  stoutest,  tapering  off  to  tne  leech-rope. 

Courses  are  usually  fitted  with  a  double  reef  point 
forward  of  the  sail,  kept  in  place  by  a  rope  jackstay  aoaf t, 
which  is  rove  through  the  bights  01  the  reef  points,  thrust 
through  the  eyelet-holes  from  forward  aft. 

Topsails  are  pointed  by  reeving  one  long  point 
through  the  eyelet-hole,  and  stitching  it  in  so  that  two-tnirds 
will  be  abaft  and  one-third  forward  of  the  sail. 

Topmast  SLTiA  Lo^^^ei*  Stxxclcling— ^ail'*' 
are  reefed  by  passing  temporary  stops  of  spun-yarn  through 
eyelet-holes. 

JKooTn-maiiisails  and  spanker  are  pointed  by 
stitching  the  middle  part  of  the  points  in  holes  **  stabbed" 
in  the  seams  of  the  sails.  As  in  reefing,  there  is  only  slack 
sail  to  be  tied  up,  heavy  pointing  is  unnecessary. 

Ffench  JK.ee  fs«  The  first  and  second  reef  bands 
of  topsails  in  our  service,  and  all  reefs  of  square  sails  in  the 
British  and  French  navies,  are  now  fitted  with  rope  jack- 
stays  instead  of  points,  with  reefing  beckets,  Fig.  367,  se- 
cured on  the  yard. 

The  jackstays  on  the  sails  are  differently  fitted.  Our 
practice  is  to  use  two  lines,  weaving  them  in  opposite 
directions  right  across,  in  and  out  of  the  holes  in  the  sail, 
stitching  or  seizing  the  crossings  together,  Fig.  365.  The 
ends  of  the  lines  go  through  the  reef-cringle  holes  and 
around  the  leech-rope  with  an  eye-splice. 

Sometimes  the  bights  of  the  foremost  line  are  shoved 
through  the  holes  with  a  hard  kink,  the  after  line  being 


138  SAILS. 

rove  through  tlie  kink,  Fig.  IMU),  Both  plans  are  poor,  and 
the  same  may  be  said  of  any  arrangement  involving  an 
after  jackstay  for  a  topsail,  as  it  is  constantly  liable  to  foul 
in  hoisting. 

The  French  plan  dispenses  with  the  rope  jackstay  abaft 
the  sail.  The  eyelet-holes  are  placed  in  pairs,  each  eyelet 
of  a  pair  being  about  two  inches  from  the  edge  of  a  seam. 
The  reef -line  is  secured  by  splice  to  the  leech  of  the  sail, 
passes  forward  of  the  sail  to  the  first  hole,  reeves  through 
that  hole  from  forward  aft,  out  through  the  second  hole 
from  aft  forward,  then  in  and  out  again  as  before,  the  two 
turns  of  the  line  being  seized  together  abaft  the  sail  with 
a  flat  seizing.  The  line  then  passes  twice  through  the  next 
pair  of  eyelet-holes  in  the  same  way,  Fig.  368.  Another 
similar  plan  of  fitting  the  reef -line,  also  French,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  369.  In  this  case  the  use  of  seizings  is  avoided,  the 
bight  of  the  reefing-line  being  shoved  through  the  first  hole, 
the  end  taken  in  the  second  hole  through  a  kink  in  the 
bight  and  out  again,  and  so  on  to  the  next  pair  of  holes. 

I>oiil>le  TopnailH.  The  lower  one  is  bent  to  the 
lower  topsail  yard  and  its  clews  are  hauled  out  by  sheets 
rove  in  trie  usual  way.     It  has  no  reef  band. 

The  upper  topsail  is  bent  to  the  upper  topsail  yard,  its 
clews  being  shackled  to  jackstays  fitted  on  the  lower  topsail 
yard  arms.  This  topsail  has  one  or  two  reefs  according  to 
its  size.     It  has  buntlines  but  no  clewlines. 

FITTING  SAILS. 

Prior  to  bending,  the  sails  should  be  carefully  examined, 
in  order  to  supply  any  omissions,  such  as* the  points, 
bridles,  thimbles,  eyelets,  and  gluts.  In  addition  to  which, 
the  fore  and  aft  sails  must  be  prepared  with  hanks,  brail- 
blocks,  lacings  and  lashings,  and  the  square  sails  with 
earings  and  **  rope-bands,"  or  robands. 

IXeacl-Eai'iiiqrs.  Small  manilla  rope,  one  end 
spliced  into  the  head-earing  cringle,  the  other  end  whipped. 
It  is  cut  long  enough  for  two  turns  from  the  staple  to  the 
head-earing  cringle,  with  end  enough  for  several  .turns 
through  the  backer. 

Il.eel-Eai*iiig-K.  Similar  to  the  above,  but  of 
heavier  stuff ;  one  end  spliced  into  the  reef-cringle  eyelet^ 
just  below  their  respective  thimbles  ;  the  other  end 
whipped.  Length  sufficient  te  haul  out  to  and  around 
the  proper  cleat  on  the  yard,  with  end  enough  to  expend 
around  the  yard  and  through  the  reef -cringle  for  three  or 
more  turns. 

Btxll-Eainng-K.  The  simplest  and  best  are  of  well- 
worn  manilla,  with  one  end  spliced  into  the  standing  part. 
Fig.  370,  forming  a  bight  long  enough  to  hitch  arouna  the 


■  V 


SAILS.  131) 

yard  outside  the  proper  cleat,  and  reeve  through  the  reef- 
cringle  and  back  to  the  yard. 

Tnese  are  called  hull-earing s,  and  remain  on  the  yard 
instead  of  in  their  cringles,  that  for  the  first  reef  being  rov^ 
through  its  cringle  and  brought  back  to  the  yard  ready  for 
use. 

BuU-earings  have  been  made  (of  smaller  stuff)  to  give 
more  parts  in  the  first  turn  by  splicing  on  an  additional 
length  in  the  first  bight,  as  in  Fig.  371,  but  they  twist  up  in 
wet  weather,  and  are  otherwise  objectionable  as  compared 
to  the  simple  form. 

It.ol>a.TiclK9  consisting  of  two-yarn  foxes,  are  middled, 
and  secured  to  the  head  rope,  by  thrusting  one  end  through 
the  bight,  which  is  first  passed  through  the  eyelet  from  tne 
fore  side  of  the  sail,  and  hauled  taut. 

Gra^Hkets.  These  are  classed  as  bunt,  yard-arm,  and 
sea-gaskets ;  the  first  two  made  of  plaited  yarns.  Those 
for  tne  hunt  consist  of  two  single  legs — one  on  each  side  of 
the  slin^,  varying  from  two  to  three  inches  in  width,  and 
fitted  with  a  thimble  in  one  end,  by  which  it  is  secured  to 
the  hendina  jack-stay  with  a  permanent  seizing — the  other 
extremity  having  a  laniard,  which  is  hitched  to  the  oppo- 
site quarter  of  the  yard  on  top  ;  the  gaskets  crossing  each 
other  on  the  bunt  when  the  sail  is  furled.  The  yard-arm 
gaskets  are  made  of  sennit  also,  and  fitted  with  a  thimble, 
or  eye,  in  one  end,  and  the  other  tapering,  and  secured  at 
equal  distances  (generally  about  every  third  seam)  along 
the  yard,  underneath  the  jack-stay,  by  a  cross-seizing  just 
below  the  thimble.  The  gasket  lies  under  the  head  of  the 
sail.  When  furling  it  is  taken  up  forward  and  over,  and 
the  end  rove  through  the  thimble,  the  sail  tossed  well  up 
and  the  end  expended  around  its  own  part. 

In  making  harbor  gaskets,  the  broad  part  should  be  long 
enough  to  take  the  saU  in  when  furled  with  two  reefs  ;  thev 
should  be  carefully  blacked,  and  to  avoid  staining  the  sail, 
should  be  lined. 

The  sea-gaskets,  or  more  properly  furling  lines  (of  which 
there  are  two  on  each  of  the  lower  and  topsail  yardarms), 
may  be  either  of  sennit  or  small-sized  rope,  and  of  sufficient 
length  to  go  around  booms  and  all,  when  furling  in  heavy 
weather.  These,  however,  are  not  necessarily  permanent 
fixtures  to  the  yard,  although  usually  put  round  it  at  the 
outer  and  inner  quarters  with  a  running  eye,  and  the  sur- 
plus end  bightea  up  with  frapping  turns,  and  thrown  for- 
ward of  the  sail,  at  sea.    They  are  removed  in  port. 

A  description  of  bending  sail  will  be  found  under  the 
head  of  Port  Drills. 

Fixi'ling"  CoixrHes,  The  leeches  are  handed  in 
along  the  yard,  then  the  sail  rolled  up  snug,  with  the  ends 
of  the  points  passed  in  towards  the  bunt,  to  give  the  sail  a 
gradual  increase  in  that  direction.    Pass  the  gaskets  square, 


140  SAILS. 

lower  the  booms,  and  if  required  stop  up  the  gear.  The 
buntlines  and  leechlines  are  stopped  to  the  slings  close  down, 
and  hauled  taut  on  deck.  The  bowline-bridles  of  all  sails  in 
furling  are  laid  with  the  toggle  towards  the  bunt,  and  bri- 
dles taut  along  the  yard. 

When  a  sail  is  neatly  furled,  it  appears  neither  above  nor 
below  the  yard — earrings  well  slewed  up — sail  smooth  under 
the  gaskets,  bunt  square,  and  a  tant  skin.  The  heels  of  the 
booms  should  be  square,  and  everything  necessary  com- 
pleted, previous  to  squaring  the  yards. 

f  ixi'ling-  Topf^ailH.  When  the  sail  is  nearly 
rolled  up,  hook  the  ount- jigger,  bouse  it  well  up,  lower 
away  roundly  the  buntlines,  and  shove  the  sail  well  into  the 
skin,  taking  pains  to  keep  the  bunt  square ;  pass  and  secure 
the  gaskets,  lower  and  square  the  studding-sail  booms, 
clews  singled  and  hauled  well  up,  buntlines  stopped  down. 

HEAD  SAILS. 

These  sails  require  some  fittings  not  strictly  within  the 
sailmaker's  department,  such  as  the  bails  for  tack-lashings, 
the  hanks,  &c. 

lla^nkK  are  stout  thimbles,  of  the  shape  shown  in 
Figs.  361  and  362,  which  traverse  up  and  down  the  stay. 
The  common  plan  is  to  attach  them  to  the  luff  by  foxes  of 
spun-yarn  rove  through  the  eyes  of  the  hank  and  the  eyelet 
on  the  sail.  A  neater  plan  is  suggested  by  Fig.  302,  where 
a  toggle  is  strapped  into  one  eye  of  the  hank,  with  a  double 
strap  of  6-threaa  stuff,  and  hooks  into  a  single  strap  worked 
on  the  opposite  eye,  of  9-thread. 

Fore-and-aft  sails  running  upon  hemp  stays  are  bent  with 
manilla  bridles,  the  bridles  being  toggled  to  the  sails. 
Those  running  on  iron  stays  are  fitted  with  hanks.  Figs.  376 
and  377.   Bridles  must  be  passed  against  the  lay  of  the  stay. 

To  Htow  n,  I  lend  Hsiil.  Haul  it  close  down 
and  pass  the  gaskets,  have  a  clew-stop  on  the  clew  of  the 
jib  to  hold  the  clew  forward  of  the  cap,  and  a  similar  one 
from  the  flying-jib  clew  to  the  wythe.  The  cover  is  then 
placed  over  and  the  stops  tied.  Jib-sheets  stopped  down 
and  the  sheets  and  halliards  hauled  taut.  The  fore-topmast 
stay -sail  stows  in  a  netting  or  canvas  bottom  made  for  the 
puroose  and  placed  on  the  oowsprit  between  the  stays. 

Furling  lines  or  sea  gaskets  are  used  in  stowing  the  jibs 
at  sea ;  for  port  there  is  fitted  on  the  boom  a  centipede,  a 
piece  of  sennit  running  the  length  of  the  boom,  with  short 
pieces  of  the  same  material  running  athwartship  at  certain 
intervals.  The  sail  stows  on  the  centipede,  and  the  short 
ends  are  brought  over  and  tied  on  top,  as  gaskets.  Jibs 
carefully  stowed  in  their  own  cloths  may  be  made  to  look  as 
neat  as  with  a  regular  cover  on,  but  require  more  care  in 
stowing  than  any  other  fore-and-aft  sail. 


SAILS.  141 

The  flying- jib  should  be  sent  out  for  bending  on  the  star- 
board side,  on  account  of  the  boom  being  on  that  side  of  the 
bowsprit. 

Make  up  a  head  sail,  for  stowing  away,  on  the  after 
leech,  doubling  the  tack  and  head  clew  in  toward  the  sheet 
before  commencing  to  roll  up. 

R^oyals  and  Top-grallant  SailH.  They 
should  be  always  bent  on  deck,  on  account  of  the  diflSculty 
of  hauling  out  bv  hand ;  the  earings  and  rope-bands  are 
passed  like  those  for  the  courses  and  topsails  ;  tne  buntlines, 
clewlines,  and  sheets,  being  bent  after  the  yard  is  crossed. 
If,  however,  it  should  be  necessary  to  bend  the  top-gallant 
sail  aloft,  it  may  be  sent  up  by  the  royal  yard-rope,  and  the 
head-cringles  hauled  out  by  means  of  the  top-gallant  stud- 
ding-sail halliards. 

Note.  In  furling  either  a  royal  or  top-gallant  sail,  it 
should  be  rolled  up  with  a  long,  taut  hunt,  and  the  clews 
**  tucked  in,"  to  avoid  tearing  the  sail  in  its  upward  or 
downward  passage. 

Jb^u-i'linpr  l^^or*e  and  Aft  Sailw.  They  are 
furled  best  with  a  cover,  but  can  be  furled  in  the  two  after- 
cloths,  though  not  usually  looking  so  well.  In  furling  with 
a  cover,  bran  the  sail  close  up  and  stop  the  cover  around, 
commencing  at  the  jaws  and  working  down. 

STUDDING-SAILS. 

In  bending  these  sails,  place  the  roping  of  the  sail  on  the 
after  and  under  side  of  the  yard,  secured  in  such  manner 
as  to  preclude  the  possibility  of  its  ba^gin^  down. 

The  outer  earings,  which  are  spliced  into  the  cringles 
-with  a  short  eye,  are  passed  througn  holes  bored  in  the  ex- 
tremities of  the  yard,  from  the  after  side — thence  back 
through  the  cringle  and  over  the  yard,  inside  of  the  hole, 
until  three  or  four  turns  are  taken,  when  the  end  is  hitched 
through  the  cringle  and  around  the  single  part.  The  sail 
is  then  brought  taut  along  the  yard,  the  inner  earing  passed 
in  the  same  manner,  and  the  head-rope  secured  to  tne  yard 
by  neat  sennit  stops,  which  are  fixtures  in  the  evelets. 
liastly,  the  sheets  and  down-haul  are  bent  as  described  in 
HuNNiNG  Rigging. 

To  IVIaJie  ixp  Toi>nTaHt  Stixddinor-Sail« 
virlien  not  Bent.  Stretch  the  sail  taut  along,  and 
overhaul  the  down-haul  through  the  thimble  and  block, 
and  bight  it  along  the  whole  length  of  the  leech.  Then  roll 
up  toward  the  inner  leech,  lay  the  sheets  along  the  whole 
length  of  the  sail,  roll  up  over  all,  and  stop  tha  sail  well  up 
with  rope-yarn.  The  earings  are  expended  round  the 
head  of  the  sail.  The  topgallant  studding-sail  is  made  up  in 
the  same  manner. 


142  SAILS. 


"W^hen  Hent.  In  making  up  a  topmast  studdin 
sail,  when  bent,  overhaul  the  down-haul  the  length  of  the  hiff 
or  outer  leech ;  then  take  the  foot  up  to  the  yard,  and  place 
the  tack-cringle  out.  Bight  the  down-haul  along  the  yard, 
also  the  sheets ;  roll  the  sail  snugly  up  and^  stop  it  with 
sennit-tails.  These  are  clove-hitched  around  the  studding- 
sail-yard,  and  remain  there.  When  the  sail  is  being  pre- 
pared for  going  aloft  the  sennit  stops  are  cast  adrift  from 
around  the  sail,  and  the  latter  held  together  by  a  rope  strap 
and  toggle,  as  will  be  described  hereafter  under  Making 
Sail. 

Lo^^ver  Stnclcliiig-So^il^  8,re  bent  and  made  up 
in  the  same  manner  as  topmast  studding-sails,  with  the 
sheet  in. 

When  readv  for  sea,  topgallant  studding-sails  are  kept 
in  the  tops  witn  covers  on. 

The  other  studding  sails  are  rolled  up  in  their  covers  and 
stowed  on  the  booms. 

It  is  the  practice  to  keep,  while  at  sea,  the  top- 
mast studding-sail  up  and  down  the  fore  rigging,  the  top- 
gallant studdmg^-sail  in  the  topmast  rigging,  and  the  lower 
studding-sails  triced  up  and  down  the  tore-mast.  This  is  a 
very  good  plan  when  circumstances  render  a  frequent  use 
of  these  sails  liable. 

All  spare  sails  should  be  tallied  before  being  stowed  in 
the  sail-room,  as  it  will  prevent  mistakes ;  and  if  a  sail  is 
properly  stowed,  and  the  sail-maker  takes  a  list  when  they 
are  stowing,  there  can  never  be  any  difficulty  in  finding 
what  may  be  wanted. 

Sail-Co vei*ss.  for  fore-and-aft  sails,  and  for  square- 
sails  of  steamers,  very  frequently  have  imitation  gaskets, 
stitched  or  painted  on  the  outside,  which  adds  much  to 
their  appearance. 

In  addition  to  the  cover  for  the  main-sail  and  main- 
topsail,  steamers  have  a  *' jacket"  which  laces  around  the 
main-mast  toprotect  it  from  the  smoke  of  the  funnel. 

liaclt-ClotliH.  These  are  for  stowing  the  bunt  of 
the  topsails  in.  They  are  made  of  stout  canvas,  roped 
arouno,  and  are  attached  to  the  after  part  of  the  yard  close 
up  to  the  topmast.  When  arranged  for  furling,  one  cor- 
ner is  stopped  out  to  the  forwai'd  swifter  of  the  topmast 
rigging,  to  the  topsail  lift,  or  wlu^rever  convenient.  They 
add  very  much  to  the  neat  appearance  of  the  sail  when 
furled. 

They  should  be  sent  down  when  the  sails  are  unbent. 

The  general  rule  for  making  up  sails  for  storing  away  is 
to  make  them  up  in  the  longest  sid(\ 

All  sails  for  the  Navy  are  made  of  flax  canvas;  cotton 
canvas  is  used  for  the  following  purposes: 

No.  1  is  principally  for  the  construction  of  water-tanks 
for  boats. 


SAILS.  143: 

No.  2  for  mess-cloths. 

No.  3  for  making  taxpaulins  and  head-cloths. 

No.  4  for  deck  awnings,  boom-covers,  hammock-cloths, 
&c. 

Nos.  5  and  6  for  wind-sails,  sail-covers  and  boat-covers. 

Nos.  7  and  8  for  boat  awnings,  awning  curtains,  wheel- 
covers,  &c. 

Nos.  9  and  10  for  binnacle-covers,  side-screens,  &c. 

Hammock  stuff  for  making  hammocks. 

Bag-stuff  for  clothes-bags,  hatch-hoods,  &c. 

Cot  stuff  for  cots. 

Note.  All  fore  and  aft  sails^  as  well  as  courses,  topsails 
and  topgallant  sails,  are  finished  with  iron  clews. 


CHAPTER    XI. 

PURCHASING   WEIGHTS. 

In  addition  to  the  gear  described  in  previous  chapters 
for  handling  sails  and  spars,  there  are  certain  purchases 
specially  rigged  on  ship-board,  when  required,  to  hoist 
weights  in  or  out  of  the  vessel,  or  to  transport  such  weights 
from  one  part  of  the  ship  to  another. 

The  support  for  these  purchases  may  be — 

First  The  lower  yard  alone,  supported  by  its  lift. 

Second.  The  lower  yards,  supported  themselves  by  pur- 
chases from  the  mast-heads. 

Third,  The  mast  alone,  as  in  the  case  of  mast-head 
pendant  tackles. 

Fourth.  The  lower  yard  supported  from  the  mast-head 
and  by  a  derrick. 

Fifth.  The  derrick  alone. 

Sixth.  The  sheers,  already  described  under  Masting. 

IIoiJstiiipT  in  Lig-lit  .^Li-ticleK.  To  hoist  in  an 
object  of  no  great  weight,  such  as  a  barrel  of  flour,  use  two 
single  whips,  one  from  the  yard-arm,  the  other  from  the 
collar  of  the  lower  stay.  The  ends  of  the  whips  secure  to  a 
strap  around  the  barrel,  and  by  walking  away  with  the 
yard-whip,  the  barrel  is  raised  from  the  lighter  alongside 
above  the  level  of  the  rail ;  clap  on  to  the  stay  whip,  easing 
away  the  yard  until  the  barrel  is  in  line  with  the  hatch,  and 
strike  it  below  by  the  stay -whip. 

For  a  heavier  weight  use,  mstead  of  the  single  whips, 
the  yard  and  stay  water-tvhips,  Fig.  267,  Plate  38,  described 
under  Tackles.  See  that  the  lower  lift  is  taut,  and  hook 
the  upper  block  of  the  yard  so  as  to  plumb  the  lighter. 

It  is  desirable  in  port  to  keep  the  quarter-deck  clear, 
therefore  lead  the  yard-tackle  forward  on  the  same  side  as 
the  weight  is  being  raised,  and  the  stay  forward  on  the 
opposite  side. 

When  using  the  *'yard  and  stay,"  to  provision  or  water 
ship,  it  will  be  found  very  advantageous  to  use  a  small 
single  whip,  or  tricing-line,  to  light  over  the  lower  block  of 
the  tackle,  to  the  great  saving  of  paint  work ;  the  coam- 
ings of  hatches  should  be  carefully  protected  from  injury 
by  mats  or  boards. 

In  provisioning  ship  with  the  main  **yard  and  stay' 
(water- whips)  the  fore-topmen  break  out,  make  up  and  stow 
the  stay-tackle,  and  the  main-topmen  the  yard  tackle. 

144 


PURCHASING  WEIGHTS.  145 

_  Ueav;^'  AVeig-htsi.  In  hoisting  a 
heavy  object,  with  purchases  from  the  yards,  it  is  important 
that  the  lattor  should  be  well  secured,  so  that  the  yard  may 
not  be  sprung  or  rigging  endangered. 

To  Sviipport  the  I^owei*  ATards.  Use  in 
addition  to  the  lift  one  or  both  top  burtons,  whose  upper 
blocks  are  hooked  into  the  top-pendants.    It  is  the  common 

Eractice  to  hook  the  burton  of  the  side  to  the  eyebolt  in  the 
urton  strap  on  the  yard,  and  the  burton  from  the  opposite 
side  to  a  temporary  strap  around  the  yard.  It  would  be 
safer  when  the  weight  is  so  great  as  to  '•equire  the  use  of 
both  burtons  to  have  temporary  straps  for  each  of  them 
near  the  point  from  which  the  weight  is  suspended,  unless 
the  regular  burton  strap  happens  to  be  close  to  that  point, 
in  which  case  it  is  of  course  used.  Our  general  rule  should 
be  in  supporting  a  lower  yard  or  derrick,  to  attach  the  sup- 
porting tackles  and  guys  to  the  yard  or  spar  at  the  point 
from  which  the  weight  is  to  hang. 

If  both  yards  are  to  be  used  together,  as  in  hoisting  out 
boats,  the  main-yard  will  probably  require  bracing  ttp,  and 
the  fore-yard  bracing  in.  Any  bracing  required  should  be 
done  first  and  then  tne  yard  topped  up  on  the  side  used,  if 
necessary,  slacking  the  opposite  lift. 

After  these  preparations,  haul  taut  the  opposite  lift  first, 
then  see  that  the  weather  lift  and  burtons  hear  an  equal 
strain. 

When  the  yard  has  been  left  square,  or  been  braced  /or- 
ward,  the  burton  from  the  opposite  side  is  taken  across  for- 
ward of  the  mast.  When  a  yard  has  been  braced  m,  the 
supporting  burton  from  the  opposite  side  leads  best  abaft  the 
topmast  and  between  the  topmast  rigging  and  back-stays. 

H[oig;tiiig-  in  Spai^e  Spai*js.  Very  heavy  top- 
masts may  require  the  use  of  both  fore  and  main  yard  and 
stay  tackles,  but  usually  the  main  yard  tackle  alone  will  be 
sufficient.     Fig.  377,  Plate  73. 

Support  the  main  yard  by  both  top-burtons,  get  an 
equal  strain  on  lifts  and  burtons.  Send  down  a  clew 
jigger  hooked  to  the  main  lift,  and  sway  up  and  hook  the 
upper  block  of  the  yard  tackle.  This  block  has  fitted  to 
it  a  strap  which  is  rove  through  the  thimble  of  the  block 
and  stopped  to  the  back  of  the  hook  as  in  Fig.  267.  The 
strap  goes  around  the  yard,  and  the  hook  of  the  olock  hooks 
into  its  bight. 

The  lower  block  of  the  yard  tackle  is  hooked  to  a  lashing 
on  the  balancing  point  of  the  topmast,  the  lashing  steadied 
by  backlashings  from  head  and  neel  of  the  topmast.  Hook 
the  fore  top-burton  to  a  strap  around  the  head  of  the  top- 
mast, and  a  spare  burton  from  the  main  topmast  head  to  a 
strap  through  the  fid-hole,  hoist  the  spar  on  board  by  the 
yard,  ^ying  it  forward  or  aft  by  the  top-burtons. 

Hoist  in  other  heavy  spars  in  the  same  way,  hoisting  in 


14G  PURCHASING   WEIGHTS. 

first  such  as  are  stowed  underneath.  See,  when  hooking 
on,  that  the  spar  has  the  same  fore-and-aft  direction  as  it  is 
to  take  when  stowed,  for  it  would  be  difficult  to  slue  it  end 
for  end  when  landed  inboard. 

Hoisting'  in  And  out  Hoa.tH«  One  of  the 
most  frequent  operations  in  hoisting  heaver  weights  with  the 
assistance  of  the  lower  yards,  is  getting  in  and  out  boom- 
boats  with  the  yard-tackles,  triatic-stay  and  stay-tackles. 
Fig.  379. 

The  Tx*iatic-Hta;^  consists  of  three  parts — two 
pendants,  and  span.  The  pendants  have  hooks  in  their 
upper  ends,  which  hook  to  bolts  in  the  lower  caps  (fore  and 
main),  or  are  secured  around  the  mast-head.  In  the  lower 
ends  of  these  pendants  are  spliced  thimbles,  into  which  the 
stay-tackles  hook.  These  pendants  are  spanned  together 
by  another  rope,  the  ends  oi  which  span  are  spliced  around 
thimbles  which  traverse  on  the  pendants.  The  length  of 
the  span  will  be  the  distance  you  wish  to  have  your  pen- 
dants apart,  viz. ,  the  length  of  the  launch. 

On  long  vessels,  where  the  boats  stow  abaft  the  smoke- 
stack, the  forward  stay  goes  to  the  fore-topmast  head,  and 
the  span  from  the  lower  end  of  the  stav  to  the  main  cap. 
The  main-stay  hangs,  as  before,  from  tne  main  cap.  Fig. 
380. 

Hoifciting-  in  I3ooni-t>onts8.  The  order  will  be 
given  :  In  Boats  !  the  crew  prepare  for  their  duties  as  fol- 
lows : 

In  the  launch — coxswain,  assisted  by  some  of  the  boat's 
crew  to  pass  out  oars  and  sails,  hook  purchases,  &c. ;  or,  if 
a  steam  launch,  to  hook  on  the  main-yard  and  stav  to  the 
boiler,  which  is  often  hoisted  on  board  first  and  placed  in 
the  gangway,  to  be  afterwards  hoisted  in  the  boat  when  in- 
board. 

On  deck — fore  and  main-topmen  clear  away  the  booms 
for  the  reception  of  the  boats. 

Aloft — Forecastle-men  take  out  their  clew- jigger  on  f ore- 
vard,  are  responsible  for  the  fore-yard  tackle,  and  hook  the 
burton  or  burtons  on  the  fore-yara. 

Fore-topmen  overhaul  down  their  burtons,  sending  the 
falls  on  deck ;  send  down  fore-topsail  clew-jigger  for  fore- 
triatic,  and  look  out  for  fore-stay  tackle. 

Gunner's-mates  look  out  for  main-yard  tackle,  getting 
main  clew-jigger  on  main-lift. 

Main-topmen  send  down  main-topsail  clew-jigger  for 
triatic-stay,  overhaul  down  burton,  and  look  out  for  main- 
stay tackle. 

Mast-men  are  responsible  for  leading-blocks. 

Note.  A  small  strap  is  seized  on  each  triatic-stay  pen- 
dant well  below  the  hook.  Into  this  becket  hook  the  clew- 
iigger,  and  have  a  single  hauling-line  from  the  top  to  the 
hook  of  the  stay  pendant.    The  clew-jigger  takes  the  weight 


PURCHASING  WEIGHTS.  14? 

of  the  triatic-stay  and  leaves  enough  slack  to  enable  the 
pendant  to  be  hooked  readily. 

The  men  being  reported  up,  the  oflBcer  of  the  deck  gives 
the  order,  Lay  aloft!  when  the  men  detailed  will  proceed 
to  their  stations.  The  men  on  the  yard  will  receive  the 
burtons*  and  clew-jiggers  from  the  tops ;  when  ready,  rive 
the  order,  Lay  out!  The  yard-men  will  lay  out  together  • 
secure  the  clew- jiggers  to  the  lift  above  the  burton-strap ; 
hook  the  burtons ;  and  be  in  readiness  to  secure  the  pur- 
chase, when  swayed  up  to  them.  The  men  in  the  tops  send 
the  falls  of  the  burtons  down  on  deck;  send  down  from  ;he 
forward  part  of  the  main  and  after  part  of  the  fore-top,  vhe 
topsail  clew-jiggers  for  the  triatic-stay  pendants,  which  are 
bent  on  deck  to  their  respective  tackles  and  pendants ;  and 
the  double  blocks  of  the  stay-tackles  hooked  to  the  thimbles 
in  the  pendants  and  the  hooks  moused.  The  fore  and  main 
braces,  and  the  clew- jiggers,  being  manned,  give  the  order, 
THce  up,  brace  in  !  At  which  the  main-yard  is  braced  up, 
the  fore-yard  in,  the  purchases  are  whipped  up  to  the  yards, 
and  the  ends  of  the  triatic  pendants  to  tne  tops.  The  yards 
are  then  secured,!  and  the  purchases  hooked  and  moused, 
as  directed  in  the  foregoing  paragpraphs.  While  this  is 
going  on,  the  launch  is  hauled  up  alongside,  oars,  masts, 
thwarts,  sails,  &c.,  are  passed  out  of  her,  and  the  booms 
prepared  for  her  reception.  The  lower  blocks  of  the  yard 
ana  stay-tackles  are  hooked  to  the  rings  in  her  stem  and 
stem  posts,  and  the  hooks  moused. 

Instead  of  trusting  to  stem  and  stern  post  rings,  it  is 
advisable  to  fit  heavy  ooats  with  two  chain  spans  ;  the  after 
one  hooked  to  an  eye-bolt  that  is  riveted  through  the  keel 
nearly  under  the  after  thwart,  and  to  the  ring-bolt  through 
the  stern-post.  The  forward  span  hooks  to  an  eye-bolt 
riveted  through  the  keel  forward,  and  to  the  ring-bolt 
through  the  stem.  The  purchases  are  hooked  to  liuKs  in 
the  bight  of  each  span.     (See  Boats.) 

The  falls  of  the  purchases  lead  thus  :  That  of  the  main- 
yard  purchase,  through  a  snatch-block  hooked  in  an  eye-bolt 
m  the  deck  by  the  main-fiferail,  and  then  aft.  The  fore 
leads  through  one  hooked  by  the  fore-fiferail,  leading  aft. 
The  fore-stay  through  one  hooked  by  the  fore-fiferail,  and 
the  main  through  one  by  the  main  :  both  the  latter  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  deck,  leading  ait. 

Everything  being  in  readiness,  give  the  order,  Man  the 
yards  /J  At  which  tne  men  lay  in  from  the  yards  to  the  top. 
The  yard  purchases  are  manned,  with  a  sufficient  number  of 
men  at  the  stay  purchast*s,  to  take  in  ilie  slack  as  the  boat 

*  Top-bartons  are  always  kept  hooked  to  their  pendants,  ready  for  use. 
f  The  men  on  the  yards  look  out  for  and  report  when  the  lift  and  burton 
•re  taut  alike. 

t  i.  e.,  Man  the  faUs  of  the  yardtaekles. 


148  PURCHASING   WEIGHTS. 

is  purchased;  one  man  in  the  bows  and  another  in  the  stern 
of  the  boat.  Now  give  the  order.  Walk  away  tcith  the 
yards!  When  the  boat  is  sufficiently  high,  order,  Turn 
with  the  yards!  Man  the  stays!  At  this,  a  turn  is  taken, 
with  the  falls  of  the  yard-tackles,  two  men  remaining  by 
each  to  ease  away  as  the  boat  comes  in,  while  the  re- 
mainder of  the  men  man  the  stay -tackles.  Walk  away  ivith 
the  stays!  As  the  boat  comes  in,  the  yard -tackles  are  eased 
off,  until  she  is  over  the  boat-chocks;  then.  Well  the  stays! 
Lower  away  of  all!  Both  the  yard  and  stay -tackles  are 
lowered,  and  she  is  landed  on  the  chocks,  the  men  in  the 
boats  overhauling  the  purchases;  the  carpenter  and  his 
mates  being  ready,  as  she  is  lowered,  to  place  her  properly. 

It  may  be  necessary  to  use  the  ordinary  main-stay  tackle, 
or  mast-nead  pendant  tackle,  as  a  fore  and  aft  purchase,  to 
guy  the  boat  clear  of  the  fore-rigging  and  back-stays  of  a 
sailing  vessel,  or  the  smoke-stack  of  a  steam  frigate. 

Hoist  in  the  smaller  boats  in  the  same  manner,  using  the 
yard  and  stay-tackles. 

If  the  boats  have  any  water  in  them,  it  is  well,  when  a 
little  way  up,  to  '^ avast  hoisting,''  and  let  it  runout,  or 
wash  out  any  sand  or  dirt  that  may  be  in  them,  though  a 
heavy  boat  should  not  remain  long  on  the  purchases. 

After  the  boats  are  in  (or  out)  give  the  order.  Lay  out ! 
The  men  lay  out  on  the  lower  yards,  cast  off  the  lizards, 
unhook  the  burtons,  &c.  ;  the  topmen  cast  off  the  end  of 
the  stay-pendant— hands  being  stationed  by  the  whips  and 
the  braces  manned  ;  give  the  cautionary  order.  Stand  by  to 
lower  away  together!  then  order.  Haul  taut,  Square  away! 
At  this,  the  purchases  are  lowered  on  deck,  the  yards 
squared,  the  clew-jiggers  taken  off  the  lifts;  the  men  on 
deck  make  up  the  purchases  to  be  stowed  away,  and  having 
given  the  topmen  sufficient  time  to  stow  their  gear,  give  the 
order,  Lay  down  from  aloft !  when  all  the  men  are  to  leave 
the  tops. 

>Viiicliiio-  PenclantK,  Fie.  381,  Plate  75.  In  lift- 
ing the  heaviest  boats  the  upper  block  of  the  yard  tackle 
hooks  into  a  winding  pendant.  This  pendant  is  fitted  wth  a 
hook  in  the  upper  end  which  hooks  to  a  bolt  in  the  lower 
cap,  or  the  pendant  goes  around  the  topmast  above  the  cap 
and  hooks  into  its  own  part.  The  other  end  of  the  pendant 
has  a  thimble  for  the  hook  of  the  upper  yard  tackle  block. 
The  bight  of  the  pendant  is  haulea  out  to  its  place  on  the 
lower  yard  by  a  whip  on  the  lower  lift,  and  is  secured  to 
the  yard  bjr  a  stout  lizard  which  traverses  on  the  pendant. 
Be  careful  in  taking  the  turns  of  the  lizard  around  the  yard 
and  pendant  to  take  them  above  the  bull's-eye  of  the  lizard, 
otherwise  the  strain  is  taken  by  the  lizard  and  yard-arm 
instead  of  being  transferred  to  the  lower  mast-heaa. 

To  HoiHt  in  a  Laixncli  ^wlieri  ixTid.ex*^wa>' 
ixndei*   steam,  oi*    having'    the    "wind    alV. 


B^g.  liSS 


PURCHASING   WEIGHTS.  141^ 

Should  it  become  necessary  to  hoist  in  a  launch  when 
underway,  when  circunastances  do  not  permit  of  heavine 
to  or  stopping  the  engines,  secure  the  yards  as  usual,  ana 
haul  the  launch  up,  say  on  the  port  side,  get  a  stout  hawser 
from  the  port  quarter  and  secure  it  to  the  stem  of  the 
launch  ;  secure  it  also  inboard.  Get  the  purchases  up, 
hook  and  mouse  them,  and  proceed  to  hoist  her  in  as  before 
directed.  The  only  difficulty  is,  that  with  headway  on  the 
vessel,  the  moment  the  boat  is  freed  from  the  resistance 
she  meets  with  in  moving  through  the  water,  she  will 
surjsre  forward  with  a  violence  in  proportion  to  the  speed 
of  the  vessel,  and  endanger  the  yard  and  purchases. 
The  hawser  from  the  quarter  to  the  stern  of  the  boat  pre- 
vents this,  and  renders  the  operation,  as  soon  as  the  boat 
leaves  the  water,  as  simple  as  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances. 

This  evolution  was  performed  by  the  "  Constitution " 
during  the  memorable  and  exciting  chase,  in  which  she 
escaped  from  the  British  squadron,  in  July,  1812. 

It  is  well  when  hoisting  in  a  heavy  weight  to  use  a  pre- 
venter fore-brace  leading  from  the  bowsprit  end. 

On  board  modern  ships  the  distance  between  the  fore 
and  main  masts  is  so  ^eat,  that  the  fore-yard  tackle  acts 
very  obliquelv.  For  this  and  other  reasons,  it  would  be  a 
ffood  plan  to  have  derricks  expressly  fitted  for  getting  the 
boom-boats  in  and  out ;  purchasing  the  sheet-anchors,  guns 
and  heavy  weights  generally,  to  the  great  saving  of  the 
yards.  Tnese  derricks  may  be  rigged  temporarily  of  spare 
spars,  or  fitted  like  the  modern  fish-boom  for  the  express 
purpose. 

On  board  modem  iron-clads  a  derrick,  rigged  similar  to 
our  fish-boom,  is  used  exclusively  in  hoisting  in  and  out 
torpedo  boats  and  steam  launches! 

jL^£iiinelieK  eai*i*iecl  on  the  U.£iil.  Many  of 
our  modem  vessels  carry  their  launches  on  the  rail,  instead  of 
stowing  them  amidships  between  the  fore  and  main  masts. 

To  support  these  boats  there  are  fitted  two  stout  davits, 
usually  or  iron,  together  with  iron  cradles  on  which  the 
bil^e  of  the  boat  rests.  The  cradles  are  supported  under 
their  centres  by  shores,  on  which  the  keel  takes.  The  ends 
of  the  cradles  are  hinged,  and  can  drop  down  clear  when 
the  boat  is  being  hoisted  or  lowered. 

The  davit  heads  are  supported  by  chain  guys,  spans 
and  topping-lifts.  One  end  of  the  topping-lift  is  shackled 
to  the  aavit-head,  and  the  other  has  a  large  ring  to  fit  over  the 
head  of  a  curved  iron  stanchion  or  *•  strong-back,"  stepped 
inboard  abreast  of  the  davit.  The  topping-lift  has  a  second 
ring  a  few  feet  out  from  its  inner  end,  which  is  passed 
over  the  head  of  the  strong-back  when  the  davit  is  rigged 
in  for  sea.  Fig.  382,  Plate  75.  The  topping-lifts  are  also 
provided  with  turn  buckles,  for  use  in  setting  up,  Fi;^.  ;382a. 


150  PURCHASING   WEIGHTS. 


To  UoiHt  in  tlie  I^Aixneh.  The  davits  are 
rigged  out  and  the  boat  is  hauled  under  them  and  hooked 
on.  Walk  away  with  the  falls,  and  when  these  are  nearly 
two  blocks  a  hook  in  the  breech  of  the  upper  block  is  hooked 
into  a  shackle  on  the  lower  block.  Fig.  :5S:5.  A  rope  rove 
through  a  hole  in  the  bulwarks  around  a  snatch-cleat  on  the 
cradle  shore,  and  clamped  to  the  inner  gunwale  with  one  of 
the  gripe  clamps,  is  used  forward  and  aft  to  prevent  the  boat 
from  swinging  too  far  inboard  as  the  davits  are  rigged  in. 
Usually  a  boat  gripe  at  each  end  is  used  for  this  purpose. 
Fig.  ;^S4,  Plate  7/). 

When  ready  for  rigging  in,  man  the  thwart-ship  tackles 
and  rig  in,  put  the  topping-up  rings  of  the  chain  topjnng- 
lif  ts  over  the  heads  of  the  strong-backs,  raise  and  secure  the 
outboard  ends  of  the  cradles. 

Now  get  a  strain  on  the  falls,  which  have  been  slacked 
off  in  rigging  in,  unhook  each  upper  block  from  its  low<.*r 
one.  and  place  the  launch  in  its  craclle.  Unreeve  the  easing- 
in  lines,  and  use  them  (generally)  as  a  part  of  the  gripe 
fastenings. 

The  object  of  hooking  the  upper  and  lower  fall  blocks 
together  is  to  prevent  the  boat  from  easing  down  while  rig- 
ging in  the  davits  and  fouling  the  cradle ;  besides,  leaving 
only  the  slack  of  the  falls  to  be  taken  through  after  the  boat 
is  t()])T)(Hl  up. 

To  Floiwt  ovxt  the  T^sLixnoIi.  Having  rigged 
the  purchases,  &c.,  as  before,  cast  off  the  gripes,  pull  up  on 
the  falls,  hook  the  blocks  together,  shift  the  topping-lifts, 
unclamp  tlie  cradles,  ease  away  on  the  thwart-ship  tackles 
and  haul  on  the  easing-in  ropes.  When  rigged  out,  get  a 
strain  on  the  falls,  disconnect  upper  and  lower  blocks,  and 
lower  away  together  on  the  falls. 

On  board  modern  vessels  of  war,  where  large  davits  are 
not  used,  the  heavy  boats  are  hoisted  in  and  out  by  means 
of  cranes  or  booms.  Where  cranes,  Plate  81,  are  used  there 
is  one  on  each  side,  they  heel  on  one  of  the  lower  decks,  are 
sufficiently  strong  to  handle  the  heaviest  boats,  and  are  fitted 
with  hoisting  and  turning  engines  of  ample  power. 

Vessels  using  booms  have  them  goose-necked  to  the  low- 
er-mast, and  fitted  with  topping  lifts  and  guys  similar  to  the 
ordinary  fish  boom.  Pliable  wire  rope  is  used  for  topping 
lifts  and  hoisting  tackles.  Regularly  fitted  boat  slings  and 
spans,  into  which  the  hoisting  tackle  hooks,  are  used. 

When  hoisted  in  for  sea  the  boatg  are  landed  on  cradles 
which  travel  in  and  out  on  skid  ])eams.  The  smaller  boats 
hoist  in  the  ordinary  manner  to  davits  along  the  rail. 

Pui-cliasiiig"  TV'^aitst  -tVnelioi'K.  Having  se- 
cured the  lower  yards  with  the  lifts  and  both  burtons,  the 
yards  being  topped  up,  if  need  be,  on  the  side  used,  brace 
in  the  fore  and  fonrard  the  main-yard,  and  get  an  equal 
strain  on  the  supi)orting  tackles,  Fig.  387,  Plate  70. 


:^ 


w 


tt 


_J 


PURCHASING   WEIGHTS.  151 

The  purchases  used  are  the  yard-tackles  with  the  winding 
pendants,  the  lizards  of  the  latter  re&^lated  so  that  the  pur- 
chase will  take  the  anchor  clear  of  the  side,  Fig.  387. 

The  anchor  being  brought  alongside  in  a  lighter  with  the 
crown  aft,  pass  a  strap  around  tne  shank  just  inside  the 
ring ;  the  anchor  being  stocked,  lash  this  strap  to  the  stock. 
Hook  the  fore  purchase  into  this  strap,  and  hook  the  main 
purchase  to  another  strap  passed  down  over  the  shank  and 
under  the  arms,  the  tackle  hooking  into  the  upper  bights. 
The  forward  strap  should  be  a  long  one,  and  lasned  to  the 
stock  about  one-third  the  distance  up,  to  keep  the  stock 
perpendicular  when  the  anchor  is  raised.  Use  fore-and-aft 
tacKles  as  necessary. 

Having  swayed  the  anchor  up.  rouse  it  in  with  thwart- 
ship-jiggers,  place  the  bills  in  snoes,  or  its  arm  upon  the 
gunwcQe,  place  the  shores  and  pass  the  lashings,  unstocking 
the  anchor. 

The  anchor  rests  on  two  shores,  which  may  be  of  wood 
resting  in  saucers  and  secured  by  laniards,  or  they  are  of 
iron,  and  work  on  hinges,  Fig.  388.  The  shore  supports  the 
anchor,  and  also  throws  it  clear  of  the  ship's  side  when  let  ^o. 

To  hold  the  anchor  to  the  side,  there  are  usually  chain- 
lashings,  the  upper  ends  secured  by  seizings  of  ratline 
stuff ;  two  from  eye-bolts  in  the  side  below  the  anchor  acting 
as  jumpers  to  keep  the  anchor  down,  two  on  the  shank,  and 
one  on  the  inboard  arm  to  retain  the  anchor  at  the  side. 

In  preparing  to  let  go.  the  chain  being  bent  and  the 
anchor  stocked  (by  raising  the  upper  arm  of  the  stock  witli 
a  top-burton  ana  lowering  it  into  place  for  keying),  cast  off 
the  jumpers  and  the  lashing  on  the  arm,  and  stand  by  to  cut 
the  seizings  of  the  shank  lashings. 

]\4iAfest>]iea.cl  Pendant  Tackles,  Fig.  390. 
These  are  purchases,  double  or  treble,  the  upper  block  lashed 
to  a  pendant  from  the  topmast-head.  A  top  pendant  may 
be  used  to  form  the  pendant,  taking  a  turn  with  it  around 
the  topmast-head,  securing  the  ends  together,  and  lashing 
the  upper  block  into  the  bight. 

A  mast-head  pendant  tackle  is  guyed  clear  of  the  top  by 
a  guy  from  forward  or  aft,  as  the  case  may  be,  usually  se- 
cured to  the  pendant  just  above  the  upper  block. 

These  purchases  are  very  useful  in  hoisting  heavy 
articles  out  of  the  fore  or  main  hold,  or  in  any  case  when 
the  purchase  is  required  immediately  over  the  fore-and-aft 
line.  They  could  be  used  in  place  of  the  stay-tackles  in 
purchasing  boats,  should  there  be  no  triatic-stay. 

Trarispoi'ting-  Spare  .A^riclioi^is,  Fig.  390, 
Plate  77.  The  anchor  intended  to  be  stowed  in  the  fore 
hatch  is  hoisted  on  board,  crown  up  and  unstocked,  by 
means  of  the  fore-yard  and  mast-head  pendant  tackle,  the 
latter  being  abaft  the  mast.  Should  the  anchor  stow  in  the 
main  hatch  and  forwcird  of  the  main-mast,  use  the  main- 


152  PURCHASING   WEIGHTS. 

yard  and  a  mast-head  pendant  tackle  at  the  main,  and  for- 
ward of  the  mast.  Use,  in  addition  to  the  purchases,  fore- 
and-aft  and  thwartship)  tackles  as  necessary,  and  a  guy  on 
the  ring  of  the  anchor  in  getting  it  into  place.  The  anchor 
stows  up  and  down,  and  on  modern  vessels  usually  on  the 
forward  side  of  the  fore  hatch. 

In  transporting  this  anchor  to  the  bows  from  the  fore 
hatch,  hook  the  mast-head  pendant  tackle  to  a  stout  strap 
around  the  crown,  and  a  tackle  leading  aft  on  the  lower  decK 
is  hooked  to  the  shank  of  the  anchor  to  guy  it  clear  as  it  goes 
up.  Cast  oflf  the  lashings,  sway  up,  and  as  the  crown  comes 
aoove  the  upper  deck  use  the  fore  pendant  tackle,  hooked 
into  a  strap  around  the  shank  near  the  place  for  the  stock, 
in  getting  the  anchor  forward  of  the  mast.  Having  stocked 
it,  transport  it  over  the  bows  by  means  of  the  purchase  on 
the  fore-yard  and  fish,  as  in  the  case  previously  described 
of  transporting  anchors  inboard.  When  high  enough,  and 
clear  of  the  side,  lower  away  to  the  water's  edge,  hook 
the  cat  to  the  ring,  and  rouse  it  up  to  the  cat-head ,  send 
down  the  purchases  and  square  the  yard ;  bend  the  cable, 
fish  the  anchor,  and  get  it  ready  for  letting  go. 

Should  the  anchor  stow  in  the  main  hatch,  hoist  it  out 
with  the  pendant  tackle  from  the  main  topmast-head,  and 
transport  it  forward  on  mats  on  deck. 

Shoring-  up  a  Lo^vrei*  Y^arcl.  Fig.  391,  Plate 
78.  To  get  in  a  verj  heavy  weight,  lower  the  main-yard 
some  distance  below  its  slings,  bousing  it  over  athwartships 
so  that  the  truss  arms  will  be  clear  of  the  mast  and  on  tne 
side  nearest  to  the  weight,  which  rigs  the  yard  out  further 
on  that  side.  Top  up  tne  yard  on  the  side  used  and  lash  it 
to  the  mast,  having  nrst  passed  old  canvas  in  wake  of  the 
lashings.  Use  rolling  taclcles  on  the  opposite  yard-arm,  and 
hook  both  top  burtons  in  wake  of  the  purchase  on  the  upper 
yard-arm.  Fig.  391.  If  the  jeer-blocks  are  needed  to  form 
the  purchase  used,  hang  the  yard  by  pendant  tackles  from 
the  lower  pendants. 

Get  the  spare  main-topmast  up  and  place  its  heel  in  a 
shoe  in  the  water-way  under  the  yard.  Shore  up  the  deck 
underneath  and  lash  the  head  of  the  topmast  with  a  cross- 
lashing  to  the  after  side  of  the  yard.  Use  a  spare  gaflf  at 
about  naif  the  height  of  the  topmast  from  the  deck  as  a 
shore,  the  jaws  lashed  to  the  derrick  and  the  peak  to  the 
mast.  Reeve  a  topping-lift  from  where  the  topmast-head 
is  lashed  at  the  yard,  to  a  block  lashed  above  the  lower 
cap.  The  topmast  should  be  further  supported  by  head 
guys  forward  and  aft,  which  are  omitted  in  the  figfure. 

The  upper  block  of  the  yard  purchase  is  lashed  to  the 
lower  yard  and  topmast  with  a  long  lashing.  Both  pur- 
chase blocks  treble,  or  at  least  one  of  them  fourfold,  if  such 
blocks  are  available. 

The  stay  purchase  consists  of  a  double  pendant  from  the 


PURCHASING   WEIGHTS.  153 

lower  mast-head,  supporting  a  treble  purchase.  With  falls, 
&c.,  of  the  following  dimensions,  a  vessel  sparred  as  heavily 
as  the  Trenton  could  safely  raise  a  10-inch  rifle  gun  :  yard 
purchase,  8-inch  falls  ;  stay  purchases  :  two  parts  of  pend- 
ant, 10-inch ;  falls,  8-inch ;  topping-lift,  five  parts  of  6- 
inch. 

A  hawser  rove  from  forward  through  a  top-block  at  the 
fore  cap  may  be  secured  to  the  eye  of  the  stay  pendant  so 
as  to  haul  the  stay  purchase  forward  to  plumb  the  hatch- 
way if  the  weight  is  to  be  struck  below.  If  the  weight  is  a 
fun  to  be  placed  on  the  gun-deck,  sling  it  breech  lieavy. 
ig.  391. 

The  I^ennck.  We  have,  so  far.  dealt  chiefly  with 
the  lower  yards  in  describing  purchases,  but  the  derrick 
possesses  aa vantages  which  renaer  it  superior  to  a  yard  in 
some  respects,  for  lifting  heavy  weights.  The  derrick 
transfers  the  weight  to  the  deck,  whicn  can  be  well  sup- 
ported by  shores  from  below.  It  removes  all  anxiety  for 
the  safety  of  the  yard  and  mast ;  it  can  be  placed  Vertically 
or  at  an  angle,  supported  either  with  or  witnout  the  aid  of  a 
mast ;  it  is  soon  ringed,  and  as  quickly  dismantled.  These 
features  are  suflBcient  to  recommend  it.  Moreover,  it  may 
happen  in  our  modern  ships  that  the  vessel  is  fore-and-aft 
rigged,  or  so  lightly  sparred  as  to  render  her  yards  unfit  to 
support  heavy  weights,  or  the  yards  themselves  may  be 
sprung,  and  unavailable  for  that  reason. 

The  following  instance  of  the  successful  use  of  a  derrick 
I  is  therefore  given  to  show  how  derricks  may  be  rigged  and 

handled : 

In  1881  the  U.  S.  S.  New  Hampshire  was  towed  from  Nor- 
folk to  the  Training  Station,  at  Newport.  R.  I.,  to  be  fitted 
^P  as  a  School  Ship  at  that  place.     Slie  had  her  topmasts 
Added,  lower  and  topmast  rigging  set  up.     The  other  spars, 
t  davits,  &c.,  were  on  deck  in  an  unfinished  condition,  all 

the  iron-work  for  the  yards,  such  as  truss  and  sling  bands, 
shoul(Jei.  bands,  and  burton   straps,  being  stowed  below. 
^^  Vessel  carried  on  her  spar  deck  fourteen  boats,  two 
i^^g  launches  of  the  largest  size,  some  stowed  bottom  up. 
Y^  Edition,  there  were  two  ten  thousand  pound  anchors  on 
aecfc,  one  in  each  gangway.     It  was  required  to  hoist  out 
'  *^  ^>oats  and  to  place  the  anchors  on  a  li.ohtc^r  for  traiis- 
i><>rtation  to  the  shore. 

7  .Tile  boats  were  taken  in  hand  first.  The  main-yard 
jOiix^  the  largest  spar  available,  was  rigged  as  a  derrick.^ 
ij.  ^^s  about  75  feet  lon^,  the  size  for  a  vessel  of  the  Ports- 

JjMi  class,  the  ship  being  much  undersparred. 
^  ^He  lower  yard-arm  was  stepped  in  a  shoe  close  to  the 

^^-way,  abreast  of  the  main-mast.    Fig.  :jI)2,  Plate  79. 

^  ^t  the  upper  end,  about  the  place  for  the  burton  strap, 

^*^  lashed  the  upper  block  of  a  treble  purchase,  6-inch  fail. 

♦^^  ^tie  same  point  were  hooked  into  suitable  straps  two 

**Pitig-lif  ts,  the  upper  one  being  the  top  burton  of  the  side, 


154  PURCHASING   WEIGHTS. 

the  lower  one  a  pendant  tackle  hooked  into  a  strap  around 
the  lower  mast,  just  above  the  trestle-trees — block  under- 
neath the  top. 

A  burton  from  under  the  yard-arm,  close  to  the  purchase 
block,  led  outside  to  a  toggle  in  a  lower  gun-deck  port,  act- 
ing as  a  jumper.  An  outrigger  for  this  jumper  would  be 
needed  in  a  vessel  with  less  Beam. 

There  were,  in  addition,  forward  and  after  guys  from 
the  fore  and  mizzen  chains  to  the  place  for  the  upper  pur- 
chase block.  The  deck  was  shorea  up  under  the  heel  of  the 
derrick.  Neither  belly  guys  nor  fishes  for  the  lower  yard- 
arm  were  required,  although  their  positions  are  indicated 
in  the  figure.  The  derrick,  until  rigged,  lay  across  the  rail, 
and  was  raised  into  position  by  means  of  the  mast-head 

{)endant  tackle  ;  topped  up  bv  the  topping-lifts  when  the 
ower  yard-arm  was  clear  of  the  rail,  the  heel  carried  into 
place  by  heel  tackles.  The  derrick  purchase  took  the  place 
of  a  yardrtackle  in  hoisting  out.  For  a  stay -tackle  there  was 
fitted  the  mast-head  pendant  tackle,  treble  purchase,  6-inch 
fall,  hung  with  a  long  lashing  from  the  topmast-head. 

Each  boat  was  brought  into  position  under  the  purchases 
by  rollers  and  fore-and-aft  tackles.  In  the  case  of  the 
launches  stowed  bottom  up,  they  were  lifted  clear  of  the 
deck  by  the  mast-head  purchase  and  capsized  with  the 
assistance  of  the  derrick  purchase,  hooked  to  the  same 
slings,  underneath.  The  slings  passed  for  this  purpose 
were  simply  turns  of  stout  manilla,  one  sling  being  for- 
ward of  the  centre  of  the  boat,  another  aft,  and  the  two 
joined  by  spans  above  and  below,  both  slings  kept  from 
drawing  together  by  back  lashings  over  the  stem  and  stem. 
Fig.  393,  Plate  79. 

The  boat  bein^  upright  was  slung  with  a  span  for  hoist- 
ing out,  as  in  Fig.  394,  the  span  for  the  launches  being 
four  turns  of  5-incn  manilla,  fitted  so  as  to  render  and  take 
an  equal  strain.  Particular  attention  was  given  to  the 
belly  lashing  passed  around  the  middle  of  the  boat,  it  being 
made  to  bear  an  equal  strain  with  the  span.  Plank 
spreaders  were  placed  inside  the  boat  between  the  gun- 
wales in  wake  of  the  belly  lashing.  The  span  passed 
under  the  fore-foot  and  counter,  with  back  lashings,  as  in 
the  figure. 

In  hoisting  out,  the  mast-head  and  derrick  purchases 
were  lashed  to  the  span,  the  boat  lifted  by  the  mast-head 
purchase  and  swayea  out  and  lowered  by  the  derrick  pur- 
chase. 

In  using  the  same  tackles  to  get  out  the  sheet  anchors, 
both  were  lashed  to  the  shank  of  the  anchor  at  its  balancing 
point,  the  lashing  being  steadied  by  stout  back  lashings 
irom  the  ring  and  crown.     Fig.  395. 

The  purchases  described  would  have  readily  lifted  11- 
inch  guns  for  a  ship's  battery,  had  it  been  required. 

An    Uprig-lit    I>ei*r*icl£.     To  land  the  above 


Plate  80 


Fig^94 


Fig.30a 


PURCHASING   WEIGHTS. 


155 


mentioped  anchors  from  the  lij^hter,  an  upright  derrick  was 
rigged  on  shore.  It  consisted  of  a  spar  20  feet  long  and 
about  8  inches  in  diameter.  The  heel  rested  on  the  ground, 
the  head  being  supported  by  four  guys  placed  as  nearly  as 
possible  at  equal  angles,  and  some  50  feet  from  the  heel  of 
the  spar.  The  spar  was  raised  by  jigfjers  on  two  of  these 
guys,  the  other  two  being  anchored  off  m  the  water,  to  get 
them  at  the  required  angles.  The  derrick  being  upright 
with  one  (double)  block  of  the  purchase  lashed  to  its  head, 
the  lighter  was  hauled  in  close  to  the  shore  and  the  lower 
block  of  the  purchase  lashed  inside  the  balan.cing  point  of 
the  first  anchor,  in  order  to  drag  rather  than  lift.  The  pur- 
chase fall  led  from  the  upper  block  through  a  leading  blocK 
lashed  to  the  heel  of  the  derrick.  The  anchor  was  raised 
bv  the  purchase  just  clear  of  the  lighter  and  was  allowed  to 
sude  on  skidjs  to  a  point  some  15  feet  from  the  base  of  the 
derrick,  and  each  anchor  was  landed  in  turn  abreast  of  the 
derrick  and  some  15  feet  distant  from  the  heel. 

The  purchase  used  was  4J-inch  rope,  guys  4i-inch.    Fig. 
396,  Plate  80. 


A.  r^i-actical  l\Ietliocl  of  ^wcer^tainincv 
the  Sti-eHK  on  I>ein-icl«:K.  In  the  figure,  divide 
any  part,  a  c,  of  the  supporting  line  of  the  weight,  W, 
mto  a  convenient  scale  representmg  the  weight  suspended, 
(in  this  case  5  tons). 

From  a  draw  a  b  parallel  to  the  tie  rod,  and  from  c  draw 
cb  parallel  to  the  jib,  cutting  a  6  at  6.  The  tension  on  the 
tie  rod  will  be  given  bv  a  6,  referred  to  the  scale  a  c,  and 
the  thrust  on  the  jib  will  be  represented  by  6  c  referred  to 
the  same  scale. 

Scales  for  the  measurement  of  strains  on  any  derrick 
formed  of  spars  on  shipboard  may  be  constructed  as  in  the 
foregoing  case.  Attention  must  be  given  to  the  relative 
positions  of  the  derrick  and  supports  which  may  vary  from 
the  above. 


CHAPTER    XI  I. 

STOWAGE  AND  SOURCES  OF   SUPPLY 

THK    HOLDS — lU'RKALS  —  NAVY    YARDS. 

Before  commencing  the  construction  of  a  vessel  of  war 
of  given  tonnage,  as  appropriated  for  by  Act  of  Congress, 
each  bureau  of  the  Navy  Department  estimates  for  the 
amount  of  space  necessary  to  accommodate  its  own  part  of 
the  vessel's  outfit  and  the  corresponding  weights.  Then, 
in  making  the  final  plans  of  the  vessel  the  available  space 
is  allotted,  having  due  regard  to  the  proper  distribution  of 
weights,  the  protection  of  certain  vital  parts  of  the  vessel, 
and  the  efficient  working  of  the  battery,  machinery,  and  J 
the  handling  of  the  ammunition. 

At  Navy  Yards  where  vessels  are  Ix^ing  built,  fitted  out  i 
for  first  commission,  or  extensively  repaired,  the  head  of 
Department  concerned  is  required  to  furnish  a  list  of  the 
actual  finished  weiglits  of  all  articles  behmgingto  it.  includ- 
ing machinery  and  appurtenances  thereof,  battery  and  am- 
munition, spare  machinery,  tools,  outfits,  stores,  &c. ,  &c. 

Plate  SI  shows  the  internal  arrangement  and  disposition 
of  the  store  rooms,  coal  bunkers,  chain  lockers  and  water 
tanks  of  the  U.  S.  S.  Indiana,  and  will  serve  to  give  a  very 
fair  idea  of  how  all  modern  war  vessels  are  subdivided. 

While  no  fixed  rules  are  laid  down  for  stowage  there  are 
certain  general  principles  that  api)ly  to  all  vessels,  viz: 

(1)  The  weights  of  engines,  boilers,  tanks,  ballast,  etc.,  i 
which  are  permanent  fixtures,  must  be  so  arranged  that  a  * 
vessel  can  be  easily  kept  in  the  best  trim  by  the  proper  dis- ; 
tribution  of  the  i)r()visions,  coal  and'other  movable  articles,  j 
2)  The  proper  stowage  and  security  of  all  articles. 

[:i)  Economy  in  space  and  a  general  regard  to  keeping 
near  at  hand  such  articles  as  may  be  required  for  immediate 

use. 

On  account  of  the  minute  subdivision  of  the  interior  of 
war  vessels  the  question  of  stowage  is  a  comparatively  sim- 
ple one.  Each  sc^parate  (H)mpartment  l)eing  assigned  to  a- 
sj)ecial  pm-pose.  due  regard  is  had  to  the  proper  distribution 
of  weights,  to  accessibility  and  to  protection. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  coalbunkers  are  so  arrangec 
that,  while  being  conveniently  placed  with  regard  to  the  nr 
rooms,  they,  at  the  same  time,  offer  a  ct^rtain  amount  o 
protecticm  to  the  boilers  and  machinery.  Tlie  number  o 
openings  in  the  protective  deck  is  made  as  small  as  jiossible 


20' 


30- 


40' 


SO- 


TS' 


e 

m 

1 
t 


STOWACtE    AND    SOURCES   OF   SUPPLY.  157 

hence  such  articles  as  are  stowed  below  it  should  be  placed 
near  one  of  these  openings,  or  the  articles  should  be  of  such 
character  as  to  be  easily  handled  and  transported.  In  a 
properly  designed  war  vessel  no  ballast  should  be  neces- 
sary, but  in  case  it  is  needed,  pigs  of  iron,  of  square  or 
rounded  section,  are  used  and  are  placed  close  down  along 
the  vertical  keel. 

Fresh  water  is  carried  in  tanks  located  on  top  of  the  pro- 
tective deck  and  built  into  the  hull  of  the  vessel.  Small 
compartments  are  also  sometimes  used  for  this  purpose. 
The  tanks  are  well  coated  with  the  best  cement,  and  well 
provided  with  all  proper  pipe  connections  to  pumps  etc.,  and 
each  tank  is  fitted  with  a  water-tight  scuttle,  or  manhole, 
to  give  access  for  cleaning. 

A  study  of  the  profile  inboard  shows  that  all  magazines 
and  ammunition  rooms  are  located  below  the  protective 
deck.  Turpentine,  alcohol  and  other  highly  inflammable 
material  are  kept  aft  on  the  upper  deck,  whence  they  can 
t^asily  be  thrown  overboard  in  case  of  fire. 

It  will  be  observed  that  there  is  only  one  hold  located 
well  forward.  It  is  divided  into  the  upper  and  lower  hold 
by  the  platform  deck.  In  the  lower  hold,  are  stowed  the 
wet  provisicms,  such  as  pork,  beef,  pickles,  vinegar,  and 
molasses.  In  the  upper  hold  are  stowed  dry  provisions,  as 
flour,  sugar,  beans,  coflfee,  etc.  If  it  becomes  necessary  to 
stow  wet  and  dry  provisions  in  the  same  hold,  the  wet  pro- 
visions form  the  lower  tiers,  and  the  dry  provisions  the 
upper  tiers. 

Iron  hanging  racks  are  usually  fitted  under  the  beams  of 
the  hold  for  the  stowage  of  oars  and  lumber. 

The  chain  lockers  contain  the  ship's  chain  cables. 

Hawsers  and  towlines  are  kept  on  reels  on  the  gun  or 
berth  deck  and  under  the  topgallant  forecastle  in  vessels 
that  have  them.  Vessels  with  a  superstructure  deck  and 
using  wire  hawsers  have  them  wound  on  the  drums  of  the 
reeling  engines  in  the  superstructure. 

Vessels  using  triatic  stays,  and  yard  and  stay  tackles 
usually  stow  them  in  the  launches. 

The  danger  from  fire  through  the  ignition  of  fumes  from 
volatile  oils  in  closed  places  should  be  provided  against  in 
their  stowage.  Cotton  fabrics,  waste,  oil  skins,  or  anj'  thing 
that  tends  to  spontaneous  combustion  by  oil  soaking  in  it 
should  not  be  stowed  in  any  closed  place.  All  lime  sliouhi 
be  slaked  before  being  received  on  board. 

The  Navigator's  store-room  contains  the  spare  flags,  bunt- 
ing, log  and  lead  lines,  boat  binnacles,  lamps,  and  lanterns, 
signal  halliard  stuff  and  other  articles  known  as  navigator's 
stores. 

The  Medical  store-room  contains  the  medical  stores  not 
in  actual  use.     Surgical  instruments,  and  such  medicines  as 


158  STOWA(;i:  and  sources  of  supply. 

are  ready  for  immediate  use  are  kept  in  the  dispensary  and 
sick  bay. 

In  the  Ordnance  store-room  are  placed  the  spare  articles 
of  gun  gear  and  the  belongings  of  the  battery  not  usually 
kept  in  the  armory  or  ammunition  rooms. 

The  Sail-rooms  contain  the  spare  sails,  hammocks,  wind 
sails,  cots,  awnings,  etc.  In  a  ship  having  two  sail-rooms 
one  is  usually  reserved  for  a  complete  suit  of  topsails,  courses 
and  stormsails,  ready  to  be  passed  up  promptly. 

The  Paymaster's  store-rooms  contain  the  dry  provisions, 
clothing  and  small  stores,  and  sometimes  the  more  valuable 
wet  provisions,  such  as  canned  meats,  etc. 

Casks  should  be  placed  fore  and  aft,  bung  up,  and  dun- 
nage (small  pieces  of  wood)  used  under  the  chimes  to  pre- 
vent shifting.  The  chimes  of  casks  are  the  projections 
beyond  the  head.  The  bilge  of  a  cask  is  its  largest  circum- 
ference. 

The  General  store-room,  or  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  the 
Yeoman's  store-room,  is  situated  well  forward.  In  it  are 
kept  all  the  spare  cordage,  hooks,  blocks,  thimbles,  ship's 
stationery,  spare  canvas,  spare  brooms,  squillgees,  etc.  In 
fact  all  small  spare  articles  for  the  use  of  the  boatswain, 
carpenter  or  sailmaker,  are  kept  in  this  store-room. 

The  bread  rooms  contain  th(^  supply  of  ship's  bread. 

NAVV  DEPARTMENT. 

The  business  of  the  Navy  Department  is  '*  distributed,  in 
such  manner  as  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  shall  judge  to  be 
expedient  and  proper,''  among  the  following  bureaus: 

Tlie  Rureaix  of"if  ax^clw  sincl  T><>eltH«  The 

duties  of  this  bureau  comprise  all  that  relates  to  construc- 
tion and  maintenance  of  docks,  slips,  wharves,  piers,  and 
buildings  of  all  kinds  within  the  limits  of  Navy  Yards  and 
Stations,  except  at  Newport  and  the  Naval  Academy. 

The  maintenance  of  the  Naval  Home  is  also  under  this 
Bureau. 

It  repairs  and  requires  for  furniture  for  buildings  at 
Navy  Yards. 

It  provides  oxen,  horses  and  teams  at  Navy  Yards. 

It  has  charge  of  all  landings,  derricks,  shears,  cranes, 
sewers,  dredging,  railway  tracks,  cars,  wheels,  trucks,  grad- 
ing, paving,  walks,  shade  trees,  walls  and  fences,  ditching, 
res(Tvoir8,  cisterns,  fire  engines  and  apparatus,  etc.,  etc. 

The  1  Jiiveaix  of  Eqviipmeiit,  has  to  do  with 
all  that  relates  to  the  equipment  of  ships  according  to  the 
allowance  tables  from  time  to  time  in  force. 

It  has  under  its  control  the  Ilydrographic  oflBce,  collec- 
tion of  foreign  surveys ;  publication  and  supply  of  charts, 
sailing  directions,  nautical  works ;  and  the  dissemination  of 


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STOWAGE  AND   SOURCES  OP  SUPPLY.  159 

nautical  and  hydrographic  information,  electrical  apparatus, 
ships'  libraries.  Naval  Observatory,  Nautical  Almanac,  &c. 

It  has  charge  of  the  manufacture  of  ropes,  anchors, 
cables,  rigging,  sails,  galleys,  cooking  utensils,  and  of  the 
installation  and  repair  of  all  electric  appliances  on  ship- 
board. It  defrays  the  expenses  of  pilotage  of  all  ships  m 
commission,  etc.,  etc. 

The  Bri.i*eaii.  of  iN'avig'atlon,  is  charged 
with  the  promulgation,  recording  and  enforcement  of  the 
orders  of  tne  Secretary  to  the  fleet  and  to  the  officers  of  the 
Navy ;  with  all  that  relates  to  the  education  of  oflScers  and 
men,  including  the  Naval  Academy  and  technical  schools  for 
officers  (except  the  war  college  and  torpedo  school),  the  ap- 
prentice establishment  and  schools  for  the  technical  educa- 
tion of  enlisted  men,  the  enlistment  and  discharge  of  all 
enlisted  persons,  and  with  the  preparation  of  estimates  for 
the  pay  of  all  oflBcers  and  enlisted  men. 

This  bureau  has  under  its  directions  all  rendezvous,  re- 
ceiving ships,  transportation  for  men.  It  establishes  the 
complements  of  ships,  it  keeps  the  records  of  service  of  all 
squadrons,  ships,  officers  and  men,  and  the  preparation,  re- 
vision and  enforcement  of  naval  tactics,  drill  books,  signal 
books,  regulations  regarding  uniforms,  etc.,  etc. 

!Oxix*ea.ii  of  Ordance^  duties  consist  of  all  that 
relates  to  the  torpedo  station,  magazines  on  shore,  manufac- 
ture of  arms,  ammunition,  and  war  explosives  (including  tor- 
.pedoes).  It  requires  for,  or  manufactures,  all  machinery, 
apparatus,  equipment,  material,  and  supplies  necessary  for 
use  with  the  above. 

It  recommends  the  armament  to  be  carried  by  all  armed 
vessels,  the  material,  kind  and  quality  of  the  armor,  size 
and  thickness  of  turrets. 

This  bureau  superintends  the  installation  of  the  arma- 
ment and  its  accessories  on  board  ship  ai\d  the  methods  of 
stowing  and  handling  ammunition  and  torpedoes,  including 
the  construction  of  ammunition  rooms,  ammunition  hoists 
and  armories,  etc.,  etc. 

13ix]:*e£ivi  of  CoiiHti*xxction  and  Ifcepair, 
takes  cognizance  of  all  that  relates  to  designing,  building, 
fitting  and  repairing  the  hulls  of  ships,  turrets,  spars,  cap- 
stans, windlasses,  steering  gear  and  ventilating  apparatus ; 
care  and  preservation  of  ships  in  reserve.  This  bureau  also 
places  and  secures  on  board,  the  armor,  armament  and  its 
accessories,  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  the 
Bureau  of  Ordnance.  It  has  charge  of  the  operating  and 
cleaning  of  dry  docks,  and  the  docking  of  all  ships,  etc.,  etc. 

The  13n.reaix  of  Steaiix  Eixprii^eefingr-i 
concerns  itself  with  all  that  relates  to  designing,  building, 
fitting  out,  and  repairing  the  steam  machinery  used  for  the 
propulsion  of  Government  ships,  the  steam  pumps,  steam 


160  STOWA(iE   AND    SOl'KC'ES   i)7   SUPPLY. 

heaters,  distilling  apparatus,  all  steam  connection  of  ships,, 
and  the  steam  mac^hinery  necessary  for  actuating  the  ap- 
paratus by  which  the  turrets  are  turned. 

<*<>ii.i:itH9  deals  with  whatever  relates  to  requiring  for,  or 
]»7ej)aring,  provisions,  clothing,  small  stores,  fresh  water  for 
drinking  and  cooking  purposes,  and  contingent  stores  of  the 
pay  department;  the  purchase  of  all  supplies  for  the  naval 
establishment,  except  nu^dicines,  surgical  appliances  and 
instruments,  and  supplies  for  the  marine  corps.  It  is,  at 
shore  stations  within  the  United  States,  charged  with  the 
transfer  of  all  stores  and  supplies,  and  their  reception,  care, 
custody  and  issue  when  authorized,  etc.,  etc. 

The  Hiiveii.li  <>t"  >I!eclieiiie  »iicl  Hixi*- 
fS^^*y9  has  all  that  relates  to  laboratories,  naval  hospitals, 
and  dispensaries;  and  all  medical  supplies,  medicines  and 
instruments  used  in  the  medical  department  of  the  Navy. 

The  several  bureaus  retain  the  charge  and  custody 
of  the  books  of  records  and  accounts  pertaining  to  their 
respective  duti(»s  ;  and  they  estimate  for,  and  defray 
from  their  own  funds  the  amounts  necessary  to  carry 
out  their  duties  as  above  define<l.  Each  bureau  has  con- 
trol of  the  organization  and  mustia*  of  its  own  employes, 
etc.,  etc. 

The  Navy  Regulations  define  fully  the  relations  of  the 
bureaus  to  each  other. 

Tlie  T>iitiejs  <>1"  tlie  •Fiiclgr^^  Advocate 
Cirefiei^al  ol'tlie  IXtiv^  tii'e,  to  prepare  all  the 
necessary  papers  for,  revise  and  report  upon,  the  proceed- 
ings of  courts-martial,  courts  of  inquiry,  and  boards  for  the 
examination  of  officers  for  retirement  and  promotion,  in  all 
cases  where  such  courts  or  boards  are  convened  by  order  of 
the  Secretary  of  the  Navy ;  and  to  prepare  general  orders 
for  the  promulgation  of  the  findings  of  the  same;  to  ex- 
amine and  report  upon  claims  of  every  description  filed  in 
the  Department;  to  conduct  the  departmental  correspond- 
ence relating  to  all  business  connected  with  the  increase  of 
the  Navy,  such  as  bids,  contracts,  specifications,  etc. ;  to 
conduct  all  the  legal  business  pertaining  to  the  Navy  De- 
l)artment,  and  all  correspondence  relating  to  same  when 
any  point  is  referred  to  the  Attorney-General;  and  to  an- 
swer all  calls  from  the  Department  of  Justice  and  Court  of 
Claims  for  information  and  papers  relating  to  cases  con- 
nected with  the  Navy  Department,  etc.,  etc. 

'Kstyry  "Vai*<l  Oi*g*aiiizatiori.  The  Command- 
ing Officer  is  the  senior  line  officer  attached  to  the  yard,  and 
is  known  as  the  Commandant  of  the  Yard.  All  communi- 
cations relating  to  work  from  the  different  bureaus  go  to 
him,  and  he  is  responsible  for  the  execution  of  such  orders. 
Ships  in  commission  at  a  Navy  Yard  for  any  purpose  are, 


STOWAGE   AND   SOURCES   OF  SUPPLY.  161 

from  arrival  until  departure,  under  the  command  of  the 
Commandant. 

The  Captain  of  the  Yard  is  the  next  line  officer  in  rank. 
He  is  the  executive  officer  of  the  station,  and  acts  for  the 
CommandaLnt  in  his  absence.  He  has  the  general  adminis- 
tration of  the  Yard,  watchmen,  police  force,  tugs,  fire  bri- 
gade, vessels  in  reserve,  and  the  mooring  and  unmooring 
of  vessels.  He  is  the  representative  of  the  Bureau  of  Yards 
and  Docks,  the  civil  engineer  attached  to  the  yard  being 
charged  with  the  special  duties  of  this  bureau. 

There  are  also  attached  to  a  Yard,  officers  representing 
the  other  bureaus,  who  have  charge  of  the  stores  and  work 
in  which  the  several  bureaus  are  directly  concerned. 

The  custody,  transfer,  and  issue  of  all  supplies,  and  the 
record  of  all  property  and  plants  at  Navy  Yards  and  sta- 
tions come  under  the  supervision  of  the  Bureau  of  Sup- 
plies and  Accounts ;  the  Paymaster  representing  this  bureau 
is  known  as  the  General  Storekeeper.  In  order  to  obtain 
any  article  a  requisition  is  made  on  the  General  Store- 
keeper through  the  Commandant  of  the  Yard  and,  if  ap- 
proved by  him,  the  General  Storekeeper  will  be  ordered  to. 
furnish  it. 

Medical  outfits  for  ships  in  commission  are  furnished 
from  the  Naval  Laboratory  at  New  York.  Reference  to  an 
allowance  book  will  show  under  which  bureau  any  article 
comes. 

The  following  partial  lists  give  a  general  idea  of  the 
articles  supplied  under  the  separate  bureaus : 

!Ejqn.ipme]nt*  Ground  tackle,  cordage,  sails,  awn- 
ings, hammocks,  and  sailmaker*s  stores;  all  mess  outfits, 
such  as  table  linen,  crockery,  plated  ware,  etc.,  galleys 
and  cooking  utensils ;  coal  and  wood  for  steaming  or  cook- 
ing purposes. 

The  electric  plant  and  outfit  is  supplied  by  the  Bureau  of 
Elquipment;  the  Navigator,  however,  is  in  charge  of  the 
electric  plant  and  outfit  on  board  ship.  All  stores  used  by 
the  Navigator,  such  as  charts,  chronometers,  books,  com- 
passes, etc. ,  come  under  the  Equipment  officer  who  transfers 
them  to  the  Navigator.  On  board  ship  the  boatswain,  car- 
penter and  sailmaker  have  special  charge  of  the  equipment 
stores  in  their  own  department,  under  the  direction  of  the 
Executive  Officer  who  is  the  Equipment  Officer  of  the  ship. 

C?oi:iHti*ii.etioi:i  a^ncl  H^epair*  :  Blocks,  break- 
ers, boats,  boat  spars,  balsas,  casks,  chests,  capstans,  dead- 
eyes,  mastfishes,  spare  spars,  lumber,  caulking  material, 
carpenter's  tools,  mattresses,  pillows,  fixed  furniture  in  offi- 
cers' quarters,  paint,  oars,  rowlocks,  turpentine,  varnish. 

On  board  ship  the  carpenter  has  general  charge  of  the 
construction  stores  under  the  Executive  Officer  who  makes 
out  all  requisitions  for  articles  under  Constructiou. 


162  STOWAGE    AND   SOURCES   OF   SUPPLY. 

Oi^clnance  Stoi*e«  s  Guns,  small  arms,  and  ac- 
coutrements, all  kinds  of  ammunition  and  means  for  hand- 
ling same;  all  tools,  appliances,  oils,  etc.,  for  the  working 
of  the  ship's  battery. 

All  equipments  for  the  magazines  and  atnmunition 
rooms ;  spare  parts  and  material  for  repairs  to  the  arma- 
ment of  the  vessel;  torpedoes  and  their  appurtenances. 
The  gunner  is  the  warrant  officer  in  immediate  charge  of 
the  ordnance  stores.  The  navigator  is  the  ordnance  officer 
of  the  ship  and  is  responsible  for  all  ordnance  stores. 

Stestm  E^iig'iiieer*i]iLg;' :  Boilers,  engines  and  all 
their  appurtenances.  All  firing  tools,  implements  and  ap- 
pliances in  fire  and  boiler-rooms,  and  about  the  engines. 
All  material  for  the  cleaning,  repairing  and  running  of  all 
machinery.  Stores  in  this  department  are  furnished  on 
requisitions  made  by  the  Chief  Engineer,  and  are  expended 
under  his  direction. 

I^a^^iiiaHtei-^H  Storew  s  Include  clothing  and 
small  stores;  such  as  buttons,  thread,  needles,  knives, 
scissors,  tobacco,  soap,  etc.,  for  the  crew;  provisions,  wet 
and  dry,  and  the  tools,  stationary,  etc. ,  that  are  necessary 
for  use  in  the  Pay  Department. 

The  Paymaster  is  the  purchasing  officer  of  the  ship,  the 
stores  purchased  by  him  being  invoiced  to  the  head  of  the 
department  under  whom  they  come.  Thus  requisitions  for 
water  are  made  by  the  pay  officer,  and  when  received  the 
water  is  invoiced  to  the  equipment  officer. 

IVIeclieal  Storen  s  Include  medicines,  surgical  in- 
struments, and  other  appliances  for  the  use  of  the  surgeon, 
as  well  as  provisions  for  the  sick  and  wounded.  The 
medical  outfit  is  in  charge  of  the  senior  medical  officer  of 
the  vessel. 


CHAPTER    XIII. 

BOATS. 

There  are  three  different  methods  of  building  boats, 
namely : — 

1st.  The  Oarvel-l:>vxilt5  which  have  fore-and-aft 
planks,  the  edges  meeting  but  not  overlapping. 

2d.  The  CJliiilier-l>xiilt,  also  fore-and-aft  planks, 
with  the  edges  overlapping  each  other,  like  shingling. 

3d.  The  Di£ig'oiia.l-l>v].ilt,  having,  as  the  name 
implies,  their  planking  running  diagonally,  the  inside 
planks  running  in  a  contrary  direction  to  the  outside  ones, 
and  their  edges  meeting. 

Bo£itH  are  single  or  double  hanked,  as  they  have  one 
or  two  rowers  to  a  thwart. 

The  seats  for  the  crew  of  a  boat  are  called  the  thwarts  ; 
the  strips  runnine  fore-and-aft,  on  which  the  thwarts 
rest,  the  rising  ;  the  space  abaft  the  af terthwart,  the  stem- 
sheets,  and  forward  of  the  foremost  thwart,  the  fore-sheets  ; 
the  spaces  in  the  wash-streaJk  for  the  oars,  the  rowlocks. 

The  frames,  knees,  hooks,  stem  and  stem  posts  of  boats 
are  generally  of  oak,  and  the  planking  of  cedar. 

Oaris  are  made  of  ash.  The  flat  part  of  an  oar  which 
is  dipped  in  the  water  is  called  the  blade,  and  that  which  is 
inboard  is  termed  the  loom,  the  extremity  of  which,  being 
small  enough  to  be  grasped  by  the  hand,  is  called  the 
handle. 

The  oars  are  said  to  be  double-banked  when  there  are 
two  men  rowinc^  at  each  oar. 

Oars  should  be  neatly  marked  by  the  carpenter,  and  the 
men  not  allowed  to  deface  the  looms. 

In  the  navy,  boats  are  classed  as  follows  : 

Steam  launches  and  steam  cutters,  frequently  built  of 
iron  or  steel. 

Sailing  launches,  barges,  cutters,  whale-boats,  gigs,  and 
dingies,  built  of  wood. 

To  Find  tlie  AVei^lit  of  lioatsis,  multiply 
the  square  of  the  breadth  by  the  length,  and  that  product 
for  a  launch,  by  2.5 ;  first  cutter,  by  1.9 ;  quarter  boats,  bv 
1,0^  second  cutter,  by  1.4  ;  stem  boat,  by  1.0.  Answer  will 
be  m  pounds. 

16.3 


104  BOATS. 

Boat  Itlciiiipmeiith«*  Before  entering  upon  the 
detail  of  a  boat's  outfit,  the  following  articles  may  be  men- 
tioned as  indispensable  at  all  times  to  every  boat,  viz. : 

1st.  The  plug. 

2d.   A  breaker  of  water,  and  breaker  stand. 

3d.  A  rudder  which  cannot  be  lost  if  unshipped,  without 
cutting  the  rope  by  which  it  is  secured. 

4th.  The  boat-hooks  and  the  oars,  or  the  sails  and  spars 
or  both. 

oth.  A  bailer. 

The  plug  should  be  secured  to  the  keelson  by  a  good 
laniard.  The  water  breaker  should  have  the  bung  fitted 
with  a  spigot,  or  faucet,  and  laniard  and  the  bunghole  with 
a  leather  lip.  If  a  steering  oar  is  used  instead  of  a  rudder, 
it  should  ship  in  a  patent  crutch,  narrowing  at  the  top,  from 
which  the  oar  cannot  be  disengag^ed  without  hauling  it 
through,  loom  first,  until  the  blade  is  even  with  the  crutch 
opening. 

Rudders  are  usually  supplied  with  the  pjintles  of  equal 
length.  It  will  save  a  great  deal  of  trouble  if  a  small  piece 
of  tne  upper  pintle  is  cut  off.  Otherwise,  if  there  should  be 
occasion  to  unship  the  rudder,  it  will  be  very  difficult  to 
ship  it  again  in  muddy  water,  or  with  any  motion  on  the 
boat,  since  both  pintles  have  to  be  pointed  at  once  if  of  the 
same  length. 

A  good  substitute  for  the  old  fashioned  pintle  is  found  in 
a  metal  rod  of  sufficient  length  secured  to  the  stern  of  the 
boat.  The  gudgeons  are  slotted  on  one  side  in  order  to 
allow  the  rudder  to  slij)  over  and  to  slide  up  and  down  the 
rod.  To  ship  the  rudder  put  it  hard  over,  ship  the  gudgeons 
over  the  rod,  slide  the  rudder  dow^n  until  in  position,  when 
a  recess  between  the  rod  and  the  stern  of  the  boat  permits 
the  gudgeons  to  turn  freely  around  the  rod,  and  at  the  same 
time  prevents  vertical  motion  of  the  rudder. 

In  addition  to  the  complete  set  of  oars,  there  should  be 
two  spare  oars,  triced  up  under  the  thwarts.  A  painted  can- 
vas sail  cover  is  usually  provided  for  the  sails. 

Next  to  the  above-mentioned  articles  may  be  enumerated 
the  following  as  important  in  the  ordinary  outfit  of  a  boat, 
namely :  a  full  set  of  stretchers,  a  set  of  boat-hooks,  a  good 
arrangement  for  hoolriig  on.  set  of  fendvrs,  awning  stanch- 
ion-'>.  tiller,  yoke  and  lines.  tari)auliiis,  awnings  with  bag. 
boat  cover  with  lashings,  curtains  for  carrying  arms,  back- 
board, gratings,  rowlocks,  flag-staff.  Life-boats,  in  addition, 
should  be  fitted  with  an  approved  detaching  outfit,  copper 
air  tanks  in  each  end,  a  steering  swivel,  and  sea  painters. 

Boom  irons,  windlass,  windlass  bars,  well  pipe  or  funnel, 
and  rowlocks  or  thole-pins  and  grommets  should  be  fitted 
to  sailing  launches.  A  short  and  a  long  (stout)  painter  for 
towing  or  mooring  are  also  required. 


BOATS.  165 

If  the  lower  blocks  are  to  be  close  to  the  stem  and  stern 
of  the  boat,  it  is  essential  that  the  ring,  shackle,  ball-toggle 
or  other  arrangement  used,  shall  permit  the  lower  block  to 
be  above  the  gunwale  of  the  boat  and  clear  of  it.  This 
avoids  fouling,  which  is  always  objectionable  and  may  be 
dangerous. 

Additional  when  at  sea  :  Gripes,  Fig.  399,  fitted  with  slip- 
hooks  ;  a  boat-rope  leading  from  the  fore  chains  and  secured 
to  the  boat's  bows ;  life-lines  hanging  from  the  boat-davit 
span,  the  supply-box  provided  for  By  tne  Ordnance  Manual, 
and,  when  hoisting  in  a  sea-way,  two  small  spars  to  act  as 
skids  in  keeping  the  boat  clear  of  the  chains,  &c. 

A  boat  binnacle  is  to  be  kept  trimmed  and  at  hand  ready 
for  any  boat  requiring  it. 

At  least  one  Doat  in  every  ship  should  be  a  good  surf  or 
life-boat,  and  fitted  for  lowering  and  hoisting  with  extra- 
ordinary expedition.  In  this  connection,  it  may  be  men- 
tioned that  tne  life-buoys  should  be  of  the  most  approved 
pattern,  and  that  the  contrivance  for  letting  them  go  and 
firing  them  should  be  frequently  examined  and  tested. 

Boats  should  have  their  own  recall,  and  the  comet,  and 
general  recall,  painted  on  a  piece  of  tin  and  tacked  in  some 
secure  place,  not  the  backboard. 

The  minutiae  of  boat  outfits  for  various  kinds  of  service 
will  be  found  in  the  Ordnance  Manual. 

Lowering"  a^ncl  HoiHting-  (underway  or  in 
tideways).  For  lowering,  boats'  falls  snould  be  kept  in 
separate  racks,  and  always  clear.  A  boat  should  not  be 
lowered  while  the  ship  has  stern wav ;  on  the  contrary,  it 
is  better  if  the  vessel  oe  going  ahead.  Should  the  boat  get 
under  the  bows,  there  is  danger  in  a  sea-way  of  her  being 
cut  in  two  or  stove  by  the  dolphin-striker. 

In  a  quarter  or  stern-boat  tne  after-tackle  should  be  un- 
hooked first,  particularly  when  going  ahead  or  in  a  tide- 
way, otherwise  the  boat  may  wind  and  be  swamped. 

On  lowering  a  stem-boat  in  a  tide-way,  the  moment  the 
keel  touches  the  water  the  boat  is  swept  astern,  and  the 
falls  so  tautened  that  they  cannot  be  unhooked  without 
much  diflScultv.  If  when  the  boat  is  hoisted  we  hook  a 
stout  runner,  fitted  for  the  purpose,  haul  taut  and  belay  it, 
and  unhook  the  regular  tackles;  then  when  the  boat  is  low- 
ered the  runner  can  be  allowed  to  unreeve  instantaneously. 
and  the  boat  is  swept  clear  of  the  ship  at  once,  or  swings  to 
her  painter  previously  made  fast. 

When  about  to  lower  a  boat,  see  the  line  from  forward 
made  fast,  put  the  plug  in,  ship  the  rudder  (if  not  perma- 
nently shipped),  let  the  men  in  the  boat  hold  on  to  tne  life- 
lines, and  keep  the  steadying  lines  fast  until  the  boat  is  in 
the  water. 

For  hoisting^  the  boat  should  be  hauled  up,  a  careful 
hand  steering,  or  dropped  from  the  line  forward  and  the 


166  BOATS. 

forward  tackle  hooked  first.  It  is  very  important  that  theso 
tackles  should  have  their  lower  blocks  so  made  that  they 
will  not  capsize.  When  the  tackles  are  hooked  the  men 
should  keep  the  blocks  up  so  that  they  cannot  unhook,  by 
holding  up  the  parts  of  the  fall.  Steadying  lines  should  he 
used  in  a  sea-waj;,  leading  in  through  the  ports  and  well 
attended,  with  which  to  bind  the  boat,  as  she  rises,  against 
the  skids  ;  the  life-lines  should  be  crossed  and  the  boat-rope 
from  forward  tended.  Send  all  but  four  hands  out  and 
hoist  away.  When  the  boat  is  up,  pass  the  bight  of  the 
stopper  through  the  slings — the  short  chain-spans  which  go 
from  the  ring-bolt  in  the  stem  and  stern-post  to  keelson — or 
through  the  ring-bolts  and  over  the  davit-end  twice,  and 
hitch  Def ore  attempting  to  belay  the  fall. 

For  hoisting  quarter-boats  in  a  sea-way,  there  is  nothing 
like  jack-stays  irom  the  davits  to  set  up  to  the  bends  at 
the  water-line.  A  lizard  is  fitted  to  each,  which  travels  up 
and  down.  With  these,  catch  a  turn  around  the  thwarts, 
and  the  boat  may  be  run  up,  clear  of  the  side,  without 
trouble. 

Pass  the  gripes  round  the  boat  clear  of  turns.  Have 
squaring  marks  put  on  the  falls,  so  that  she  may  alwavs 
hang  square  from  the  davits,  and  in  port,  level  with  tne 
rail.  It  there  be  no  scuttle  which  opens  of  itself,  take  the 
plug  out  the  moment  the  boat  leaves  the  water.  Make  fast 
the  Doat-rope  from  forward  to  the  bows  of  the  boat,  stop  it 
up  to  the  chains  with  a  split  yarn.  See  that  the  fenders  are 
in,  fill  the  water-breaker,  and  if  the  weather  be  hot,  put  the 
cover  or  awning  on  square  and  smooth  during  the  day, 
taking  it  off  at  ni^ht. 

In  a  stern-boat  in  a  tide-way,  o:  ship  going  ahead,  do  not 
attempt  to  haul  across  the  sttrn,  but  hook  both  falls  with 
the  boat  lying  fore  and  aft,  hoist  on  the  forward  fall  until 
the  boat  is  about  two-thirds  out  of  water,  then  round  in 
steadily  on  the  after  fall  and  the  boat  will  come  up  without 
difficulty.  In  this  case  one  man  can  easily  keep  the  boat 
off  the  rudder  or  the  stern  of  the  ship. 

Much  trouble  in  rounding  up  or  overhauling  down  boats' 
falls  is  avoided  by  hooking  the  lower  blocks  to  eye-bolts  in 
the  ship's  side  near  the  heel  of  the  davit  or  to  small  beckets 
worked  around  the  davits. 

I-Ia.nd.lins'  WoatK  ixnclc^i*  Oai*K,  The  follow- 
ing  orders  are  used  by  officers  or  others  in  charge  of  boats. 
A  cutter,  for  example,  is  supposed  to  be  lying  alongside, 
properly  manned,  and  ready  to  shove  off  : 

Give  the  order:     Up  Oars! 

The  crew,  with  the  exception  of  the  bowmen,  seize  their 

E roper  oars,  and,  watching  the  stroke  oarsman,  raise  them 
riskly  to  the  vertical,  simultaneously,  holding  them  thus 
directly  to  their  centre  fronts,  blades  fore-and-aft,  those  on 
starboard  side  with  right  hand,  those  on  port  side  with  left 


BOATS.  167 

hand,  down  and  grasping  handles;  the  oars  to  be  held  by 
the  hands  alone,  7iot  resting  on  the  bottom  of  the  boat;  the 
men  face  square  aft,  and  pay  strict  attention  to  the  cox- 
swain. 

Bowmen  stand  up,  facing  forwards,  and  attend  the 
painter  or  heaving-line,  or  handle  boat-hooks,  as  case  may 
require.  (They  snould  not  raise  their  oars  until  the  order 
"  Let  fall    has  been  executed.) 

In  a  sea-way,  or  strong  tid.e-way,  the  after-oarsmen  do 
not  raise  their  oars  at  this  command,  but  assist  with  boat- 
hooks  in  shoving  off,  and  raise  their  oars  together  and 
before  the  order  "  Let  fall." 

At  command : 

Shove  off! 

Bowmen  cast  off"  painter  or  heaving  line,  handle  boat- 
hooks,  and  shove  the  bow  clear  by  a  vigorous  shove,  the 
coxswain  seeing  that  the  ensign-staff  and  quarter  go  clear 
of  gangwav. 

When  tne  boat  is  sufficiently  clear  of  the  ship  or  wharf, 
the  order  is  given  : 

Let  fall ! 

The  oars  are  to  be  eased  doivn  into  the  rowlocks  simul- 
taneously, and  leveled.  The  blades  should  not  be  allowed 
to  splash  in  the  water.  The  fenders  are  then  taken  in,  and 
the  starboard  stroke-oarsman  gives  the  stroke.  As  the 
style  of  the  stroke  depends  upon  the  after-oarsmen,  they 
should  be  the  best  men  in  the  boat. 

In  double-banked  boats  each  man  is  responsible  for  the 
proper  handling  of  his  own  fender.  In  single-banked  boats 
1^0.  2  takes  in  and  throws  out  the  fender  of  No.  1,  No.  3 
that  of  No.  2,  &c. 

(The  boat  can  now  be  pointed  in  the  desired  direction 
by  directing  the  proper  oars  to  be  backed  or  given  way 
upon. ) 

The  bowmen,  having  shoved  the  boat  clear,  turn  aft, 
take  their  seats,  and  lay  in  their  boat-hooks  together,  and, 
having  hauled  in  and  coiled  down  the  painter,  if  adrift, 
seize  their  oars,  and,  looking  at  each  other,  throw  the 
blades  over  the  bows,  in  line  with  the  keel,  simultaneously ; 
when  the  looms  and  handles  are  ^rasped,  the  oars  are  raised 
vertically  together,  and  droppea  simultaneously  into  the 
rowlocks.  When  the  boat  is  properly  pointed,  the  coxswain 
commands  : 

Give  way  together  ! 

The  starboard  after-oar  gives  the  stroke,  the  others 
follow  him.  Each  oar  should  be  lifted  as  high  as  the 
^nwale,  and  feathered  by  dropping  the  wrist  until  the 
blade  is  flat.  When  the  blade  is  thrown  forward  as  far  as 
the  rowlock  will  admit,  it  is  then  dropped  into  the  water, 
easily  and  without  splashing.  (Rowing  hand  over  hand,  or 
from  the  shoulder  alone,  should  never  be  permitted.) 


108  BOATS. 

()n  approaching  the  desired  place  of  landing,  the  boat 
being  properly  pointed,  at  the  mom(*nt  the  oars  are  leaving 
the  water  the  coxswain  commands  : 

In  hows! 

The  bowmen,  closely  regarding  each  other's  motions, 
take  one  stroke,  and  tossing  their  oars  simultaneously,  raise 
them  vertically,  lightly  touching  the  blades  together,  letting 
them  fall  into  the  boat  together,  in  line  with  the  keel,  with- 
out unnecessarj  noise,  and  pass  the  handles  underneath 
the  oars  still  m  motion,  taking  care  that  their  oars  are 
**boated."  They  then  seize  their  boat-hooks,  face  forward, 
and,  standing  up,  hold  their  boat-hooks  vertically. 

When  witn  sufficient  headway  to  reach  the  desired  place 
of  landing,  the  command  is  given  : 

Way  enough  ! 

As  before,  the  command  is  given  while  the  oars  are  in 
the  water.  .  The  crew,  regarding  the  motions  of  the  stroke- 
oarsman,  finish  the  uncompleted  stroke,  give  one  full  stroict^ 
additional,  and  toss  their  oars  simultaneously,  raise  them  to 
a  vertical  position^  and  lay  them  easily  and  without  noise 
into  the  boat,  in  line  with  the  keel.  The  oars  to  be  so  placed 
in  the  boat  that  they  can  be  readily  resumed  by  the  crev^\ 
the  stroke  oars  to  be  placed  nearest  the  gunwale,  and  tli 
others  in  succession. 

The  oars  bein^  boated,  the  stroke  oarsmen  handle  their 
boat-hooks,  keeping  their  seats,  and  assist  the  bowmen  in 
bringing  the  boat  to  the  landing. 

After  boating  the  oars,  the  fenders  are  thrown  out. 

In  saluting  passing  boats,  or  in  stopping  to  hail,  or  to 
check  headway,  it  may  become  necessary  to  lay  on  the 
oars  ;  to  do  this,  conmnand — 

Stand  by  to  lay  on  your  oars ! 

At  this  the  men  pay  strict  attention  for  the  command — 

Oars  ! 
which  is  given  while  the  oars  are  in  the  water,  the  stroke  is 
finished  and  the  blades  of  the  oars  are  feathered  and  raised 
simultaneously  as  high  as  the  gunwale,  where  they  are 
firmly  held  in  lines  parallel  to  each  other— on  no  account 
fire  the  oars  to  be  permitted  to  touch  the  water  or  to  be 
thrown  out  of  line. 

At  the  order — 

Give  Way! 
the  pulling  is  resumed,  each  man  regarding  the  stroke-oars, 
and  taking  the  stroke  from  them. 

To  toss  oars,  the  command  is  given — 

Stand  by  to  Toss  ! 

At  the  conmiand — 

Toss  ! 
which  is  given  while  the  oars  are  in  the  water,  the  stroke  is 
completed,  and  the  oars  then  thrown  up  to  a  vertical  nosi- 
tion  simultaneously,  blades  fore  and  aft,  each  oar  is  neld 


BOATS.  1 69 

square  to  the  front  of  the  man  holding  it — on  line  with  the 
centre  of  the  body. 

In  going  alongside  of  a  strange  or  foreign  vessel  to  de- 
liver a  message  or  order,  requiring  but  a  few  moments  to 
give  or  execute,  and  particularly  when  it  is  desired  to  keep 
the  crew  at  their  thwarts,  it  is  recommended  to  give  the 
order  Toss^  rather  than  Way  enough  I  The  crew  to  keep 
their  oars  up  while  the  duty  is  performed  by  the  midshipman 
in  charge.  The  bowmen  being  the  only  men  in  this  case, 
who  **  boat  their  oars." 

To  trail,  give  the  command — 

Stand  by  to  Trail! 

Trail ! 

At  the  second  order  the  oar  is  to  be  thrown  out  of  the 
rowlock,  and  allowed  to  trail  alongside,  either  by  the  trail 
line  or  by  holding  it  by  the  handle. 

To  stop  the  boat's  headway,  order  : 

Oars  ! 

Followed  by — 

Hold  Water! 

And  if  necessary — 

Stem  all ! 

At  the  first  order,  lay  on  the  oars  as  directed ;  at  the 
second,  drop  the  blades  in  the  water  to  check  the  headway  ; 
and  at  the  third,  pull  backward,  keeping  stroke  with  the 
after-oars.  The  oars  should  not  be  dropped  into  the  water 
too  suddenly,  lest  they  get  broken. 

To  turn  a  boat  suddenly,  order,  Oive  way  starboard  (or 
port),  ftocfc  port  (or  starboard),  Oars!  Both  backing  and 
pulhn^  oars  should  always  keep  stroke  with  the  stroke  oar 
of  their  own  side,  all  oars  taking  and  leaving  the  water 
together. 

The  following  are  given  as  the  indications  of  a  good 
stroke : 

1.  Taking  the  whole  reach  forward  and  falling  back 
gradually  a  little  past  the  perpendicular,  preserving  the 
shoulders  throughout  square,  and  the  chest  developed  to 
the  end. 

2.  Catching  the  water  with  the  lower  edge  of  the  blade 
inclined  forward,  and  beginning  the  stroke  with  a  full 
tension  on  the  arms  at  the  instant  of  contact. 

3.  A  horizontal  and  dashing  pull  through  the  water  as 
soon  as  the  blade  is  covered,  without  ever  dipping  more 
than  the  blade. 

4.  Quick  recovery  after  feathering,  the  arms  oemg 
thrown  forward  perfectly  straight  at  the  same  time  as  the 
body,  the  forward  motion  of  arms  and  body  ceasing  together. 

5.  Equability  in  all  the  motions. 
SculUng  with  a  single  oar  should  be  taught. 
^Boat-idg-m,  Plate  84.     Men-of-war  boats  are  usually 

rigged  as  follows  :  Launches  are  sloop-rigged,  with  a  jib  and 


1 70  BOATS. 

mainsail.  Cutters  and  Whale-boats  are  rigged  either  with 
two  sliding  gunter-sails  or  two  lu<5-sails;  the  former  boats 
have  a  jib  m  addition. 

A  sliding  ^nter-mast,  Fig.  401a,  consists  of  two  sections, 
nearly  equal  m  length,  called  the  lowermast  and  topmast ; 
the  latter  slides  upon  the  former,  and  is  held  in  position  by 
means  of  two  metal  rings  secured  to  the  topmast  near  its 
lower  end.  The  topmast  is  on  the  after  siae  of  the  lower 
mast.  The  sail  is  bent  to  the  topmast  aila  to  metal  hoops  on 
the  lower  mast.  Make  sail  by  noisting  the  topmast,  which 
carries  the  head  of  the  sail  with  it,  hauling  aft  the  sheet. 
The  mainsail  has  a  boom. 

The  rig  is  objected  to  for  large  boats,  on  account  of  the 
diflSculty  of  handling  and  stowing  the  spar  and  sail,  which 
are  made  up  together. 

Lug-sails  are  either  standiiuj  lugs,  three-quarter  lugs  or 
dipping  lugs. 

The  halliards  of  a  standing  lug,  Fig.  402,  are  bent  to  the 
vard  a  little  inside  of  the  forward  end ;  the  tack  hooks,  or  is 
lashed,  abaft  the  mast. 

The  halliards  of  a  three-quarter  lug,  Fig.  403,  are  bent 
to  the  yard  at  one-fourth  of  its  length  from  the  forward  end, 
the  tack  hooks  a  short  distance  forward  of  the  mast  to  an 
eye  in  the  fore-and-aft  batten. 

In  a  boat  having  two  such  lug-sails,  it  is  customary  to 
hoist  the  yards  on  opposite  sides  of  their  respective  masts, 
and  not  to  dip  them,  ^ut  if  it  is  desired  to  dip,  the  sail  is 
lowered  a  short  distance,  tack  unhooked,  taken  round  the 
mast  and  hooked  again,  while  the  fortvard  end  of  the  yard 
is  dipped  around  by  hauling  down  upon  the  luflf  of  the  sail. 
The  halliards  lead  forward. 

A  regular  dipping  lug,  Fig.  404,  has  the  halliards  bent  at 
a  point  two-fifths  of  the  length  of  the  yard  from  its  forward 
end,  the  tack  hooks  well  forward  of  the  mast,  there  being 
an  eye-bolt  for  the  fore  tact  on  either  bow. 

In  tacking  or  wearing  with  this  rig,  the  after  yard  arm 
must  be  dipped  around  the  mast  from  aft  forward.  This  is 
done  in  tacking,  as  follows  :  the  wind  being  on  the  (former) 
lee  bow,  one  hand  lowers  the  halliards  iust  enough  to  let  the 
after  yardarm  go  round  the  mast.  This  ensures  plenty  of 
back  sail  forward  where  needed,  and  as  little  slacK  sail  as 
possible  on  top  of  the  men.  One  hand  forward  bears  the 
fore  part  of  the  sail  out,  the  next  two  gather  the  clew  of  the 
sail  forward  and  pass  it  around  the  mast,  one  hand  aft  un- 
hooks the  sheet  as  soon  as  the  sail  lifts,  and  rehooks  when 
the  clew  is  passed  aft  again.  Balance  of  crew  hand  along 
the  foot  of  the  sail  and  assist  in  rehoisting.  Shift  fore  tact 
to  the  weather  bow. 

In  wearing,  dip  just  before  the  wind  is  aft,  rehoist  when 
wind  is  on  tne  otner  quarter.  Do  not  allow  the  sails  to 
gybe,  and  keep  the  halliards  to  windward. 


BOATS.  17t 

In  this  connection  may  be  mentioned  the  split  lug.  Fig. 
405,  generally  used  in  British  galleys  (gigs),  which  have  but 
one  mast.  The  yard  is  slung  at  two-fifths  its  length  from 
the  forward  end,  as  in  case  of  tlie  dipping  lu^,  the  sail  is 
split  in  the  wake  of  the  mast,  and  furnished  with  a  lacing, 
also  with  a  second  tack-lashing,  or  hook,  for  the  after  portion 
of  the  sail.  Fitted  in  this  manner,  when  the  lacing  is  passed 
the  sail  is  simply  w  dipping  lug.  With  the  lacing  unrove 
and  the  after  tacK  secured,  the  after  part  of  the  sau  is  used 
as  a  standing  lug,  the  forward  part  (fitted  with  a  temporary 
sheet)  acts  as  a  ]ib.  The  latter  form  of  the  rig  is  convenient 
in  beating ;  the  use  of  a  jib-stay  is  avoided. 

Dingies  and  gigs  are  usually  supplied  with  sprit-sails — the 
latter  boats  may  also  have  a  jib.  The  upper  end  of  a  sprit  is 
placed  in  a  grommet  at  the  peak  of  a  sail,  while  the  lower 
end  ships  in  another  grommet  on  the  mast. 

>raHtN  should  step  in  boxes  and  clamp  to  the  thwart ; 
clamp  to  be  abaft  the  foremast  and  forward  of  the  main- 
mast. The  awkward  and  dangerous  practice  of  stepping 
masts  through  a  hole  in  the  fore-and-aft  batten,  usually 
the  flimsiest  piece  of  material  in  the  boat,  cannot  be  too 
strongly  condemned. 

The  British  service  rig  includes  an  ingenious  device 
(De  Horsey's)  for  stepping  the  foremast.  A  stout  fore-and- 
aft  piece  is  ntted  forward,  with  a  slit  through  its  centre 
equal  in  length  to  the  distance  from  the  heel  of  the  mast  to 
the  partners,  and  in  width  somewhat  greater  than  the 
diameter  of  the  mast.  The  mast  is  fitted  with  trunnions, 
one  on  each  side,  resting  on  the  after  part  of  the  fore-and- 
aft  piece.  In  stepping,  the  mast  pivots  fore  and  aft  on 
these  trunnions.  As  the  head  goes  forward  and  up,  the  heel 
sinks  into  its  step,  where  it  is  confined  by  a  pawl^  which  is 
fitted  with  a  safety  key  that  locks  it  after  the  heel  is  in 
place.     Fig.  397,  Plate  83. 

With  this  rig  the  mast  is  stepped  or  unstepped  in  a  mo- 
ment. To  take  the  mast  out  of  the  boat,  unkey  the  cap 
squares  of  the  trunnions. 

The  mainmast  in  this  case  is  fitted  in  the  usual  way 
-with  a  box  and  clamp,  the  fore  being  given  the  easier  rig  on 
account  of  its  situation,  which  renders  it  more  difficult  to 
handle. 

Before  stepping  see  that  the  halliards  are  rov(»  and  that 
nothing  will  be  required  aloft.  Never  send  a  incin  aloft  on 
the  masts  if  halliards  unreeve.   Unstep  the  mast  and  rectify 

matters  in  that  way.  ,       ^  xi. 

H^igglng.  The  masts  being  stepped,  set  up  the 
shrouds  equaUy  and  for  a  full  due.  Do  not  tamper  with 
lee  shrouds  when  sailing,  to  "set  them  up."  If  they  are 
hove  taut  in  a  stiflE  breeze,  the  next  tack  will  probably  result 
in  your  wrenching  the  head  of  the  mast  oflE. 

JtlAlliards  stnd  Dovrn-liaixln.    The  yard  of  a 


172  BOATS. 

lug-sail  hooks  to  an  iron  traveler  on  the  mast;  the  hauling 
end  of  the  halliards  shouhi  have  an  eve  in  its  end,  to  be 
placed  over  the  hook  of  the  traveler  before  hoisting,  and 
used  as  a  down-haul. 

Set  a  jib  before  setting  the  foresail.  The  jib  being  the 
fore-stay,  if  the  foresail  is  set  first  the  mast-head  is  dragged 
aft  and  the  after  leach  will  be  slack.  If  obliged  to  set  the 
foresail  first,  ease  the  fore-sheet  while  hoisting  the  jib,  and 
let  the  head  of  the  foremast  go  to  its  place.  See  the  jib 
tack  well  out  to  the  bowsprit  end  before  noisting. 

i^£iilN.  Do  not  stretch  the  head  of  boat  sails  in  bend- 
ing them,  unless  they  are  bent  when  wet.  Bring  them  to 
the  yards  and  galffs  barely  hand  taut,  to  allow  for  shrinkage 
when  damp,  or  the  fit  or  the  sail  will  be  spoiled.  See  the 
yards  slung  so  that  the  sails  will  set  smoothly. 

Hoat  Sa^ilingr*  Make  all  the  men  who  are  not 
shoving:  the  boat  off  sit  down.  ''Shove  ojf,"  "  in  fenders.'' 
In  shoving  off  when  the  ship  is  not  head  to  wind,  pull  clear 
of  her  before  making  sail.  If  the  ship  is  broaoside  to  a 
steady  breeze  you  may  make  sail  from  the  lee  gangway, 
but  look  out  for  flaws. 

Ship  being  head  to  wind,  ^ive  the  order,  ''Stand  by  to 
make  sail  r  See  halliards  manned,  lee  sheets  aft,  brails 
tended  :  then  •"  Shore  offr  •'  Hoist  the  jib:'  then  the  foresail. 
If  intending  to  sail  on  the  wind,  "hoist  the  ma i nsai l'-  ai< 
soon  as  the  boat  is  clear.  If  bound  to  leeward,  let  the  boat 
pay  off  first  to  her  course,  then  **  hoist  the  maiusailS'  **  ease 
off  fore  and  jib  sheets,^'  anil  proceed. 

if  you  want  a  pull  on  the  halliards,  slack  the  sheet :  if 
the  fore,  check  the  main  sheet  at  the  same  time. 

Have  the  halliards  coiled  clear  for  running ;  do  not 
allow  the  crew  to  stand  on  the  thwarts  or  move  about  in 
the  boat,  nor  the  coxswain  to  let  go  the  helm,  as  is  some- 
times done  to  get  a  pull  of  the  main  sheet,  &c.  Bv  this 
thoughtless  practice  a  boat  may  be  taken  aback  and  cap- 
sized. See  tnat  the  weights  are  kept  amidships  and  that 
all  sheets  are  tended,  not  belayed. 

If  running  and  about  to  round  to,  remember  that  you 
cannot  carry  all  the  sail  on  a  wind  that  you  can  before  it, 
and  reduce  m  consequence  beforehand. 

Running  dead  to  leeward  in  a  single-masted  boat  (gig) 
is  dangerous.  It  is  preferable  to  carry  the  wind  a  little  on 
one  quarter  for  half  the  distance,  then  haul  aft  the  sheet, 
lower,  shift  the  sail  around,  and  head  for  your  destination 
with  the  wind  on  the  other  quarter.  Never  go  wing  and 
wing  if  ther(^  is  any  sea  on,  or  if  the  wind  is  unsteady  iii 
direction. 

If  your  men  are  all  sitting  to  windward  in  a  breeze,  make 
them  take  their  proper  places  befcu'e  passing  to  leeward  of 
a  vessel. 


BOATS.  173 

Steerifigr    and    TTi'lmtniiig-    Itoa.tN'.     The 

"rule  of  the  road"  and  the  remarks  about  handling  ship 
apply  equally  to  a  boat.     See  Chapter  XIX. 

Putting  tne  rudder  right  across  the  stem  deadens  the 
way  :  42**  is  considered  the  extreme  of  efficiency. 

When  there  is  no  way  on,  or  when  the  boat  is  tied  by 
the  stem — as  in  towing,  when  the  tow-line  is  fast  to  the 
wrong  place,  the  stem  ring-bolt — the  rudder  has  no  effect 
whatever. 

Always  endeavor,  either  by  trimming  sails  or  disposition 
oi  weights,  to  reduce  the  boat  to  a  "  small  helm,"  for  when 
tlie  rudder  is  dragged  much  across  the  stern  the  way  is 
retarded.  Weather  helm  will  be  induced  by  allowing  the 
boat  to  be  pressed  by  the  head,  and  this  may  be  caused  by 
the  bowmen  sitting  forward,  or  by  press  of  sail,  or  both. 
If  the  bows  are  clear,  a  pull  on  the  jib  sheet  miqht  relieve 
the  helm,  but  not  as  a  matter  of  course  ;  for  if  the  lib  was 
already  flat,  it  might  be  the  cause  of  depression,  and  a  few 
inches  checked  would  perhaps  answer  the  purpose.  Then 
the  main  sheet  might  be  the  cause,  and  an  inch  of  that 
sheet  might  be  the  remedy.  But  it  will  be  of  no*  use  to 
attempt  trimming  until  the  sails  are  taut  up  and  well  set ; 
and  then  the  officer  in  command  can  make  his  alteration  of 
trim,  until  the  boat  may  be  so  nicely  balanced  that,  by 
sending  the  bowmen  forward  and  letting  go  the  tiller,  she 
will  go  about  of  herself. 

If  the  bow  is  deep  and  the  stem  light  of  draught,  the 
former  is  not  so  easily  blown  from  the  wind  as  the  latter. 
If,  on  the  contrary,  the  stem  be  deeo,  and  the  bow  light, 
the  bow  is  readily  thrown  to  leeward  by  the  conjoint  action 
of  wind  and  sea.  In  the  first  of  these  cases — supposing  the 
sail  to  be  well  balanced — ^the  boat  would  carry  weather 
helm  ;  in  the  last,  lee  helm ;  but  in  either,  her  way  would 
be  more  or  less  diminished.  The  drag  of  cross  hehn  mieht 
be  decreased  by  reducing  sail  at  one  of  the  extremities,  but 
at  the  expense  of  speed  ;  whereas,  by  trimming  weights,  all 
sail  might  be  carried,  and  speed  increased. 

Use  water  in  breakers  for  ballast. 

Taclcing-.  Having  previously  described  the  method 
of  dii>ping  lugs,  let  us  assume  the  boat  to  be  a  cutter  fitted 
with  jib  and  sliding  gunters.  Keep  a  good  full  for  stays, 
then  ^^  Ready  about,,  the  helm  is  easea  down,  then  ^^ease 
off  the  jib  sheet  I"  if  the  boat  is  a  slow  worker  and  does  not 
come  to  readily,  otherwise  the  jib  sheet  may  be  kept  fast. 
Haul  the  main-boom  handsomely  amidships.  When  head 
to  wind  shift  over  the  fore  sheet,  be  careful  not  to  make  a 
back  sail  of  the  foresail.  Bear  the  jib  out  to  windward  to 
assist  in  paying  the  boat's  head  around.  When  the  jib  has 
paid  the  head  off  sufficiently  to  fill  the  foresail,  "  draiv  jib,'' 
nauling  aft  the  jib  and  fore  sheet,  right  the  helm,  haul  aft 
the  mam  sheet. 


'174  BOATS. 

If  the  boat  gathers  stern-board  shift  the  helm;  get  out 
^an  oar  on  the  lee  bow  to  bring  her  head  around,  or  let  all 
the  crew  that  are  in  the  after  part  of  the  boat  place  them- 
selves on  the  (old)  weather  quarter,  the  boat  will  then  pay 
oflf  the  right  way,  owing  to  the  pressure  of  the  water  bemg 
more  on  tne  immersed  quarter  tnan  the  other. 

Thus,  if  the  boat  is  head  to  wind  and  her  bow  ought  to 

Eay  oflf  to  starboard,  send  the  men  who  are  aft  to  the  star- 
oard  quarter,  their  weight  depressing  that  quarter,  the  bow 
will  pay  oflf  as  desired. 

Men-of-war  boats  fitted  with  but  one  sail  (unless  a  split 
lug)  should  not  attempt  to  beat  to  windward. 

In  working  to  windward  among  shipping,  or  in  a  harbor, 
if  there  is  any  doubt  of  your  weathering  a  particular  object, 
it  is  always  safest  to  tack.  In  luflSng  up  for  a  '*  half  board  '* 
a  boat  quickly  loses  her  way  and  becomes  for  the  time  being 
unmanageable.  This  would  probably  result  in  your  fouling 
the  danger  you  have  tried  to  avoid. 

A^'^eai'ingr.  Put  the  helm  up,  **ease  off  the  main 
sheet ^^ !  or,  in  a  fresh  breeze,  ^^  brail  up  the  main-saiV^ ! 
Slack  oflf  the  fore  and  jib  sheets  as  she  goes  oflf ;  when  the 
wind  is  well  on  the  quarter,  ''shift  over  the  fore  sheet ^^ ; 
with  the  wind  on  the  new  weather  quarter  set  the  main- 
sail, or,  ''haul  aft  the  main  sheet,*'  then  the  fore;  when 
nearly  by  the  wmd,  haul  aft  the  jib  sheet  and  right  the 
helm. 

Instead  of  lowering  the  main-sail  altogether,  it  is  suflS- 
cient  to  **  brail  up,^^  hauling  aft  the  sheet  again  as  soon  as 
the  sail  will  take  on  the  new  tack. 

XJnclei*  Sail  slticL  Oai*K,  When  the  wind  fails, 
get  out  oars  and  keep  the  boat  under  oars  and  sail  as  long  as 
the  latter  are  of  any  assistance.  If  the  breeze  freshens 
again,  lay  in  at  least  the  lee  oars  to  avoid  catching  crabs  and 
splitting  the  gunwale.  When  the  weather  oars  barely 
strike  the  water,  in  consequence  of  the  boat's  inclination,  it 
is  time  to  lay  them  in  also.     Ship  rowlock  shutters,  if  used. 

lleiiv^ifio-to.  Put  the  helm  down,  haul  the  main- 
boom  well  over  amidships,  the  jib-sheet  to  windward,  brail 
up  the  fore-sail. 

Xl/eeliiig-,  Before  reefing,  tell  oflf  the  men  for  the 
diflferent  duties  ;  if  using  lug  sails,  two  men  forward  haul 
down  on  the  luflf  of  the  sail  and  shift  the  tack,  one  hand  by 
the  halliards,  one  at  the  downhaul,  one  to  tend  the  sheet, 
the  rest  tie  the  points  and  shift  the  sheet-block  at  the  clew. 
Do  not  luflf,  check  the  sheets,  lower  enough  to  tie  the  points, 
hauling  in  the  fore-sheet  so  that  the  men  can  get  at  the  foot 
of  the  sail  without  peaching  over  the  lee  gunwale  ;  shift  the 
tack  and  sheets  and  tie  the  points ;  slack  the  sheet,  hoist 
and  haul  aft. 

Hoist  the  foresail  first,  or  if  the  mainsail  be  first  hoisted, 
check  its  sheet  till  the  boat  has  headway,  or  she  will  get  in 


BOATS.  175 

the  wind  and  lose  time.  Reef  a  sliding  gunter  in  the  same 
way,  except  that  there  is  no  need  of  a  downhaul,  nor  of 
hauling  down  upon  the  luflf  of  the  sail. 

In  reefing,  do  not  roll  up  the  foot  of  the  sail  snugly ;  it 
holds  more  water  than  when  the  sail  is  loosely  tiea  up  by 
the  points. 

Always  be&dn  to  reef  when  the  boat  commences  to  bury 
her  lee  gunwale  or  shows  signs  of  being  crank. 

In  reefing,  or  performing  any  of  the  evolutions  described, 
nobody  needs  to  stand  up.  Good  boatmen  never  jump 
about  on  the  thwarts,  or  show  more  than  their  heads  above 
the  gunwale. 

i5$Qii.£ills.  Sailing  on  a  wind,  in  moderate  squalls, 
ease  tne  sheets  enough  to  relieve  the  boat,  keep  enough 
steerage-way  to  bring  her  promptly  into  the  wind  if  the 
squall  increases. 

When  caught  in  a  hard  and  sudden  squall,  put  the  helm 
down  at  once,  let  fly  the  fore-sheet :  and  as  such  squalls  fre- 
quently veer  more  or  less,  lower  the  sail ;  for  if  it  catches 
aback  there  would  be  difficulty  in  getting  it  down,  danger 
and  sternway  from  keeping  it  hoisted. 

Sailing  with  the  wind  abeam,  if  a  squall  comes  up. 
receive  it  with  the  sheets  flowing  and  halliards  clear  for 
nmning. 

The  squall  increasing  in  violence,  brail  up  the  mainsail, 
up  helm,  and  if  need  be,  lower  and  reef  the  foresail. 

If  obliged  to  run  before  a  very  fresh  breeze,  use  a  reefed 
foresail,  but  in  any  case  carry  enough  sail  to  keep  ahead  of 
the  sea. 

An  empty  breaker,  or  spar  towed  astern,  will  much 
diminish  the  danger  of  being  pooped. 

CsLXJLglkt  in  SL  Gra.le«  If  blown  out  to  sea,  or 
otherwise  unable  to  reach  the  ship  in  a  gale  of  wind,  lash 

Jour  spars,  sails,  and  all  but  half  a  dozen  oars,  together, 
lake  a  span  of  the  heaviest  rope  available.  Bend  the  spaii 
to  the  opposite  ends  of  the  largest  spar,  bend  the  end  of 
your  painter  to  the  span  and  launch  the  spars  overboard  : 
the  longer  the  scope  the  easier  the  boat  will  ride,  to  the 
breakwater  thus  formed.  The  sails  should  be  loosed  on  at- 
taching their  yards  to  the  spars,  they  will  thus  contribute 
greatly  to  breaking  the  sea.  If  weights  be  fastened  to  the 
clews  the  boat's  drift  will  be  much  retarded. 

Oa.pHizing'.  As  a  rule,  remain  bv  the  boat — she  will 
assist  those  that  cannot  swim  to  keep  afloat,  and  those  who 
can  swim  may,  with  the  aid  of  the  boat,  render  valuable 

oc  fit  fl^  An  {*  ^ 

rraking-  in  Sail.  To  take  in  the  jib,  foresail  bein^ 
set,  slack  the  tack  and  gather  in  the  sail  on  the  foot,  lower 
the  halliards.  If  the  foresail  is  not  set,  lower  the  halliards 
first,  gather  in  on  the  after  leech  and  foot ;  when  down,  let 
go  the  tack. 


170  BOATS. 

To  take  in  a  lug-sail,  check  the  sheet,  haul  down  on  the 
(lownhaul  and  luff  of  the  sail  at  the  same  time ;  do  not  haul 
on  the  after  leech,  as  it  causes  the  fore-part  of  the  sail  to 
fill  and  the  traveler  to  bind  against  the  mast. 

With  sliding  gunter  sails,  Idwer  the  halliards, then  brail  up. 
Caroing"  a.long'Hicle.  If  under  oars,  a  fresh  breeze 
blowing,  pull,  as  a  rule,  for  the  lee  gangway.  Boat  the 
oars  instead  of  tossing  them,  whether  going  or  coming, 
whenever  there  is  any  considerable  motion,  as  they  are  apt 
to  take  under  chains,  ports  or  other  projections  from  ships 
or  wharves. 

If  under  sail  in  a  fresh  breeze,  always  get  down  the 
masts  before  coming  alongside.  Round  to  ahead,  down 
masts,  out  oars,  and  drop  down ;  or  shoot  up  under  the  stern, 
and  down  masts  before  getting  under  the  quarter  boats. 

Ship  head  to  wind,  no  tide,  get  the  main -yard  end  on, 
keep  the  boat  away  a  little  to  allow  for  rounding  to,  *'down 
jib,''  and  rig  in  the  bowsprit  in  good  season ;  when  with  way 
enough.  *' brail  up  the  foresail,"  put  the  helm  down,  haul 
flat  aft  the  main  sheet,  brail  up  tne  mainsail  as  soon  as  it 
ceases  to  draw,  out  fenders. 

If  there  is  any  current,  make  allowance  for  it  by  heading 
for  a  point  further  forward  or  aft,  as  the  case  may  be. 

Riding  to  a  windward  tide,  if  approaching  from  abaft 
the  beam,  the  foresail  may  be  taken  in  and  mast  unstepped, 
using  the  mainsail  only  to  bring  her  alongside.  Approach- 
ing tne  ship  from  forward  of  tne  beam,  unstep  masts  and 
out  oars. 

Whenever  there  is  the  slightest  doubt  of  your  ability  to 
fetch  the  gangway  under  sail,  brail  up,  unstep  the  masts 
and  pull  alongside. 

Alwavs  unstep  the  masts  in  approaching  a  vessel  under 
way,  and  do  not  board,  or  shove  off  from,  a  vessel  which 
has  stemway  on. 

If  unable  to  fetch  the  ship  in  a  strong  tideway  or  fresh 
breeze,  keep  as  much  as  possible  in  her  wake.  The  ship 
will  veer  astern  a  buoy,  or  small  boat,  bearing  a  line  by 
means  of  which  the  boat  can  be  warped  up  alongside. 

Under  similar  circumstances  the  gangway  being  un- 
shipped (River  Plate,  Canton  River,  &c.),  a  small  hawser 
may  be  carried  around  the  ship  outside  all,  the  bight  made 
fast  to  the  bowsprit  cap.  the  ends  reaching  the  water  astern 
and  the  hawser  suspended  on  both  sides  from  each  lower 
yard-arm  by  whips  with  bowline  knots. 

The  hawser  is  triced  up  clear  when  not  in  use.  and  dropped 
in  good  season  as  a  boat  rope  for  approaching  boats. 

In  going  alongside  a  ship  riding  to  her  anchor,  or  under- 
way, round  to  so  that  bow  of  the  boat  will  be  in  the  same 
direction  as  the  ship's  head. 

But  if  a  vessel  is  moored  head  and  stern,  approach  her 
by  rounding  to  head  to  the  current 


BOATS.  1 77 


THE  DISPOSITION  AND  USES  OF  MEN-OF-WAR  BOATS. 

A  battleship  of  the  Massachusett's  class,  carries  thirteen 
boats.  When  at  sea  they  are  stowed  in  cradles  on  skid 
beams  on  the  bridge  deck.  Some  of  the  smaller  boats  are 
carried  in  the  larger  ones.  Two  whale  boats  are  carried  at 
davits  and  are  used  for  life-boats.  A  sufficient  numbei-  of 
port  davits  are'  fitted  to  accommodate  the  boats  when  the 
vessel  is  at  anchor.     The  boats  are  as  follows: 

One  36-foot  steam  cutter. 

One  33-foot  steam  cutter. 

Two  33-foot  sailing  launches. 

Three  28-foot  cutters. 

One  24-foot  cutter. 

Two  2()-foot  dinghies. 

One  30-foot  whale  boat  gig. 

Two  29-foot  whale  boats. 

A  smaller  vessel  carries  a  less  number.  Flagships  carry 
a  barge. 

The  steam  launch  is  used  in  towing,  transporting  stores 
and  for  passengers. 

The  sailing  launch  and  the  larger  cutters  are  employed 
in  all  heavy  work,  carrying  out  anchors,  watering  and  pro- 
visioning snip. 

Barges  are  for  the  use  of  flag  officers,  and  are  supplied 
only  to  flag-ships. 

Gigs  are  for  the  use  of  commanding  oflScers. 

Wnaleboats  are  used  as  life-boats  or  for  answering 
signals.  &c. 

Dinghies  are  used  in  conveying  stewards  and  servants, 
•  T  for  other  light  work. 

The  cutters  not  reserved  as  working  boats  are  the  "  run- 
ning boats"  of  the  ship  for  transporting  passengers  and 
other  general  duties. 

In  Port,  nothing  sooner  indicates  the  order  and 
discipline  of  a  man-of-war  than  the  clean  state  and  effi- 
cient condition  of  her  boats.  The  coxswains  of  the  regu- 
lar running  boats  for  the  day  should  clean  and  have  them 
ready  for  lowering  at  the  proper  time,  usually  at  morning 
colors. 

When  boats  are  lowered,  they  are  hauled  out  and  secured 
to  pendants  at  the  lower  booms,  fenders  out;  gigs  and 
dingies  are  secured  to  the  stem  pendants. 

Every  boat  when  down  should  contain  a  boat-keeper — 
the  duty  being  taken  by  the  members  of  the  boat's  crew  in 
turn.  Usually  in  a  cutter,  the  men  who  occupy  the  same 
thwart  are  detailed  for  one  day,  the  next  thwart  taking  the 
duty  on  the  following  day. 

A  boat-keeper  is  to  keep  his  boat  clear  of  others,  to  haul 


178  BOATS. 

M  up  to  the  boom  for  manning,  and  to  haul  forward  clear 
of  the  gangway  when  other  boats  come  alongside  or  shove 
off. 

Boat-keepers  rise  and  salute  all  commissioned  officers 
passing,  leaving,  or  going  on  board  the  ship. 

To  Keep  a  boat  clear  of  a  ship  when  nding  astern,  let 
her  tow  the  boat-bucket. 

In  blowy  weather  heavy  boats  are  moored  at  the  boom 
with  a  hawser  led  through  a  block  on  the  boom  to  another 
on  the  bowsprit,  thence  inboard.  This  relieves  the  spar  of 
much  strain. 

A  launch  may  be  hoisted  out  of  water  overnight  or  to 
scrub  her  bottom,  bv  using  the  cat  and  a  stout  purchase  to 
the  bowsprit.  If  hoisted  for  scrubbing,  send  the  hands 
under  her  in  the  catamaran. 

The  crews  of  running  boats  should  wear  their  neckhand- 
kerchiefs,  shoes  and  cap-ribbons,  and  be  mustered  for  in- 
spection every  morning  oy  the  officer  of  the  deck. 

Boats  should  be  manned  from  the  booms  or  stem  pend- 
ants if  moored  there.  Three  minutes  is  a  fair  allowance 
of  time  for  manning  a  boat  and  bringing  her  to  the  gang- 
way. 

JDnties  of  a.  Boat  OlHcer.  When  ordered 
to  take  charge  of  a  boat,  report  promptly  to  the  officer  of 
the  deck,  dressed  in  the  uniform  of  the  day,  and  with  side 
arms.  If  there  is  no  midshipman  of  the  quarter-deck,  see 
the  boat  lowered  and  mannea,  or  manned  and  dropped  to 
the  gangway  from  the  boom.  See  the  crew  in  uniform, 
coxswain  in,  oars  up,  blades  fore-and-aft. 

Receive  your  orders,  and  be  sure  that  you  understand 
them  perfectly  before  leaving  the  ship,  and  also  assure 
yourself  that  all  necessary  articles  are  in  the  boat. 

Having  received  your  orders  get  in  the  boat,  shove  off 
and  let  fsill. 

If  going  to  another  man-of-war  use  the  port  side,  except 
when  there  are  commissioned  officers  in  the  boat,  or  when 
the  starboard  ladder  only  is  shipped.  Salute  the  quarter- 
deck on  stepping  over  the  gangway,  and  report  to  the 
officer  of  the  aeck.  When  ready  to  leave  the  snip,  request 
the  officer  of  the  deck  to  have  your  boat  at  the  gangway, 
instead  of  giving  orders  yourself.  When  your  boat  is  ready, 
report  your  departure. 

If  in  a  tideway,  and  likely  to  be  detained  on  board  for 
some  time,  request  permission  for  your  boat  to  hang  on  at 
the  boom  ;  do  not  allow  your  men  to  come  on  board  without 
permission  from  the  officer  of  the  deck. 

If  advisable,  for  any  reason,  order  the  coxswain  as  you 
leave  the  boat  to  shove  off  and  lie  off  the  ship. 

Preserve  silence  and  order  at  all  times  in  your  boat,  see 
that  the  men  pull  properly,  or,  if  sailing,  that  the  sails  ard 
handled  in  accordance  with  the  foregoing  instructions. 


BOATS.  179 

When  a  boat  officer  must  be  absent  from  his  boat,  he 
should  leave  his  coxswain  in  charge,  with  positive  orders 
concerning  his  duty. 

f  Pulling  in  for  a  landing  among  a  crowd  of  boats,  lay  on 
your  oars  at  a  reasonable  distance  from  the  wharf,  instead 
of  boating  your  oars  at  the  last  moment.  This  leaves  you 
control  of  the  boat,  and  you  can  back  or  give  way  as  may 
be  needed  to  avoid  collision,  instead  of  dashing  in,  break- 
ing oars  and  boat-hooks,  and  may  be  staving  your  own 
boat.     Boat  the  oars  when  no  longer  needed. 

Make  due  allowance  for  the  rate  at  which  the  tide  is 
going  past  a  ship,  or  the  rate  at  which  she  mav  be  moving, 
when  making  for  her.  A  current  frequently  sets  close 
.along  the  shore  in  the  opposite  direction  to  the  one  that 
is  going  bv  the  ship ;  and,  therefore,  a  little  judgment 
may  save  a  long  pull.  An  inquiring  boat  officer  will  learn 
more  of  the  local  tides  and  currentsl)y  a  chat  with  a  water- 
man than  can  be  found  in  books  ;  and  by  observing  the 
manoeuvres  of  native  boatmen  much  labor  and  risk  may  be 
avoided. 

When  practicable  alwavs  keep  out  of  the  strength  of  a 
Contrary  tide.  * 

Avail  yourself  of  every  opportunity  for  steering  by  a 
range,  as  there  are  many  coxswains  who  cannot  steer  a 
straight  course  athwart  a  strong  tide. 

If  conveying  on  shore  a  person  entitled  to  a  salute,  work 
up  ahead  of  the  ship  if  practicable,  lay  on  your  oars,  flow  your 
sheets,  or  stop  the  engine  (as  the  case  may  be)  at  the  first 
gun,  and  proceed  after  the  last  gun  is  fired. 

A  boat  officer  has  charge  of  the  boat,  but  when  carrying 
commissioned  officers  the  senior  line  offlicer  has  authority  to 
interfere,  and  if  need  be  to  take  command. 

Never  attempt  to  cut  across  the  bows  of  a  boat  contain- 
ing commissioned  officers.  Be  on  the  alert  to  give  the 
proper  salutes  to  all  officers  in  passing  boats  of  whatever 
nationality,  and  be  particular  that  the  coxswain  salutes  all 
officers,  and  rises  to  salute  the  commissioned  officers. 

At  night,  in  thick  weather,  or  when  far  from  land,  do 
not  leave  the  ship  without  a  compass ;  and  get  the  bearing 
of  the  place  to  which  you  are  bound  before  starting.  Takt' 
a  bearing  of  your  own  ship  also  before  losing  sight  of  her. 
It  has  been  found  very  convenient  to  keep  a  supply  box 
always  in  each  boat,  containing  a  pistol,  flash-pan,  powder, 
caps,  a  rocket  and  blue  light,  hatcnet  and  a  few  nails.  &c. 
(See  Ordnance  Manual. ) 

A  boat  officer  is  always  supposed  to  have  his  watch  and 
boarding  book  at  hand. 

When  ordered  on  boat  duty,  it  is  well  to  remember 
your  men's  meal  hours,  either  taking  the  provisions  in  the 
boat,  or  warning  the  master-at-arms  that  the  crew  will  be 
absent. 


1 80  BOATS. 

m 

Acquire  the  habit  of  sitting  down  in  a  boat,  and  tieVer 
stand  up  to  perform  any  work  which  may  be  done  sit- 
ting. 

Always  step  at  once  into  the  'midships  of  a  boat  in 
getting  into  one^  and  never  on  the  gunwale. 

The  boat  should  be  baled  out.  slings  hooked,  and  other- 
wise prepared  for  hoisting,  before  reaching  the  ship,  if 
intenaing  to  hook  on. 

In  boarding  a  merchant  vessel  fill  out  the  columns  of 
your  boarding  Dook.  If  sent  on  board  a  man-of-war  to  offer 
services,  &c.,  keep  any  information  acquired  for  insertion 
in  your  book  after  leaving  the  vessel. 

Finally,  bear  in  mind  at  all  times  the  following  points  : 

Keep  a  boat  bows  on  to  a  heavy  sea. 

Never  jamb  a  helm  down  too  suddenly  or  too  far. 

Keep  your  weights  amidships. 

Never  belaythe  sheets. 

Beingf  To^wed  toy  a  Vessel.  If  alongside, 
have  the  tow-rope  from  as  far  forward  as  possible,  never 
make  it  fast,  but  toggle  it  with  a  stretcher  to  the  forward 
thwart,  steadying  it  over  the  stem  with  the  bight  of  your 
painter,  or  pass  it  through  the  foremost  rowlock  on  the  side 
nearest  the  ship.    Fig.  407. 

When  towing  astern,  the  closer  the  better.  In  casting 
off,  if  there  are  other  boats  towing  astern,  either  be  dropped 
clear  of  them  all,  with  your  tow-line,  before  letting  go,  Or 
be  handy  with  your  oars  to  avoid  getting  ath wart-hawse  of 
some  of  them. 

Do  not  permit  other  boats  to  hold  on  to  a  vessel  by  your 
boat.  Get  more  of  your  own  tow-line,  steady  it  over  the 
stem  and  stern  with  slip  lines,  and  pass  the  end  into  the 
next  boat  astern.    Fig.  406. 

n?o  wing**  In  taking  another  boat  in  tow,  pass  clear 
of  her  oars  ;  place  yourself  right  ahead,  exactly  in  line, 
and  give  way  the  instant  that  you  have  hold  of  her  painter. 
Do  not  give  another  boat  your  painter  until  she  is  in  line 
ahead  of  your  boat.  Toggle  the  tow-line  between  the  two 
after  thwarts  with  a  stretcher.  Toggle  your  own  painter 
to  the  forward  thwart  before  giving  it  to  a  boat  aiiead. 
This  saves  the  stem  and  stern-post.  If  you  wish  to  turn 
your  boat's  head,  bear  the  tow-line  over  the  quarter  on  that 
side  to  which  you  desire  to  turn,  for  the  helm  will  be  of 
little  or  no  use. 

In  towing  short  round,  do  not  attempt  to  turn  before  your 
leaders  are  around. 

The  heaviest  boats  should  always  be  nearest  the  tow. 

Boats  will  tow  with  increased  effect  if  weighted  with 
shot.  A  few  lengths  of  stream  chain  is  the  quickest  weig^ht 
that  can  be  passed  in  and  out,  besides  being  less  damagmg 
to  the  boat.  Men  in  the  stf^rn  sheets  will  answer  the  same 
])nri)()S(\ 


BOATS.  ISl 

Taking  another  boat  in  tow  without  delaying  the  duty 
by  fouling  her  oars,  or  the  boat  itself,  is  a  very  neat 
performance,  and  when  well  done,  betokens  judgment  and 
iikill. 

Tow  spars  by  their  smaller  ends. 

A  steam-launch  being  frequently  used  in  towing  may  be 
fitted  with  a  span  of  wire  rope,  the  ends  being  secured  to 
either  quarter  and  with  a  gooa-sized  thimble  in  the  bight  tu 
receive  the  tow-line.  The  steering  is  rendered  much  easier 
by  the  use  of  this  span.  Never  allow  a  boat  with  men  in  it 
to  be  towed  without  some  means  of  steering  it. 

Towingr  I^ii*e  Sliipn*  oi-  VeKj^elK  on 
I^ii'e.  When  boats  are  sent  on  this  service,  provide  them 
with  a  few  lengths  of  small  chain,  to  make  fast  to  the  burn- 
ing vessel ;  grapnels  would  do  well  to  throw  on  board,  and 
then  make  fast  the  tow-rope  to  the  chain  of  the  grapnel,  for 
the  boats  to  tow  from.  There  are  many  instances  of  tow- 
ropes  and  hawsers  being  burnt  when  employed  on  this  ser- 
vice, and  other  vessels  much  endangered  from  want  of  this 
precaution.  If  hawsers  are  sent  to  oe  made  fast  to  a  burn- 
mg  vessel,  with  the  intention  of  wari)ing  her  clear  of  other 
vessels,  using  a  length  of  stream-chain  cable  for  the  bend* 
ing  end  will  be  found  much  safer  than  trusting  to  rope 
alone. 

Bo£ii*diiig;'  a  "W^recls  or*  "Vewsel  in  a 
Heavy  Sea.  Whenever  practicable,  a  vessel,  whether 
stranded  or  afloat,  should  be  boarded  to  leeward,  as  the 
principal  danger  to  be  guarded  against  must  be  the  collision 
of  the  Doat  against  the  vessel,  or  her  swamping  by  the  re- 
bound of  the  sea,  and  the  greater  violence  of  the  sea  on 
the  windward  side  is  much  more  likely  to  cause  such  acci- 
dents. 

In  boarding  a  stranded  vessel  on  the  lee  side,  if  broadside 
to  the  sea,  the  chief  danger  to  apprehend  is  the  falling  of 
the  masts  or  the  destruction  of  the  boat  amongst  the  wreck- 
age alongside.  Under  such  circumstances  it  may  be  neces- 
sary to  take  a  wrecked  crew  into  a  life-boat  from  the  bow  or 
stem. 

Large  life-boats  used  on  flat  shores  or  shoals,  usually 
anchor  to  windward  in  boarding  a  wreck,  and  veer  down 
from  a  safe  distance  until  near  enough  to  throw  a  line  on 
board. 

In  every  case  of  boarding  a  wreck  or  a  vessel  at  sea,  it 
is  important  that  the  lines  by  which  a  boat  is  made  fast  to 
the  vessel  should  be  of  sufficient  length  to  allow  of  her 
rising  and  falling  freely  with  the  sea,  and  everjr  rope  should 
be  kept  in  hand  ready  to  cut  or  slip  in  a  moment,  if  necessary. 
On  wrecked  persons  or  other  passengers  being  taken  into  a 
boat  in  a  sea-way,  they  should  be  placed  on  tne  thwarts  in 
equal  numbers  on  either  side,  and  be  made  to  sit  down^  all 
crowding  and  rushing  headlong  into  the  boat  being  pre- 


182  BOATS. 

vented  as  far  as  possible ;  and  the  captain  of  the  sh>p,  if  a 
wreck,  should  be  called  on  to  remain  on  board  her  to  pre- 
serve order  until  every  other  person  shall  have  left  the  snip. 

An  exception  to  the  usual  rule  of  boarding  to  leeward 
occurs  in  the  case  of  a  vessel  of  very  low  free  board,  such 
as  small  schooners,  &c.  Board  such  craft  on  the  weather 
quarter  to  avoid  being  stove  by  the  vessel's  main-boom, 
or  chains,  &c. 

AVai*piiigr»  A  warp  is  a  rope  or  a  hawser  employed 
occasionally  to  remove  a  snip  from  one  place  to  another  in 
a  port  or  river. 

To  warp  a  vessel  is  to  change  her  situation  by  pulling 
her  from  one  part  of  a  harbor  to  another,  by  means  of 
warps  which  are  taken  to  other  ships,  buoys,  or  certain 
stations  on  shore.  The  ship  is  then  drawn  forward  to 
those  fixed  points,  either  by  pulling  on  the  warp  by  hand, 
or  by  application  of  some  purchase,  as  a  tackle,  or  cap- 
stan. 

Wet  warps  require  careful  seizing.  Make  four  parts  of 
a  spun-yam  seizmg,  take  a  round  turn  with  the  bight  of 
this  round  the  standing  part  of  the  warps,  then  pass  the 
seiziAg  (figure  of  eight  fashion)  round  the  hitcnes  and 
standing  part,  then  cross  opposite  ways  with  two  parts 
each  way,  reeve  the  ends  through  the  bights  and  drag  all 
the  turns  taut. 

The  quick  way  to  run  a  short  warp  out,  is  for  one  boat  to 
run  away  with  the  end,  and  the  others  to  pull  in  fore-and- 
aft  under  the  bights,  as  they  are  payed  out  at  equal  dis- 
tances, according  to  the  length  of  the  warp  and  number  of 
boats,  giving  way  the  moment  they  have  got  hold. 

In  all  cases  when  you  take  in  the  end  of  a  warp,  coil 
enough  of  it  forward  so  as  to  be  able  to  make  a  bend  the 
instant  your  boat  reaches  the  place  where  you  wish  to 
make  fast. 

It  is  hardly  possible  to  lay  a  heavy  warp  out  without 
floating  its  bight.  If  there  is  a  chance  of  its  being  suddenly 
tautened,  hang  it  outside  the  boat  instead  of  laying  it  fore 
and  aft  amidships. 

A.  GriaeHw  AVai*x>.  To  lay  out  a  warp  to  wind- 
wardy  or  against  a  tide,  coil  the  whole  warp  in  the  boat, 
pull  to  the  place  assigned,  make  fast  and  drop  down  to  the 
ship. 

To  lay  out  a  warp  to  leeward,  or  with  the  tide.  Take 
most  of  the  warp  in  tne  boat,  let  the  ship  pay  out  more  after 
the  boat  has  shoved  off,  until  what  is  in  the  boat  is  suffi- 
cient, then  pay  out  from  the  boat  to  the  make-fast.  Which- 
ever way  it  be,  there  is  great  judgment  required  in  reserv- 
ing a  sufficiency  of  hawser  in  the  boat  to  insure  that  she 
will  reach  her  destination,  only  paying  out  when  certain  of 
doing  so.  It  is  from  this  necei^sity  for  judging  the  distance, 
by  the  eye  that  we  have  the  term  "guess  warp." 


BOATS.  183 

When  you  are  given  the  end  of  a  hawser  to  run  out 
which  is  not  becketed,  put  a  hitch  on  it  and  stop  the  end 
down  at  once. 

Kled.glnLg'.  When  the  operation  of  warping  is  per- 
formed by  the  ship's  kedges,  these,  together  with  their 
warps,  are  carried  out  in  the  boats  alternately,  towards  the 
place  where  the  ship  is  endeavoring  to  arrive,  so  that  when 
she  is  drawn  up  close  to  one,  another  is  carried  out  to  a 
sufficient  distance  ahead,  and  being  sunk,  serves  to  fix  the 
other  warp,  by  which  she  may  be  further  advanced ;  the  first 
kedge  is  then  weighed,  sent  ahead,  and  the  operation  re- 
peated.   This  is  conmionly  called  kedaing. 

When  great  expedition  is  required,  the  boats  should  be 
equally  divided  into  two  parties,  the  light  boats  towing  the 
larger  containing  the  keage  and  hawsers.  As  soon  as  the 
first  kedge  is  let  go  and  the  ship  started  ahead,  the  other  set 
may  "pay  and  go,"  so  that  when  the  first  is  at  a  ** short 
stay,"  the  second  may  be  let  go,  and  the  ship  thus  kept 
going^  continuously. 

The  evolution  of  kedgin^  was  practised  on  board  the 
Constitution,  during  the  exciting  chase  in  which  she  escaped 
from  the  British  squadron,  under  Sir  Philip  Broke. 

There  are  many  cases  when  kedging  might  be  necessary 
to  modem  vessels  if  disabled  or  not  under  steam. 

Cairying-  Stores.  When  provisioning  ship,  be 
careful  with  the  oars,  as  the  blades  are  easily  ruined  bv 
throwing  them  on  stones  orty  treading  on  them  :  keep  all 
casks  *' Dung  up,"  and  leave  space  under  the  aiterthwart 
for  baling  the  boat  out.  Have  tarpaulins  for  covering 
bread  or  anything  that  will  be  injured  by  salt  water.  Sling 
the  midship  casks  as  they  are  stowed.  While  loading,  make 
large  allowance  for  the  roughness  of  water  you  may  have 
to  encounter. 

Do  not  overload  a  boat,  particularly  with  men  or  sand  ; 
the  former  mav  be  attended  with  loss  of  life  ;  in  the  latter 
case,  it  must  be  remembered  that  sand  is  much  lighter 
when  dry  than  wet.  Be  prepared  to  buoy  treasure  if 
carried. 

A  laden  boat  carries  her  way  longer  than  a  light  one, 
therefore  shorten  sail  or  "  way  enough"  in  good  time. 

JBoa,tH  ta.king'  in  water  in  l:>ixllc.  The 
launch,  or  largest  boat  you  intend  for  the  purpose  of  water- 
ing, must  be  cleared  of  all  her  gear  of  every  description ; 
then  tow  or  pull  her  to  the  watering  place,  wnere  she  must 
be  well  washed  out  with  water  several  times,  until  perfectly 
clean ;  when  done,  put  the  hose  into  the  boat,  and  merely 
leave  a  couple  of  hands  to  attend  it  until  the  boat  is  full ; 
then,  by  a  signal  from  the  shore,  or  otherwise,  send  a  boat  to 
tow  her  off  to  the  ship  ;  pump  the  water  out  of  the  boat  into 
your  tanks,  and  so  on  until  you  complete  your  water.  If  in 
a  river,  pull  the  plug  out  and  let  her  fill. 


184  BOATS. 

In  watering  from  a  spring,  keep  the  end  of  the  suction 
hose  in  a  tub,  or  have  a  rag  around  the  strainer  to  keep  out 
gravel  or  sand. 

Ha^iilin^  ixp  l>oatH  on  wlioi'e.  Before  leav- 
ing the  ship,  see  the  boat's  anchor  and  a  good  luff  tackle  in 
the  boat.  If  it  is  a  heavv  boat,  say  a  launch,  take  a  couple 
of  stout  towlines  or  small  hawsers  as  well,  with  additional 
tackles. 

Run  the  boat's  bow  on  to  the  beach,  and  let  a  few  hands 
on  each  quarter  keep  her  in  that  position,  by  setting  their 
oars  against  the  ground ;  next,  sweep  her  with  a  hawser, 
and  g^y  it  up  at  the  stern  to  a  proper  height  by  several 
turns  of  the  painter ;  to  this  hawser  hook  on  the  double 
block  of  the  tackle,  the  other  end,  or  single  block,  being 
overhauled  to  a  proper  lengthy  and  hooked  to  the  boat's 
anchor  buried  in  the  ground,  with  one  hand  on  it  to  prevent 
rising.     Fig.  408. 

Pass  the  bight  of  another  hawser  round  the  stem  post, 
and  having  guyed  it  up  on  each  side  to  the  gunwale,  nook 
on,  on  eacn  side,  a  quarter  tackle  also,  overhauled  to  a 
proper  length,  and  hooked  at  the  other  end  where  conve- 
nient ;  man  these  with  the  remaining  hands  ;  then,  having 
placed  rollers  in  succession  to  take  the  boat's  forefoot  and 
keel,  proceed  to  haul  away.  When  up,  the  loose  thwarts  set 
against  the  ground  and  wash-streak  will  keep  her  upright. 

The  loose  thwarts  should  also  be  placed  for  the  rollers  to 
roll  on  if  the  ground  is  soft. 

Smaller  boats  do  not  require  quarter  tackles,  and  may  be 
hauled  up  by  their  crews  if  provided  with  rollers  and  tackle, 
as  descrioeci. 

Boats  that  are  being  frequently  hauled  up  and  launched 
should  have  a  hole  in  the  forefoot,  through  which  a  strap 
for  the  tackle  could  reeve.  When  the  tacKle  is  secured  to 
the  boat  at  the  top  of  her  stem,  it  buries  her  gripe  in  the 
mud. 

To  transport  on  land  a  moderate-sized  boat,  turn  her  bot- 
tom up  and  shoulder  her  by  the  gunwales.  A  heavy  boat 
should  not  at  any  time  be  turned  bottom  up,  on  account  of 
the  strain. 

Having  hauled  up  boats  or  small  vessels  on  temporary 
ways  for  repairing,  remember  that  sea- weed  is  as  good  as 
soap  on  the  ways,  m  launching. 

Jilml>£ii-lci]:ig'  HGSL\ry  A.i'ticlew.  In  the  en- 
tire absence  of  usual  resources,  great  weights,  such  as  a 
gun  for  instance,  may  be  got  into  a  boat  where  there  is 
great  rise  and  fall  by  filling  the  boat  at  low  water  with  dun- 
nage or  sand,  banking  up  an  inclined  plane  with  shingle, 
rolling  the  gun  into  tne  boat,  clearing  out  the  sand  and. 
waiting  for  the  tide  to  float  her  off. 

Get  a  boat  under  a  low  bridge,  or  under  a  weight  that 
cannot  be  raised  high  enough  to  clear  the  gunwale,  by 


BOATS.  185 

taking  the  plug  out ;  then  replacing  it  and  pumping  out  the 
water. 

When  weighing  anything  heavy  over  the  stern  of  tho 
launch,  bear  the  rope  amidships  and  ship  the  awning  stan- 
chion over  it,  the  latter  being  fitted  witn  two  legs,  one  on 
either  side  of  the  stern  roller.  This  will  keep  the  rope  from 
flying  over  to  the  quarter  and  capsizing  the  boat. 

Liiie-l>oatH«  In  men-of-war,  aooat  on  each  quarter 
is  desi^ated  as  a  '*  life-boat."  These  boats  are  fitted  with  a 
detaching  apparatus  of  some  one  of  the  pjattems  described 
below,  and  are  otherwise  prepared  for  immediate  use  at 
sea,  the  other  boats  being  topped  up  and  more  permanently 
secured. 

There  is  a  life-boat's  crew  in  each  watch,  composed  of 
the  best  seamen  in  it,  and  with  plenty  of  supernumeraries 
to  supply  the  places  of  men  aloft,  at  the  wheel,  or  sick, 
The  coxswain  of  the  life-boat's  crew  of  the  watch  inspects 
both  life-boats  at  sundown,  sees  the  plugs  in,  towline  from 
forward  secured  in  place  and  clear,  falls  clear  for  running, 

fripes  ready  for  slipping,  oars  in  place,  steering-oar  pointed 
ut  clear  of  the  aiter  block,  bag  of  bread,  breaker  of  water 
and  bucket  (or  bailer)  in  the  boat,  and  a  lighted  boat  com- 
pass at  hand  abaft  the  wheel,  in  charge  of  cabin  orderly,  or 
m  some  place  well  known  to  both  crews.*  He  should  report 
to  the  omcer  of  the  deck,  '  ^  Life-boats  clear  and  ready  for 
lowering."' 

Being  in  charge  of  the  life-boat  when  called  away,  see 

Slug  in  and  conipass  in  the  boat,  all  the  gear  readv  as  above 
escribed ;  sena  out  all  supernumeraries,  slip  the  gripes, 
stand  by  lever  of  detaching  apparatus  yourself,  if  worked  in 
the  after  part  of  the  boat,  otnerwise  go  to  the  steering-oar. 
Caution  the  bowman,  who  may  be  looking  out  for  the  tow- 
line,  to  keep  clear  of  the  forward  block  till  detached. 

Detach  the  boat  in  ^ood  season;  some  forms  of  apparatus 
will  slip  one  fall  at  a  time  if  the  boat  becomes  partly  water- 
borne  owing  to  delay  at  the  lever. 

The  boat  being  unhooked,  the  boat-rope  should  have 
drift  enough  to  let  you  shoot  out  well  clear  of  the  side  while 
being  towed.  Take  advantage  of  this  to  have  every  oar 
rigged  out  and  manned  before  letting  go. 

If  the  boat  is  sluggish  in  getting  clear,  shove  her  stern 
out  and  cast  oflE  the  towline  ;  the  ship  moving  on,  leaves  you 
head  to  sea  ;  out  oars  as  speedily  as  possible. 

If  after  a  man  overboard,  let  a  cool  hand  watch  the  ship 
for  signals  and  steer  accordingly.  On  reaching  the  man,  if 
he  has  the  buoy  and  is  not  exhausted,  round  to  head  to 
wind  before  picking  him  up.  In  any  case,  on  approach- 
ing him,  trail  as  many  oars  as  possible,  and  be  careful  how 
the  remaining  ones  are  handled ;  get  the  man  aboard 
forward  if  possible,  then  out  oars,  pull  ahead,  and  take  in 
the  buoy  over  the  quarter. 


1 86  BOATS. 

Your  vessel  having  run  to  leeward  to  pick  you  up.  it  will 
be  advisable  in  a  heavv  sea  to  tow  the  ouov  on  vour  wav 
back  with  a  good  scope,  letting  it  act  as  a  drag. 

Pull  up  under  the  lee  of  the  ship ;  get  your  towline  firsts 
as  previously  described  under  "Hoisting."  Bend  your 
line  from  the  buoy  to  another  line  passed  from  aft,  and  let 
the  buoy  be  roused  up  to  its  proper  place. 

In  hoisting  let  the  men  put  their  weights  on  the  life-lines. 
When  hooked  on,  the  boat  is  run  up  smartly  and  without 
stopping,  as  the  vessel  rolls  toward  it. 

when  boats  are  suddenly  lowered,  in  an  emergency,  it  is 
very  often  of  the  highest  importance  that  they  should  be 
provided  with  means  of  night-signalling,  sounding,  or 
effecting  temporary  repairs.  The  boat  boxes  containinfi^ 
the  necessary  articles  are  now  usually  kept  in  the  hold. 
It  would  be  better  if  essential  articles  were  kept  in  a 
small  locker  built  in  to  the  boat,  as  is  the  case  in  other 
navies. 

In  referring  to  the  above-mentioned  boats  as  "life- 
boats," the  word  is  not  to  be  understood  in  its  literal 
sense,  as  regular  life-boats  are  not  supplied  to  vessels  of 
the  navy. 

Small  empty  casks  or  breakers,  tightlv  bunged  and 
lashed  beneath  thd  thwarts,  would  partially  convert  any 
boat  into  a  life-boat,  by  making  it  impossible  for  her  to 
founder. 

Balsas,  or  life-rafts,  are  supplied  to  vessels  of  war — ^being 
of  different  sizes  and  material,  but  similar  in  design.  They 
consist  of  two  cylindrical-shaped  air-chambers,  pointed  at 
both  ends,  and  supporting  a  platform,  or  raft.  The  air 
cylinders  are  either  of  wood,  or  made  of  rubber  covered 
with  canvas  ;  in  smaller  forms  the  air-chambers  are  some- 
times of  rubber,  not  covered.  When  the  air-chambers  are 
of  rubber  the  larger  balsas  are  usually  kept  empty  imtil 
wanted,  when  the  air-chambers  are  inflated  by  means  of 
a  sort  of  bellows  and  tube. 

A  small  form  of  wooden  balsa  is  used  throughout  the 
service  as  a  catamaran,  or  boat  for  the  side  cleaners. 
The  small  rubber  balsas  are  excellent  substitutes  for  life- 
buoys, and  in  many  ships  are  slung  at  the  quarters  for 
that  purpose.  They  can  be  used  to  carry  lines  astern  or 
ashore,  in  the  case  of  a  wreck. 

HINTS  FOR  BOAT   OFFICERS   IN   CHARGE   OF  STEAM 

LAUNCHES. 

The  following  Instructions  for  Working  the  Engines 
of  Steam  Launches  are  introduced  here,  as  the  boat  offi- 
cer is  not  unfrequently  thrown  entirely  on  his  own  re- 
sources. * 

•  From  the  "  Sailors'  Pocket  Book,"  '  •  '^aptain  P.  G.  D.  Bedford,  R.  N. 


BOATS.  187 

The  engine  should  not  be  removed  from  the  boat  oftenep 
than  can  be  helped.  The  boiler  of  steam  launches  should 
be  lifted,  examined  at  the  bottom,  and  painted  every 
month. 

See  that  the  tanks,  fitted  for  the  purpose,  are  properly- 
supplied  with  coal  and  fresh  water. 

The  connection  with  propellers  and  water-tight  joints 
must  be  made  good  before  leaving  the  ship. 

Water  is  run  into  the  boiler  throurfi  a  nose  by  removing 
one  of  the  safety-valves.  When  the  water  is  showing 
from  one-half  to  three-fourths  up  the  gauge-glass,  remove 
the  hose  and  replace  the  safety-valve.  Great  care  must  be 
taken  to  see  the  valve  and  its  seating  perfectly  clean  before 
the  valve  is  replaced. 

To  ^Gtt  up  Steam.  Put  a  surface  of  coal  over 
the  fire-bars,  shut  the  ash-pit  door,  and  light  up  with  wood 
and  coal  at  the  front  until  a  sufficient  body  of  fire  is 
obtained  to  ignite  the  coal  on  the  bars,  when  the  fire  may 
be  pushed  back,  and  the  ash-pit  door  opened. 

When  steam  begins  to  show  by  the  gauge,  try  the  safety- 
valves,  and  use  the  blast  (if  the  steam  be  required  in  great 
haste),  until  sufficient  pressure  be  obtained. 

The  Boiler  will  require  the  most  careful  and  con- 
stant attention  while  steaming.  When  attainable,  fresh 
water  should  always  be  used. 

From  40  to  50  lbs.  of  steam  pressure  is  quite  sufficient  for 
all  ordinary  service.  Leaks  about  tubes  and  tube-plates  are 
most  frequently  caused  by  forced  steaming. 

The  water  snould  never  be  allowed  to  go  below  the  mark 
of  low  level. 

At  high  speed  it  is  liable  to  show  higher  in  the  gauge- 
glass  than  it  really  is. 

The  gauge-glass  and  gauge-cocks  must  be  frequently 
tried,  the  one  being  a  check  on  the  other. 

The  water  moving  in  the  glass  with  the  movements  of 
the  boat  is  a  proof  of  the  glass-gauge  being  correct. 

Qare  should  be  taken  to  prevent  spray  from  striking  the 
gaut^e-glass,  as  it  is  very  liable  to  break  it. 

Maintain  a  sufficient  quantity  of  water  in  the  boiler 
and  keep  the  feed-water  supply  as  nearly  constant  as 
possible.  In  the  event  of  the  water  getting  low  the  fire 
must  be  checked  as  quickly  as  possible ;  to  effect  this, 
open  the  front  connection  door,  shut  the  ash-pit  door, 
and  throw  on  wet  ashes.  In  an  extreme  case,  draw  the 
fire. 

^-tctirting  the  lEii^iie.  Have  every  fractional 
part  of  the  engines  carefully  oiled,  especially  cylinders, 
slide-valves,  eccentrics,  cranks,  and  thrust ;  open  the  small 
drain-cocks  in  connection  with  the  cylinders  and  slide- 
valves,  to  get  rid  of  condensed  water,  and  let  them  remain 
open  for  a  lew  turns  of  the  engines.    The  steam-valve  may 


188  BOATS. 

be  left  a  little  open  while  steam  is  getting  up,  to  warm  the 
engine. 

Starting  ahead  or  astern  is  effected  by  link-motion,  and 
requires  no  consideration  after  observing  the  movement  of 
the  handle  connected  with  the  link. 

Great  care  should  be  taken  to  admit  the  steam  to  the 
engines  gently  at  first,  and  get  them  up  to  their  full  speed 
gradually. 

S/uniiiii^*  Attention  to  the  engines  is  required  in 
preventing  over-heating  of  working  parts. 

Any  unusual  noise  must  be  quickly  attended  to,  and 
cause  ascertained. 

Sea- Water*.  If  obliged  to  use  sea-water  for  the 
feed,  let  the  process  of  blowing-off  be  as  constant  and  con- 
tinuous as  possible. 

l^^ii^ing-.  The  firing  must  be  careful,  and  frequent, 
in  just  sufficient  quantity  to  keep  the  fire-bars  properly 
covered ;  attention  to  this  will  go  far  to  prevent  prim- 
ing. 

Keep  the  steam  at  a  regular  pressure,  and  the  fire- 
bars free  from  clinkers  by  hooking  them  out  as  soon  as 
formed. 

The  tubes,  fire-box,  smoke-box,  and  the  space  at  the 
back  of  the  fire-bridge  should  be  kept  free  and  clean  ;  this 
must  be  done  as  opportunity  offers. 

If  the  screw  of  a  steam-launch  is  taken  off  for  the  pur- 
pose of  her  being  used  as  a  sailing-boat,  the  brass  busnes, 
usually  providea  for  the  purpose,  should  be  put  on  the  end 
of  the  shaft  (first  coating  them  with  white  lead  and  tallow), 
in  order  to  prevent  them  from  the  rapid  galvanic  action 
which  takes  place  by  their  close  proximity  to  the  copper 
sheathing  on  the  boat's  bottom.  If  no  Dushes  are  pro- 
vided, the  end  of  the  shaft  should  be  lapped  round  with 
spun-yarn  well  saturated  with  stiff  white  lead  and  tal- 
low. 

A  steam-launch  should  not  be  driven  at  high  speed  in  a 
seaway,  and  her  outfit  should  always  include  a  few  oars  and 
thole-pins,  for  use  in  case  of  accident  to  the  machinery, 
also  life  preservers ;  especially  in  iron  launches. 

Jumpinof  l^ooms.  Steam-launches  are  cobci- 
monly  fitted  with  apparatus  for  spar-torpedoes,  supplied 
and  described  by  the  Ordnance  Bureau.  To  enable  such 
torpedo  boats  to  clear  obstructions  in  the  form  of  booms, 
the  fittinss  shown  in  Fi^.  398,  Plate  82,"  have  been  success- 
full}  usea,  the  object  being  to  give  the  bows  of  the  boats  an 
upward  slant  on  striking  the  boom,  which  enables  them  to 
jump  it.  The  engine  should  be  stopped  on  striking  the 
boom,  and  until  it  is  cleared. 

The  form  of  the  skeleton  frame  fitted  forward  is,  of 
course  subject  to  variation,  depending  on  the  shape  of  the 
stem. 

15 


Plate  86 


JH6.410 


Fig.'lll 


I 


B 


T 


JErig.4.1S 


Tnig.413 


BOATS.  ISi) 


WOOD'S  BOAT  DETACHING  APPARATUS.    (Pi^tb  86.) 

This  device  consists  of  two  slotted,  hinged  links,  A  A, 
whose  pivoting  ends  are  secured  in  or  near  the  stem  and 
stem  of  the  boat.  The  movable  ends  of  these  links  are 
held  in  a  fixed  position,  when  necessary,  by  lengths  of 
small  chain,  which  are  joined  by  a  slip  hook  d.  A  tripping 
link,  E,  holds  the  slip-hook  closed.  By  pulling  upon  the 
Laniard,  L,  the  slip-hook  may  be  released,  the  hinged  links, 
A,  A,  turn  upward,  and  the  falls,  F  F,  are  detached.  Figs. 
410  and  411. 

The  lower  blocks  of  the  falls  are  fitted  with  ball  toggles, 
adjusted  to  enter  the  slots  in  the  links  A  A.  When  a  fall  is 
hooked  on,  the  tumbler,  X,  under  the  hinge,  A,  closes  the 
slot  and  prevents  accidental  unhooking,  whether  in  the  case 
of  one  end  of  the  boat  being  lifted  by  a  sea  in  lowering,  or 
before  the  falls  have  been  set  taut  in  hoisting. 

The  tumbler,  X,  is  free  to  turn  back  to  aflow  the  toggle, 
F,  to  pass  into  place  in  hooking  on,  but  it  is  then  brought 
back  inunediately  into  place  by  the  counter-balance  on  its 
lower  end. 

The  ball*  toggles,  F,  may  be  either  moused  on  old  style  of 
hooks,  or  the  hooks  may  be  removed  and  the  toggles  fitted 
to  their  places  on  the  block-straps. 

The  rollers,  B  B,  are  made  smaller  than  shown  in  the 
plate,  which  represents  the  apparatus  fitted  with  fiexible 
wire  pendants,  for  which  smaU  chain  is  now  substituted. 

The  enlarged  figures,  412  and  413,  show  how  the  appara- 
tus is  now  fitted  in  boats  hung  by  the  extremities,  or  from 
points  nearer  the  centre  of  the  boat. 

In  Fig.  412,  y  is  an  eyebolt  for  the  boat's  painter. 

In  Fig.  413  it  is  desirable,  when  possible,  that  the  head 
of  the  stanchion,  S,  should  be  steadied  against  a  thwart  in 
the  bow  or  stem  sheets. 

After  the  apparatus  is  fitted  in  the  boat,  the  chain  is 
taken  up  to  the  proper  length  and  cut  at  Z,  and  the  long 
link  welded  in  permanently. 

It  should  be  remembered  that  the  chain  must  always  be 
set  taut,  and  only  then  is  the  boat  ready  for  hooking  on. 
Either  fall  can  be  hooked  independently. 

The  laniard  used  for  tripping  the  slip-hook  should  also 
be  used  as  a  preventer  when  the  boat  is  hoisted,  by  hitching 
it  forward  around  the  chain,  or  thwart,  or  other  convenient 
place. 

To  Hio^wer  And  Detach  ^^^lien  tlie 
HocLt  is  reported,  ready.  When  the  crew,  cox- 
swain and  officer  are  in  the  boat,  and  after  one  of  the  stroke 
oarsmen  has  cast  loose  the  laniard,  and  handed  it  to  the 
officer  in  charge,  the  officer  of  the  deck  gives  the  order  to 
"lower  away.      As  soon  as  the  boat  is  near  enough  the 


190  BOATS. 

water,  say  about  two  feet,  the  person  holding  the  end  of  the 
laniard  gives  a  quick  jerk,  and  thus  freeing  the  ends  of  the 
chain,  they  slack  and  allow  the  links  to  rise  and  the  toggles 
to  escape  simultaneously. 

In  case  the  ship  is  rolling  heavily  very  little  lowering 
will  be  necessary,  as  the  boat  can  be  detached  as  she  rolls 
toward  the  water,  and  will  be  clear  of  the  ship  before  the 
return  roll. 

To  Hook  on  the  Boat*  As  soon  as  the  boat  is 
clear  of  the  ship  one  of  the  stroke  oarsmen  brings  the  ends 
of  the  chain  together,  ref  astens  the  sliphook  and  hitches  the 
laniard  forward  as  a  securing. 

The  boat  is  then  ready  for  hooking  on  when  she  returns 
to  the  ship,  after  having  completed  her  trip. 

When  she  comes  alongside,  the  man  in  the  bow  gets  the 
forward  fall  and  sticks  the  toggle  into  the  large  part  of  the 
link  and  pushes  it  up  beyond  the  tumbler.  The  man  in  the 
stern  does  the  same,  and  as  the  falls  are  set  taut  on  deck, 
they  slue  the  turns  out  of  the  falls,  the  toggles  acting  as 
swivels.  Figs.  400  and  4()0  a,  Plate  85,  represents  Brown's 
detaching  apparatus. 

ON  THE  MANAGEMENT  OF  OPEN  ROWING-BOATS 

IN  A  SURF.* 


!•  R/Ovi^irigr  to  S€*a.^vai*cl«  As  a  general  rule, 
speed  must  be  given  to  a  boat  rowing  against  a  heavy  surf. 
Indeed,  under  some  circumstances,  her  safety  will  depend 
on  the  utmost  possible  speed  being  attained  on  meeting  a 
sea.  For  if  the  sea  be  really  heavy,  and  the  wind  blowing 
a  hard,  on-shore  gale,  an  approaching  heavy  sea  may  carry 
the  boat  away  on  its  front,  and  turn  it  broadside  on,  or  up- 
end it.  A  boat's  only  chance  in  such  a  case,  is  to  obtain 
such  way  as  shall  enable  her  to  pass,  end  on,  through  the 
crest  of  the  sea,  and  leave  it  as  soon  as  possible  behind  her. 
If  there  be  a  rather  heavy  surf,  but  no  wind,  or  the  wind  off 
shore  and  opposed  to  the  surf,  as  is  often  the  case,  a  boat 
might  be  propelled  so  rapidly  through  it  that  her  bow  would 
fall  more  suddenly  and  heavily  after  topping  the  sea  than 
if  her  way  had  been  checked. 

It  may  also  happen  that,  by  careful  management,  a  boat 
may  be  made  to  avoid  the  sea,  so  that  each  wave  may  break 
ahead  of  her,  which  may  be  the  only  chance  of  safety  in  a 
small  boat ;  but  if  the  shore  be  flat,  and  the  broken  water 
extend  to  a  great  distance  from  it.  this  wi?l  often  be  impos- 
sible. 

The  following  general  rules  for  rowing  to  seaward  may 
therefore  be  relied  on : 

*  From  a  pamphlet  of  the  National  Life-boat  Institution. 


BOATS.  191 

I.  If  sufficient  command  can  be  kept  over  a  boat  by  the 
skill  of  those  on  board  her,  avoid  the  sea  if  possible,  so  as 
not  to  meet  it  at  the  moment  of  its  breaking  or  curling  over. 

II.  Against  a  head  gale  and  heavy  surf,  get  all  possible 
speed  on  a  boat  on  the  approach  of  every  sea  which  cannot 
be  avoided. 

III.  If  more  speed  can  be  given  to  a  boat  than  is  suffici- 
ent to  prevent  her  being  carried  back  by  a  surf,  her  way  may 
be  checked  on  its  approach,  which  will  give  her  an  easier 
passage  over  it. 

II.  H.xi.miiiig'  l>efV>re  a.  Brolcen  Sea.9  oi* 
Surf,  to  tlie  Shore  (Flat  Ueach).  The  one 
great  danger,  when  running  before  a  broken  sea,  is  that  of 
broach  ing-to.  To  that  peculiar  effect  of  the  sea,  so  fre- 
quently destructive  of  numan  life,  the  utmost  attention 
must  be  directed. 

The  cause  of  a  boat's  broaching-to  when  running  before 
a  broken  sea  or  surf  is,  that  her  own  motion,  being  in  the 
same  direction  as  that  of  the  sea,  she  opposes  no  resistance 
to  it,  but  is  carried  before  it.  Thus,  if  a  boat  be  running 
bow  on  to  the  shore,  and  her  stern  to  the  sea,  the  first  effect  of 
a  surf  or  roller,  on  its  overtaking  her,  is  to  throw  up  the  stern, 
and,  as  a  consequence,  to  depress  the  bow ;  if  she  then  have 
sufficient  inertia  (which  will  be  proportional  to  weight)  to 
allow  the  sea  to  pass  her,  she  will  in  succession  pass  through 
the  descending,  the  horizontal,  and  the  ascending  positions, 
as  the  crest  of  the  wave  passes  successively  her  stern,  her 
midships,  and  her  bow,  in  the  reverse  order  in  which  the 
same  positions  occur  to  a  boat  propelled  to  seaward  against 
a  surf.  This  may  be  defined  as  the  safe  mode  of  running 
before  a  broken  sea. 

But  if  a  boat,  on  being  overtaken  by  a  heavy  surf,  has 
not  sufficient  inertia  to  allow  it  to  pass  her,  the  first  of  the 
three  positions  alone  occurs — her  stern  is  raised  high  in  the 
air.  and  the  wave  carries  the  boat  before  it,  on  its  front  or 
unsafe  side,  the  bow  deeply  immersed  in  the  hollow  of  the 
sea,  where  the  water,  being  stationary,  or  ccmiparatively  so, 
offers  a  resistance,  while  the  crest  of  the  sea,  having  the 
actual  motion  which  causes  it  to  break,  forces  onward  the 
rear  end  of  the  boat.  A  boat  will,  in  this  position,  sometimes, 
aided  by  careful  oar-steerage,  run  a  considerable  distance 
until  the  wave  has  broken  and  expended  itself.  But  it  will 
often  happen  that,  if  the  bow  be  low,  it  will  be  driven  under 
water,  when,  the  buoyancy  being  lost  forward,  while  the  sea 
presses  on  the  stern,  the  boat  will  be  thrown  end  over  end. 
Or  if  the  bow  be  high,  or  protected  by  a  bow  air-chamber,  so 
that  it  does  not  become  submerged,  the  resistance  forwanl 
acting  on  one  bow  will  slightly  turn  the  boat's  head,  and  the 
force  of  the  surf  being  transferred  to  the  opposite  quarter, 


11>2  BOATS. 

she  will  in  a  moment  be  turned  broadside  to  the  sea,  and  be 
thrown  by  it  on  her  beam  ends,  or  altogether  capsized.  It 
is  in  this  manner  that  most  boats  are  upset  in  a  surf,  espe- 
cially on  flat  coasts. 

Hence  it  follows  that  the  management  of  a  boat  when 
landing  through  a  heavy  surf,  must  stop  her  progress  shore- 
ward at  the  moment  of  her  being  overtaken  by  a  heavy  sea, 
and  enable  it  to  pass  her.  There  are  different  ways  of  effect- 
ing  this  object: — 

Ist.  By  turning  a  boat's  head  to  the  sea  before  entering 
the  broken  water,  and  then  backing  in  stern  foremost,  pull- 
ing a  few  strokes  ahead  to  meet  each  heavy  sea,  and  then 
again  backing  astern.  If  a  sea  be  really  heavy  and  a  boat 
small,  this  i)lan  will  be  generally  the  safest. 

2d.  If  rowing  to  shore  with  the  stern  to  seaward,  by 
backing  all  the  oars  on  the  approach  of  a  heavy  sea,  and 
rowing  ahead  again  as  soon  as  it  has  passed  to  the  bow  of 
the  boat,  thus  rowing  in  on  the  back  of  the  wave;  or,  as  is 
practised  in  some  life-boats,  placing  the  after-oarsmen,  with 
their  faces  forward,  and  making  them  row  back  at  each  sea 
on  its  approach. 

•  '^d.  If  rowed  in  bow  foremost,  by  towing  astern  a  pig  of 
ballast  or  large  stone,  or  a  large  basket,  or  a  canvas  bag 
termed  a  ''drogue"  or  drag,  made  for  the  purpose,  the  ob- 
ject of  each  being  to  hold  the  boat's  stern  back  and  prevent 
her  being  turned  broadside  to  the  sea  or  broaching-to. 

A  boat's  sail  bent  to  a  yard,  loosed  and  towed  astern,  the 
yard  being  attached  to  a  line  capable  of  being  veered,  hauled, 
or  let  go,  will  act  in  some  measure  as  a  drag,  and  will  tend 
much  to  break  the  force  of  the  sea  immediately  astern  of  the 
boat. 

Heavy  weights  should  be  kept  out  of  the  extreme  ends  of 
a  boat;  but  when  rowing  before  a  heavy  sea,  the  best  trim 
is  deepest  by  tlie  stern,  which  prevents  the  stern  being  rea<l- 
ilv  beaten  off  bv  the  sea. 

A  boat  should  be  steered  bv  an  oar  over  the  stern  or  on 
one  quarter  when  running  ]>efore  a  sea. 

The  following  general  rules  may,  therefore,  be  depended 
on  when  running  before,  or  attempting  to  land,  through  a 
lieavy  surf  or  broken  water : — 

I.  As  far  as  possible  avoid  each  sea  by  placing  the  boat 
where  the  sea  will  break  ahead  of  her. 

II.  If  the  sea  be  very  heavy,  or  if  the  boat  be  small,  and 
especially  if  she  have  a  square  stern,  bring  her  bow  round 
to  seaward  and  back  her  in,  rowing  ahead  against  each 
heavy  surf,  sufficiently  to  allow  it  to  pass  the  boat. 

III.  If  it  be  considered  safe  to  proceed  to  the  shore  bow 
foremost,  back  the  oars  against  each  sea  on  its  approach,  so 
as  to  stop  the  boat's  way  through  the  water  as  far  as  possi- 
ble, and  if  there  is  a  drag,  or  any  other  appliance  in  the  boat 


BOATS.  193 

which  may  be  used  as  one,  tow  it  astern  to  aid  in  keepinji^ 
the  boat  stern  on  to  the  sea,  which  is  the  chief  object  in  view. 

rV.  Bring  the  principal  weights  in  the  boat  towards  the 
end  that  is  to  seaward ;  but  not  to  the  extreme  end. 

V.  If  a  boat  worked  by  both  sails  and  oars  be  running 
under  sail  for  the  land  through  a  heavy  sea,  her  crew  should, 
unless  the  beach  be  quite  steep,  take  down  her  masts  antl 
sails  before  entering  the  broken  water,  and  take  her  to  land 
under  oars  alone,  as  above  described.  If  she  have  sails  only, 
her  sails  should  be  much  reduced,  a  half -lowered  fore-sail 
or  other  small  head-sail  being  sufficient. 

III.  !Bea,e]i.iiig'9  oi*  T^anclin^  tlii-oiig-li  ai. 
Hiirf.  The  running  before  a  surf  or  broken  sea,  and  tht» 
bt»Jiching,  or  landing  of  a  boat,  are  two  distinct  operations; 
the  management  of  boats,  as  above  recommended,  has  ex- 
clusive reference  to  running  before  a  surf  where  the  shore 
is  so  flat  that  the  broken  water  extends  to  some  distance 
from' the  beach.  On  a  very  steep  bea(^h,  the  first  heavy  fall 
•)f  broken  water  will  be  on  the  beach  itself,  while  on  some 
very  flat  shores,  there  will  be  broken  water  extending  four 
€)r  five  miles  from  the  land.  The  outermost  line  of  broken 
water,  on  a  fiat  shore,  where  the  waves  break  in  three  or 
four  fathoms  of  water,  is  the  heaviest,  and  tlierefore  the* 
most  dangerous;  and  when  it  has  been  passed  tlirough  in 
safety,  the  danger  lessens  as  the  water  shoals,  until,  on 
nearing  the  land,  its  force  is  spent  and  its  powt  r  i.;  hai  miess. 
As  the  character  of  the  sea  is  quite  different  on  steej)  and 
flat  shores,  so  is  the  customary  management  of  boats,  on 
landing,  different  in  the  two  situations. 

On  the  flat  shore,  whether  a  boat  be  run  or  backed  in.  she 
is  k  »pt  straight  before,  or  end  on  to  the  sc»a  until  she  is  fairly 
aground,  when  each  surf  takes  her  further  in  as  it  overtakes 
lier,  aided  by  the  crew,  who  will  then  generally  jump  out  to 
lighten  her,  and  drag  her  in  by  the  sides.  As  above  stated, 
sail  will,  in  this  case,  have  been  previously  taken  in,  if  set, 
and  the  boat  will  have  b(»en  rowed  or  backed  in  by  the  oars 
alone. 

0\\  the  other  hand,  on  the  steep  be^tch  it  is  the  general 
]>ractice,  in  a  boat  of  any  size,  to  sail  right  on  to  the  beach, 
and  in  the  act  of  landing,  whether  under  oars  or  sail,  to  turn 
the  boat's  bow  half  round,  toward  the  direction  in  which  the 
surf  is  running,  so  that  she  maybe  thrown  on  her  broadside 
up  the  beach,  where  abundance  of  help  is  usually  at  hand 
to  haul  her  as  quickly  as  possible  out  of  the  reach  of  trhe  sea. 
In  such  situations,  we  believe  it  is  nowhere  the  practice  to 
back  a  boat  in  stern  foremost  under  oars,  but  to  row  in  un- 
der full  speed,  as  above  described. 


CHAPTER     XIV. 

Q  ROUND-TACKLE. 

ANCHORS,  CHAINS,   KTT. 

The  methods  of  handling  anchors  and  chains,  herein 
described,  are  common  to  sailing  vessels  fitted  with  hand 
capstans.  Vessels  of  war  of  recent  construction,  are  fitted 
with  steam  capstans  and  windlasses :  but  as  the  same  gen- 
eral practice  obtains  in  all,  a  description  of  each  is  deemed 
unnecessary. 

A^nchors.  Although  the  general  form  of  the  anchor 
has  undergone  but  slight  modification  since  the  earliest 
ages,  yet  there  are.  even  at  this  late  day,  as  many  opinions 
as  authorities  in  regard  to  the  best  proportions  and  best 
shape  of  the  various  parts. 

Anchors  are  made  of  wrought  iron  and  cast  steel.  Great 
care  is  exercised  in  the  quality  of  the  steel  used,  and  the 
casting  is  very  carefully  annealed  to  give  it  the  proper  uni- 
formity and  toughness.  Both  kinds  for  the  navy  are  made 
at  the  Navy  Yard,  Boston,  Mass. 

Anchors  are  of  two  kinds — Solid,  or  ordinary,  and  Port- 
able. 

The  Solid  or  ordinary  anchors  are  those  which  have  the 
shank  and  arms  wrought  into  one  body,  or  mass,  at  the 
crown  of  the  anchor,  Fig.  414,  Plate  87. 

The  Portable  anchors  are  those  which  admit  of  being 
separated,  and  taken  to  pieces.  Of  this  kind  there  are 
many  varieties. 

Figs.  414  and  415  show  the  wooden-stocked  and  iron- 
stocked  anchor  as  commonly  supplied  to  the  service,  the 
former  being  at  present  reserved  for  permanent  moorings, 
iron-stocked  ancliors  being  furnished  exclusively  on  board 
ship. 

In  Fig.  414  : 

The  shank  is  all  that  part  extending  in  a  straight  line 
from  a  to  6. 

The  square  is  that  part  of  the  shank  which  extends  from 
c  to  d,  to  which  the  siock  is  attached. 

The  arm  is  the  part  which  extends  from  the  throat  (or 
crutch)  to  the  extreme  end,  from  e  to  /,  including  the  palm, 
the  point  and  the  blade, 

»04 


Plate  87 


SHg.^1^ 


QROUND-TACKLK.  195 

The  palm  or  Auke  is  the  part  of  the  axm,  of  a  shield-like 
form,  from  g  to  n,  and  constitutes  the  holding  surface  of  the 
anchor. 

The  point  {pee  or  bill)  is  the  part  of  the  arm  included 
between  the  termination  of  the  palm  and  the  extreme  end^ 
f  rom  /  to  h. 

The  blade  is  the  part  of  the  arm  at  the  back  of  the  palm 
from  i  to  k. 

The  crown  is  the  external  arch  upon  which  the  anchor 
falls  when  let  go  in  a  vertical  position,  and  may  be  said  to 
extend  from  k  to  A;'. 

The  ring  (or  jews-harp),  o,  is  the  appendage  by  which 
the  cable  is  attached  to  the  anchor,  by  means  of  a  shackle 
on  the  end  of  the  cable,  caUed  the  anchor-shackle.  The 
last  link  of  the  chain,  which  is  secured  into  this  shackle  by 
a  pin.  is  of  peculiar  form,  and  is  called  the  club-link. 

The  stocky  p,  is  the  transverse  beam  which  cants  the 
anchor  when  the  arms  fall  in  a  horizontal  instead  of  a  ver- 
tical position. 

The  throat  of  the  arms  is  the  curved  part  at  c,  where 
the  arms  are  joined  to  the  shank. 

All  anchors  and  chains  used  in  the  navy  are  made  at  the 
foundry  in  the  navy-yard  at  Boston. 

Iron  Stoels:^.  An  iron  stock  is  generally  a  round 
bar  of  iron  with  a  collar  near  the  centre.  It  is  put  through 
a  hole  in  the  square  of  the  shank,  the  collar  resting  against 
one  side,  and  being  kept  there  bv  a  forelock  which  passes 
through  the  stock  on  the  other  side  of  the  square.  There  is 
a  wasner  between  the  f oreloc'k  and  the  square. 
•  A.  "Wooden  Stoclc  has  generally  a  square  sec- 
tion tapering  both  ways  towards  the  centre  ;  it  is  encircled 
with  iron  hoops,  and  a  square  hole  is  cut  in  the  centre  to  fit 
it  on  the  s<}uare  of  the  shank.  An  improved  plan  is  to  make 
it  of  two  pieces,  by  cutting  it  lengthwise,  and  to  forge  pro- 
jections from  the  square  to  be  enclosed  between  the  two 
Earts  of  the  stock  and  furnish  large  bearings  ;  the  two 
alves  after  being  put  on  are  hooped  together. 

Wooden  stocks  are  made  of  oak,  in  two  pieces  left  suffi- 
ciently apart  in  the  middle  to  give  greater  binding  power  to 
the  hoops,  and  to  admit  of  their  being  driven  up  when  the 
wood  shrinks,  a  precaution  which  should  be  adopted  after 
long  exposure  to  a  hot  sun. 

The  following  is  taken  from  the  Book  of  Allowances  of 
1881: 

1.  All  anchors  and  kedges  are  to  have  iron  stocks.  The 
weight  of  an  iron  stock  is,  as  nearly  as  possible,  one-fourth 
of  the  anchor  to  which  it  belongs. 

2.  Bower  and  sheet  anchors  are  to  be  alike  in  weight. 
The  weight  of  an  anchor  or  kedge,  as  marked  on  it,  being 
inclusive  of  the  bending-shackle  and  stock. 


1  '^^  GROUXD-TACKLE. 

3.  Stream-anchors,  in  all  cases,  when  allowed,  are  to  be 
about  one-fourth  the  weight  of  the  bower. 

4.  Kedges,  when  four  are  allowed;  are  to  be,  respectively, 
about  one-seventh,  one-eighth,  one-tenth,  and  one-four- 
teenth the  weight  of  the  bower ;  when  three  are  allowed, 
one-sixth,  one-eighth,  and  one-tenth  ;  when  two  are  allowed, 
one-  sixth  and  one-tenth ;  and  when  one  is  allowed,  one- 
eighth. 

5.  Each  boat  of  every  vessel  is  allowed  one  anchor  ;  the 
weight  in  pounds  to  be  obtained  by  multiplying  the  square 
of  the  extreme  breadth  by  1.2. 

Froof  of'^A^noliOfM.  E^ch  forging  or  casting 
is  slung  in  chains  and  raised  to  a  height  of  15  feet  from  the 
ground  to  the  lowest  part  of  the  forging  as  it  hangs  in  the 
slings.  It  is  then  dropped  on  ground  of  the  hardness  of  a 
good  macadamized  road.  It  is  then  lifted  from  the  ground, 
and  hanging  in  the  slings  is  well  hammered  over  its  parts 
with  a  sledge  hammer,  weighing  not  less  than  seven  pounds, 
and  it  must  give  under  this  treatment  such  a  clear  ring  in 
all  its  parts  as  shall  satisfy  the  inspectpor  that  the  forging 
is  sound  and  without  flaws  existing  either  originally  or  de- 
veloped as  the  result  of  these  tests. 

Many  anchors  are  now  fitted  with  a  balancing  band 
around  the  shank  at  the  centre  of  gravity  of  the  entire 
mass.  A  heavy  link  or  shackle  is  secured  to  this  band  and 
by  hooking  the  cat  block,  or  pendant*,  into  it  the  anchor  is 
lifted  to  the  bill  board,  or  the  frame  on  which  it  is  carritvl, 
without  using  the  fish. 

I*<>i'tal>le  A.iiclioi"H,  The  two  arms  of  a  portable 
anchor,  called  flukes,  are  in  most  of  them  attached  to  the 
shank  by  means  of  a  pin  through  the  centre  of  the  flukes, 
and  through  iaws  forged  on  the  end  of  the  shank.  The 
flukes  may  eitner  be  kept  firm  by  forging  lugs  on  them  to 
embrace  a  shoulder  on  the  shanl£,  or  thev  may  move  around 
the  pin.  In  this  case  the  extent  of  the  motion  may  be 
limited  by  a  second  pin  through  the  shoulder,  playing  in  a 
long  hole  in  the  flukes,  or  simply  by  the  bills  coming  in 
contact  with  the  shank.  When  the  flukes  are  movable 
they  have  to  be  so  shaped  that  when  the  upper  arm  is 
drawn  as  near  the  shanK  as  possible,  the  Qther  fulflls  the 
proper  conditions  for  holding.  To  force  the  arms  to  assume 
this  position,  it  is  necessary  to  provide  each  of  them  with  a 
horn  projecting  outward  just  a  Dove  the  palm.  This  forms 
a  secondary  bill,  which  holds  quick,  and  brings  the  arm  in 
a  position  to  hold  also.  The  two  arms  may  be  forged  sepa- 
rately, with  a  tenon  at  the  end  of  each,  by  means  of  which 
they  are  fastened  to  the  shank,  on  which  mortises  are  cut 
to  receive  the  tenons.  Porter's  anchor,  as  improved  by 
Trotman,  and  known  now  by  the  latter  name,  is  of  this 
description  ;  see  Fig.  416. 


GROUND-TACKLE.  1 97 

3i;artiii'.s  ^neliors.  Fig.  417.  A  form  of  patent 
anchor  supplied  to  some  of  the  monitors,  and  specially 
adapted  for  vessels  which  require  a  clear  deck  forward  for 
right  ahead  fire.  Stock  and  nukes  are  in  the  same  horizon- 
tal plane  when  the  anchor  is  laid  flat,  both  flukes  taking 
the  ground  when  the  anchor  is  let  go. 

A  later  patent  of  this  anchor  is  now  extensively  used. 
The  head  has  been  enlarged,  and  so  made  that  it  acts  as  a 
lever  to  the  flukes  and  forces  them  to  bite  the  ground. 

Tlie  iV£ixshLi*oom  Anchor,  is  made  without  a 
stock,  by  substituting  for  the  arm  a  cap.  or  reversed  cup, 
called  parachute,  making  the  anchor  represent  a  mush- 
room.    Fig.  420,  Plate  89. 

One  great  advantage  possessed  by  this  anchor  is,  that  it 
does  not  foul  the  chain,  and  for  this  reason  it  is  used  almost 
exclusively  for  our  light-ships. 

A  MUSHROOM  consists  of  a  heavy  iron  cup  (the  mush- 
room anchor  without  the  shank),  having  on  its  convex 
surface  a  shackle.  These  are  used  for  the  anchoring  of 
buoys. 

The  principal  qualities  desirable  in  anchors  are :  strengtli 
and  holding  properties.  They  should  be  so  made  as  to  biti* 
quickly,  cant  easily,  and  of  convenient  form  for  stowing. 

Anchors  are  brought  oflf  to  the  ship  in  lighters.  Having 
them  under  the  bows,  overhaul  down  the  cat  and  fish,  hook 
on.  cat  and  fish  the  anchor,  passing  the  ring-stopper  and 
shank-painter^  and  bend  the  buoy-rope  if  used.  It  is  recom- 
mendea  to  bend  a  stout  hawser  to  the  ring  of  the  anchor, 
in  case  of  accident.    It  is  also  reconrmienaed  to  hook  and 

I  mil  up  on  the  cat  and  fish  together,  for  fear  of  injury  to  the 
ighter. 

The  method  of  getting  the  waist  anchor  into  its  berth  has 
been  given. 

•JvLi^y  A.iielioi"K.  Having  lost  the  heavy  anchors, 
a  stream  or  kedge  anchor  and  a  gun  may  be  combined,  the 
one  giving  weight  and  the  other  holding  power,  so  as  to 
answer  very  well  for  a  temporary  anchor ;  a  spare  anchor- 
stock,  fish,  or  any  suitable  spar  being  lashed  across  to  serv^ 
as  a  stock,  Fig.  418,  Plate  89,  At  the  trunnions  would  be 
the  best  place  for  securing  the  stock,  but  it  has  been  placed 
clear,  in  the  figure,  to  snow  the  manner  of  securing  the 
kedge  and  strap  to  which  the  chain  shackles.  A  heavy 
ancnor  with  a  broken  shank  may  be  treated  in  the  same 
way.*    This  plan  was  suggested  by  Admiral  Porter. 

Quns  are  a  resource,  when  without  anchors.  Haul  a  cable 
from  the  hawse-hole  along  the  side,  by  a  warp  from  aft, 
keeping  it  up  with  slip-ropes  from  the  ports,  and  lash  it  to  a 
certain  numoer  of  guns  round  their  chase  ;  pass  the  end  of 
the  breechings  round  the  cable,  and  secure  tnem  on  the  top 
of  the  gun  ;  heave  all  overboard  together.  In  weighing 
them,  hoist  them  with  the  cat,  as  they  reach  the  hawse- 


108  GROUND-TACKLE. 

hole,  and  take  them  in  through  the  bow-port.    Jury  anchors 
should  be  lowered  to  the  bottom  by  slip-ropes, 

IMitchelPs  Scre^vir  A-nclior,  Fig.  419.  These 
are  very  powerful  screws  made  use  of  for  mooring  purposes, 
which,  having  a  broad  flange  nearly  four  feet  in  diameter, 
present  a  resistance,  when  entered  into  the  ground,  equal 
to  that  of  ten  square  feet.  This  is  not  only  much  greater 
than  that  of  an  anchor,  but  is  less  liable  to  be  fouled  by 
other  ground  tackle. 

The  chain  is  connected  with  a  revolving  collar.  The 
screwing  down  is  effected  by  a  key,  which  is  placed  piece 
by  piece  as  the  screw  is  lowered ;  the  collar  admitting  of 
the  turning,  without  fouling  the  cable.  When  the  screw 
has  been  sunk  to  the  desired  depth,  the  key  is  removed. 

The  foundation  for  the  lighthouse  on  Mapling  Sands  was 
formed  on  pilings  shod  with  these  screws. 

A.  Sea  .A^nclioi*.  This  anchor  may  frequentlv  be 
of  the  greatest  possible  use,  and  may  be  made  in  tie  follow- 
ing manner :  Take  three  spare  spars  (topgallant  studding- 
sail  booms  will  be  suflSciently  large),  with  these  form  a 
triangle ;  cut  these  spars  to  the  required  length,  after  cross- 
lashing  them  well  at  each  angle  ;  then  make  fast  your 
spans,  one  to  each  angle,  so  that  they  will  bear  an  equal 
strain  when  in  the  water ;  but  should  your  spars  be  weak, 
jrou  should  always  increase  the  number  of  spans  accord- 
ingly ;  fill  up  the  centre  of  the  triangle  with  strong  canvas, 
having  eyelet-holes  round  its  sides,  about  three  inches 
apart,  through  which  eyelet-holes  attach  the  canvas  securely 
to  the  spars  ;  at  the  back  of  the  canvas  pass  many  turns  of 
inch  or  inch  and  a  half  rope,  net  fashion.  A  net  would  be 
preferable  to  rope  so  expended.  To  the  base  of  the  triangle 
attach  a  weight,  or  small  anchor,  supported  in  the  centre  of 
the  base  by  a  span  running  from  each  of  the  lower  angles. 
To  the  first-mentioned  span  make  fast  the  stream  cable. 
When  everything  is  quite  ready,  hoist  or  put  it  overboard 
from  the  place  you  think  it  will  answer  best.  There  is 
every  reason  to  believe  that  with  this  anchor  under  the 
trough  of  the  sea,  and  seventy  or  eighty  fathoms  of  stream 
cable  out,  a  ship's  drift  would  not  be  very  great. 

If  a  ship  should  approach  the  shore  with  this  sea 
anchor  down,  it  would  enable  her  to  bring  to  with  her 
proper  anchors  much  easier  than  if  the  sea  anchor  had 
not  been  down.  She  might  let  go  her  proper  anchor  and 
veer  from  the  sea  anchor,  until  she  had  sufficient  cable 
out,  which  would  give  her  a  much  better  chance  of  hold- 
ing. 

Another  plan  is  to  have  two  flat  bars  of  iron,  each  in 
length  half  the  breadth  of  the  vessel's  midship  beam, 
riveted  together  in  the  middle  by  an  iron  saucer-headed 
bolt,  clinched  at  its  point,  that  they  may  be  swung  parallel 
to  each  other,  for  easy  stowage.    At  each  end  of  the  bars 


GROUND-TACKLE. 


199 


is  a  hole  for  a  rope  or  swifter  to  pass  through,  which  must 
be  hove  tight  to  extend  the  bars  at  right  angles.  To  this 
swifter  is  marled  a  double  or  fourfold  No.  1  canvas  cloth,  of 
the  same  shape,  and  put  on  the  side  of  the  frame  nearest 
the  ship  when  used.  At  equal  distances  in  the  bars  are 
holes  to  which  is  attached  the  bridle  or  crow's-foot  for 
bending  the  cable  or  hawser.  Also  have  a  ring  at  one  of 
the  angles  for  a  buoy-rope,  which  should  be  from  ten  to 
twelve  fathoms  long.  The  buoy  prevents  the  anchor  from 
sinking  to  the  bottom,  and  facilitates  getting  it  on  board 
again. 

Another  sea  anchor  is  that  suggested  by  Captain  P. 
Thompson,  Examiner  in  Navigation  for  the  Board  of  Trade, 
England. 

The  cargo  derrick  of  a  merchant  ship  (or  any  suitable 
spar  of  a  vessel  of  war)  and  chain,  together  with  the  storm 
stay-sail,  ofifer  the  ready  materials  for  constructing  a  sea 
anchor  in  a  steamer,  as  is  shown  in  Fig.  D. 

D,  the  cargo  derrick  ;  S,  the  sail  bent  to  it :  B,  the  bridle ; 
and  C,  the  cleat  to  keep  that  .end  of  the  bridle  touching  it 
in  its  place.  The  other  end  is  kept  fixed  by  the  iron  band  on 
that  end  of  the  spar. 

Through  the  shackle  of  a  large  kedge-anchor  the  bight 
of  the  derrick  chain  is  hitched,  and  the  two  ends  taken  up 
alongside  of  the  after-leech  and  foot-rope  and  seized  to  them 
at  intervals  of  two  feet,  the  ends  of  the  chain  are  then 
secured  to  the  opposite  ends  of  the  spar. 


On  the  other  side  the  drag  is  snaked  from  chain  to  chain 
with  two-inch  rope. 

A  chain  is  passed  from  the  anchor  stock  to  that  part  of 
the  bridle  where  the  tow-rope  is  secured,  the  whole  tning  is 
then  complete. 

Blockading  vessels  on  an  open  and  exposed  coast  have 
used  sea  anchors  with  great  advantage  during  bad  weather. 


200  GROUND-TACKLK. 

Sea  J^Lnelioi^feS,  in  the  form  of  a  cone,  as  now  made 
for  vessels  of  the  United  States  Navy :  In  the  larger  sizes,  the 
anchor  is  made  of  two  thicknesses  of  No.  1  flax  canvas  with 
3^^  inch  tabling  at  base,  roped  with  2^  inch  bolt  rope,  eyelets 
worked  every  six  inches  to  secure  bolt  rope  to  base  roping  or 
bale  which  is  of  3  J  inch  galvanized  wire  rope  made  in  eight 
sections.  The  ends  of  the  eight  sections  of  bale  rope  are 
spliced  around  wire  rope  thimbles  which  are  connected 
with  galvanized  iron  links,  8  inches  long,  thus  making  the 
ring  continuous,  and  allowing  of  easy  folding  for  stowage. 
The  cone  is  roped,  lengthwise,  with  :Ji  inch  bolt  rope,  the 
eight  parts  forming  an  eye  at  the  apex,  while  the  other  ends 
having  been  securely  hitched  around  the  bale  rope  are 
brought  together  around  a  large  galvanized  iron  thimble  at 
Hi  feet  from  the  base  of  the  cone  into  which  the  riding  haw- 
ser is  bent.    This  is  called  the  bridle.    See  Fig.  425,  Plate  90. 

The  following  sizes  are  fitted  as  above  in  eight  sections 
with  diameters  of  bases  1(1,  15,  and  U  feet,  and  heights  of 
cones  respectively  10,  17J,  and  10  feet. 

The  following  sizes  are  fitted  the  same  except  that  the 
number  of  sections  is  six,  bases  12,  11,  10,  li,  and  8  feet, 
height  of  cone  14,  13,  12,  10,  and  0  feet,  bolt  rope  3^  inch 
and  wire  rope  bale  3^  inch.  The  links  and  thimbles  are 
smaller. 

The  three  smallest  sizes  are  in  four  sections,  canvas. 
No.  2  flax,  bolt  rope  2  J  inch,  wire  rope  22  inch  and  smaller 
links  and  thimbles.  These  sizes  are  base,  7,  0,  and  5  feet ; 
cone,  8.  7,  and  (J  feet. 

The  tripping  line  by  means  of  which  the  anchor  is  hauled 
on  board  is  made  fast  to  the  eye  at  tlu*  apex  of  the  cone. 

CABLES. 

Cables  for  the  navy  are  made  at  the  Boston  Navy-Yard. 
An  iron  or  steel  rod  of  the  requisite  length  and  diameter  is 
shaped  into  a  link  and  a  stud  put  in,  another  piece  of  iron 
of  the  same  dimensions  is  put  through  the  link  just  formed, 
and  shaped  as  before ;  thus  fifteen  fathoms  are  made,  when 
a  shackle  is  formed  for  connecting  it  to  a  second  length, 
and  so  on  for  one  hundred  and  twenty  fathoms,  or  the  re- 
quired length,  when  we  have  the  anc^hor-shackle  and  club- 
link. 

The  end  links  have  no  studs,  in  order  to  facilitate  the 
operation  of  shackling,  but  the  wire  of  these  links  is  made 
the  same  diameter  as  the  cable  next  in  size. 

It  is  customary  now  to  connect  the  cable  with  the  shackh^ 
and  club  link  by  means  of  an  ordinary  shackle  and  one 
triplet  *  of  chain.    Fig.  438,  Plate  1)5.    This  is  done  to  avoid 

*  A  Triplet.     Usually,  three  links  cut  from  a  chain,  for  testing. 


GROUND-TACKLK  2(>1 

handling  the  heavier  shackle  at  the  anchor,  leaving  the 
latter  attached  in  bending  and  unbending. 

When  a  length  of  chain  is  finished  it  is  put  into  a 
hydraulic  testing  machine  and  proved. 

Swivels,  ]M!£ii*k:s,  &.c»  All  chain  cables  are 
made  with  swivels  at  7i,  37|,  82^,  and  127^  fathoms,  with 
shackles  at  every  15  fathoms  from  the  anchor.  Were  it 
not  for  the  swivels  and  studs  the  chain  would  get  full  of 
kinks. 

Shackles  are  put  on  so  that  the  rounded  part  will  be  for- 
ward. 

The  swivels,  it  has  been  found,  injure  the  modern  cap- 
stans in  passing  around  them,  hence  in  many  ships  they  are 
placed  in  the  first  and  last  lengths  only.  Chain  cables 
should  be  marked  as  follows:  at  fifteen  fathoms  one  turn 
of  wire  around  the  stud  of  the  first  link  forward  and  abaft 
the  first  shackle,  two  turns  of  wire  around  the  stud  of  the 
second  link  forward  and  abaft  the  second  shackle  and  so  on. 

Shackle  I^olts  are  oblong  in  section  and  pass 
through  similarly  shaped  holes  in  the  ends  of  the  shackle. 
They  are  kept  from  dropping  out  by  a  wooden  pin  that 
passes  through  holes  in  the  end  of  the  shackle  and. bolt.  To 
unshackle,  strike  the  end  of  the  bolt  opposite  the  head  a 
sharp  blow  with  a  hammer,  this  breaks  tne  wooden  pin  and 
the  bolt  comes  out. 

On  account  of  the  great  strain  tending  to  open  the 
shackle  as  it  passes  around  the  smaller  barrel  of  the  steam 
windlass  steel  pins  have  been  substituted  in  many  cases  for 
the  wooden  ones. 

In  overhauling  the  chain  cables,  which  should  be  fre- 
quently and  carefully  done,  the  pins  must  be  carefully  ex- 
amined and  new  ones  put  in  where  necessary.  The  turns 
of  wire  marking  the  number  of  the  sha(;kle  should  also  be 
examined,  and  renewed  if  required. 

Gretting-  Chains  on  lloai'cl.  When  lying 
in  the  stream  the  chains  are  brought  off  in  scows  or 
lighters,  where  they  are  ranged  regularly  in  alternate 
layers  fore-and-aft  and  athwartships,  and  the  bitter  end  be- 
ing passed  through  one  of  the  vacant  hawse-holes  they  are 
got  on  board  and  into  the  lockers  by  means  of  deck-tackles 
and  chain-hooks.  When  working  "with  the  crew,  men  are 
stationed  to  stow  the  chains  ana  are  called  tierers.  The 
cable  is  paid  down  a  few  links  at  a  time,  while  the  tierers 
with  cham-hooks  and  a  hook-rope  rove  through  a  tail-block 
at  some  convenient  place  above  them,  in  the  after  part  of 
the  locker,  range  the  chain  in  regular  fieets,  using  the  hook- 
rope  to  form  the  after  bights. 

Prior  to  the  stowage  of  the  chains,  however,  it  becomes 
necessary  to  secure  the  end  below,  as  a  preventive  from 
loss,  in  the  event  of  being  unable  to  check  its  outward 


WZ  GROUND-TACKLE. 

passage  in  veering ;  and  perhaps  the  best  method  for 
accomplishing  this  object  is  the  following :  Through  a  ring- 
bolt in  the  keelson,  Fig.  421,  Plate  89,  the  end  of  the  chain 
is  rove  up  to  an  iron  roller,  attached  to  a  beam  of  the  lower 
deck,  immediately  above — ^the  last  link  of  the  chain  being 
curved,  in  order  to  fit  over  a  short  perpendicular  ann  on 
the  surface  of  the  roller,  which  is  kept  from  turning  by  a 
check-lever,  c,  having  a  small  tackle  attached,  d  the 
event,  then,  of  having  to  slip,  it  only  becomes  necessarv  to 
haul  on  the  jigger,  which  permits  a  revolution  of  the  roUer, 
and  disengages  the  link  from  the  arm. 

Or  the  bitter  end  may  secure  to  a  bolt  overhead,  as  in 
Fig.  422. 

Another  very  good  plan  is  to  have  the  end  secured  with 
a  slip-stopper,  Fig.  428  7>,  Plate  91,  the  tongue  of  which  may- 
be lashea  ao wn.  But  however  the  end  may  be  secured,  it 
should  not  be  at  the  bottom  of  the  locker,  but  out  clear  where 
it  can  be  got  at  when  required.  This  will  enable  a  second 
cable  to  be  shackled  to  tne  bitter  end  of  the  riding  cable 
without  rousing  the  entire  length  out  of  the  locker. 

Should  the  ship  be  alongside  the  wharf,  chain-shutes, 
leading  from  the  wharf  through  a  port  abreast  the  chain 
pipes  are  used.  The  shute  is  a  strongly -made  wooden 
trough,  sufficiently  wide  and  long  for  the  purpose. 

To  Bend  «.  Oower-  Cal>le.  Keeve  a  ring- 
rope  through  a  sheave  iu  the  cat-head,  through  the  hawse- 
hole,  and  bend  it  to  the  chain  with  a  rolling-hitch  a  short 
distance  from  the  end,  to  which  it  must  be  stopped.  Rouse 
the  chain  out  (using  the  fore-bowline  as  a  hawse-rope  if 
convenient),  and  up  to  the  cat-head,  where  the  armorer 
shackles  it  where  it  belongs.  If  the  cat-head  is  far  from 
the  bows,  a  slip-rope  will  be  required  to  hang  the  cable 
half-way. 

To  Bend  a  Slieet-Cable,  Fig.  423,  Plate  89, 
the  anchor  being  stowed  in  the  waist.  Stock  the  anchor 
and  lash  a  snatch-block  to  the  upper  arm.  Reeve  off  a  ring- 
rope  through  the  snatch  block,  taking  one  end  in  through 
the  sheet  hawse-hole,  and  bend  it  to  the  chain,  leaving  end 
enough  for  shackling. 

Place  two  water-whips  on  the  fore-yard,  on  the  same  side 
as  the  chain.  After  the  chain  is  roused  out  a  certain  dis- 
tance by  the  ring-rope,  clap  one  whip  on  the  chain,  and 
when  the  first  whip  tends  about  up  and  down,  clap  on  the 
second  whip.  If  necessary,  fieet  the  first  whip  forward 
again  on  the  chain  as  more  is  paid  out.  The  two  whips 
support  the  chain  while  it  is  being  hauled  aft. 

Slip-ropes  having  been  previously  pointed  over  the  side, 
their  outboard  ends  are  picked  up  and  passed  inboard  after 
the  chain  has  been  shackled,  to  light  up  the  chain  fair  for 
seizing  to  the  side-bolts.   If  the  slip  ropes  are  passed  for  a  full 


GROUND-TACKLE.  203 

due  before  the  chain  has  been  roused  aft  and  relied  upon  to 
sustain  the  chain,  they  will  make  the  work  much  heavier, 

When  the  chain  is  shackled,  clap  on  a  back  tackle,  in 
wake  of  the  back-lashing  bolt,  which  is  a  short  distance  be- 
low the  ring  of  the  anchor  and  in  line  with  the  side-bolts, 
though  heavier.  Rouse  the  bight  into  place,  pass  the  back- 
lashine  *  and  tauten  the  chain  along  tne  side  by  clapping 
on  a  deck-tackle  inboard.  Pass  the  seizings  to  the  side- 
bolts,  lighting  up  the  chain  with  the  slip-ropes,  then  un- 
reeve  the  slip-ropes,  unhook  the  yard-whips  and  finally  the 
back-tackle.  When  the  sheet  anchors  are  carried  just  abaft 
the  bowers,  as  on  board  ships  of  recent  build,  the  chains 
are  bent  in  the  same  manner  as  the  bower  chains. 

The  sheet-chain  should  always  be  bent  after  the  second 
bower  has  been  let  go,  if  not  previously  done.  Having  bent 
it  and  secured  it  to  the  side,  as  described,  it  is  not  unusual 
to  stopper  it  inboard,  unshackle,  leaving  the  end  forward, 
and  paying  the  balance  of  the  chain  below  into  the  locker, 
until  required. 

The  length  of  chain  left  bent  to  the  anchor  is  called  a 
ganger. 

A.  Grang-ei*  is  any  comparatively  short  length  of 
chain,  such  as  the  one  above  d!escribed,  or  the  length  of 
cat-chain  used  in  catting  the  anchors  of  ram-bowed  vessels, 
as  mentioned  further  on. 

To  I3itt  a  Ohctin  Cable,  Fig.  424,  Plate  90. 
Immediately  over  the  bitt-head  is  placed  an  eye-bolt,  to 
which  is  hooked  a  single  block,  having  a  hook-rope  rove 
through  it.  Sufficient  slack  chain  having  being  roused  up, 
hook  on  to  a  bight  and  pull  it  up  abaft  and  over  the  bitt- 
head  ;  form  a  cuckold's  neck  in  it,  so  that  the  part  leading 
from  aft  shall  rest  on  top  of  the  cavil  and  outside  the  bitt- 
head,  the  running  part  being  inside  and  leading  down 
under  the  cavil  ana  so  forward  :  shove  the  bight  thus 
formed  over  the  bitt-head,  slack  down  the  hook  rope  and 
it  will  fall  in  its  place.  Now  rouse  the  chain  taut  along 
the  deck  and  pay  tne  slack  down  into  the  locker. 

To  "Weatlier-liitt  a  Cal3le  is  to  take  an 
additional  turn  with  it  around  the  cavil  or  bitt-head. 

To  Unbitt,  as  when  getting  under-way,  screw 
down  the  "Mix"  stopper,  or  put  on  any  adequate  stopper 
forward  of  the  bitts,  take  off  the  deck-stoppers,  bend  on  a 
hook-rope,  rouse  up  enough  slack  from  aft,  and  unbitt. 

To  XS.ang'e  a  CJliaiix  Cable,  Fig.  424.  Bend 
on  a  hook-rope  or  a  chain  whip,  according  to  the  size  of  the 
chain,  rouse  up  the  requisite  quantity,  and  range  by  placing 
it  in  parallel  lines  called  fleets,  fore  and  aft  the  deck  be- 
tween the  bitts  and  the  chain  pipes,  observing  to  let  the 

*  In  prepariDj^  to  let  go  a  waist  anchor  do  not  forget  to  cut  the  back-Ushing. 
Also  called  an  ewow  lashing. 


204  GROUND-TACKLE. 

part  leading  from  the  bitts,  the  running  part,  be  outside  of 
all,  that  from  the  chain  pipe  being  inside;  for  were  it  re- 
versed, the  chain  running  out  would  find  the  last  fleet 
forming  a  curve  from  the  bitts,  out  towards  the  ship's  side, 
and  in  again  to  the  chain  pipes,  and  as  the  strain  came  on 
it,  it  would  sweep  with  immense  force  amidships,  injuring 
anything  that  might  be  in  its  way,  at  any  rate  giving  a 
violent  surge. 

Chains  are  rarely  ranged,  at  present,  for  anv  consider- 
able length.  If  too  much  chain  is  ranged  it  is  litely  to  pay 
down  over,  and  foul,  the  anchor. 

When  the  anchor  is  let  go  suddenly,  while  headway 
is  still  on,  to  avoid  danger,  for  example,  or  when  anchor- 
ing in  a  strong  tide,  or  fresh  breeze,  the  chain  will  soon 
acquire  very  great  velocity,  and  if  permitted  to  run  too 
much  at  a  time  it  will  be  found  almost  impossible  to 
check ;  therefore  but  few  fathoms  should  be  veered  at  a 
time,  checking  it  with  the  compressor  before  getting  too 
much  headway. 

STOPPERS. 

13eclc  Stoppei-H,  Fig.  427,  Plate  91  were  formerly 
made  of  plain-laid  rope,  one  fathom  in  length,  when  fitted, 
and  in  size  one-half  that  of  the  cable  on  which  they  were 
applied.  In  one  end  is  spliced  a  hook  and  thimble,  or 
thimble  alone,  which  is  hooked  or  shackled  to  the  stopper 
ring-bolts  in  the  deck;  in  the. other  end  is  formed  a  stopper 
knot,  with  a  laniard  one-third  the  size  of  the  stopper,  at- 
tached with  a  running  eye  around  the  stopper  close  to  the 
knot.  The  laniard  is  passed  from  inboard  outboard,  the 
stopper  lying  inboard  of  the  chain,  working  aft  from  the 
knot,  leaving  a  fathom  of  the  end  to  worm  forward  on  the 
cable ;  the  end  is  then  secured  by  passing  the  tails  around 
the  links. 

Deck  stoppers  are  sometimes  fitted  of  chain,  with  a 
devil's  claw,  large  enough  to  receive  one  of  the  links  of  the 
cable,  over  which  it  is  placed,  and  retained  by  a  small  iron 
pin,  running  through  both  parts  of  the  claw.  In  the  other 
extremity  a  slip-hook  and  ring  are  attached,  by  which  it  is 
secured  to  the  stopper-bolts  of  the  deck.  Fig.  428.  The 
length  is  about  four  feet  and  a  half,  and  the  size  depends 
upon  the  class  of  vessel  for  which  it  is  required. 

For  wire-rope  deck  stopper  see  Fig.  50,  Plate  15.  The 
laniard  is  passed  in  the  same  way.  Wire-rope  deck  stoppers 
are  the  only  kind  supplied  at  present. 

H/ingr  Stopper's  are  very  useful  and  neat.  The 
bights  are  passed  over  the  cable  abaft  the  ring-bolt,  both 
ends  are  rove  through  the  ring,  and  dogged  around  the 
cable  forward  of  the  bolts;  the  ends  may  be  tapered,  coach- 


GROUND-TACKLE.  205 

whipped,  and  laid  up  in  a  square  sennit.    Fig.  429,  Plate  91, 
shows  a  ring-stopper  of  plain-laid  rope. 

The  ring-stopper  above  described  for  securing  cables 
must  not  be  confounded  with  the  rin^-stopper  used  to 
secure  the  ring  of  the  anchor  at  the  cathead. 

Bitt  Stoi>pei-.  Fitted  similar  to  the  ring  stopper, 
ends  coach- whipped,  &c.,the  bight  going  over  the  bitt  in- 
stead of  through  a  ring-bolt  in  the  deck. 

Check  Stoppers  are  small  strands  of  old  rope 
which  secure  -the  cable  to  the  ring-bolts  in  the  deck,  and, 
parting  as  the  strain  comes  on  tnem,  check  the  cable  in 
running  out. 

The  Slip-Stopper,  Fig.  42K  (a  and  6),  Plate  91. 
This  is  fitted  with  a  crane-hook  and  shackle,  and  is  found 
very  convenient  when  working  cables,  as  in  clearing  hawse, 
surging,  &c. 

]\i;ix'>^  Stopper  consists  of  an  iron  casting  like  a 
hawse-pipe,  set  in  a  strong  oak  frame-work  on  the  after- 
part  of  the  manger.  A  thick  and  strong  slab  of  iron, 
scored  out  on  the  under  part  to  -admit  a  vertical  link  of  the 
chain,  moves  up  and  down  in  a  groove,  in  the  after-part  of 
the  frame- work,  by  means  of  a  screw  placed  vertically  over 
it.  This  stopper  is  exceedingly  convenient,  but  the  ship  is 
never  allowea  to  ride  by  it.  The  controller  replaces  it  in 
modem  ships. 

ITig-litiiigr  Stoppers.  Though  not  belonging  to 
this  portion  of  the  work,  we  may  mention  here  Jightiuf/- 
stoppers.  These  are  kept  at  hand,  ready  for  use  at  any 
time,  particularly  when  going  into  action.  They  consist  of 
a  pair  of  dead-eyes  or  buirs-eyes,  rope-strapped,  with  tails, 
and  a  laniard  rove.  Fig.  431,  Plate  93. 

Each  end  of  the  laniard  is  fitted  with  a  bight,  so  that  a 
jigger  may  be  hooked  into  either  end,  the  other  end  becom- 
ing a  standing  part. 

Stoppers  with  which  to  hold  on,  while  hauling  taut 
a  brace,  sheet,  or  other  rope,  are  fitted  with  a  hook  and 
thimble  at  one  end,  or  they  are  otherwise  secured  to  eve,  or 
ring  bolts  near  the  rope  for  which  they  are  required.  In 
using  them  a  half -hitch  is  formed  around  the  rope,  which 
after  the  rope  is  hauled  taut  through  it,  is  jambea,  and  the 
tail  wormed  along  in  the  lay  of  the  rope  ;  this  will  hold  it 
while  being  belayed.    Fig.  74,  Plate  10. 

Iron  Compile  SHors  are  used  generally  under  the 
chain  pipes.  They  check  the  chain  with  certainty,  and  are 
easy  to  handle. 

iron  compressors  are  of  various  kinds.  The  oldest  and 
best-known  pattern  is  that  of  the  curved  iron  arm,  one  end 
of  which  works  on*a  pivot-bolt,  so  as  to  permit  the  curve  to 
sweep  the  lower  orince  of  the  chain-pipe.  The  other  ex- 
tremity has  an  eye  formed  in  it,  to  which  is  hooked  a  small 
tackle.    When  veering,  if  the  order  is  given  to  haul  to  the 


5J06  GROUND-TACKLE. 

compressor,  the  tackle  is  hauled  upon  by  the  men  stationed 
there,  and  the  chain  is  compressed  by  the  iron  arm  against 
the  side  of  the  chain-pipe. 

Plate  92,  Fig.  430,  shows  the  elevation  of  the  compressor, 
in  which 

a  is  the  chain-pipe. 

6,  chock  let  down  through  the  deck  (c)  to  the  beams  d  d. 

g,  bent  lever  pivoting  on  bolt  /,  which,  bv  the  use  of 
a  tackle,  is  made  to  nip  the  chain  against  tne  pipe  and 
beam.  The  cable  has  been  found  to  force  down  the  com- 
pressor and  the  bolt  (/),  which  has  caused  the  introduction 
of  the  strap  (e). 

m,  cartings  let  down  between  the  beams  to  form  a  bed 
for  the  iron  pipe  (a). 

The  plan  represents  (Fig.  430  6),  the  underside  of  the 
deck  and  beams  ;  fc,  head  of  bolt  (/  of  elevation),  on  which 
the  compressor  revolves. 

A,  a  fan  or  balancing  arm  worked  in  the  compressor  to 
assist  the  strap  (e)  in  keeping  the  compressor  in  place. 

i,  an  iron  plate  on  the  under  side  of  the  beam  to  form  a 
hard  surface  for  the  fan  to  work  upon. 

A.  Coiiti^oUer  (Fi^.  441)  is  a  cast-iron  block  having 
a  swallow  in  its  upper  side  in  the  shape  of  a  link  of  the  chain 
cable.  Controllers  are  bolted  to  the  deck,  forward  of  the 
bitts,  and  also  in  large  ships  forward  of  the  chain  locker 
pipe.  The  cable,  while  Ivmg  in  the  controller,  tends  of 
itself,  to  drop  into  the  hollow  slot,  and  while  there  is  held 
by  one  of  its  links,  which  lies  flat  in  the  hollow,  but  at  the 
bottom  of  the  hollow  is  a  jog  or  short  lever  arm,  which  can 
be  raised  by  a  longer  lever,  and  so  lift  the  cable  out  of  the 
slot  when  it  runs  out,  imtil  the  lever  is  let  go  and  the  jog 
dropped. 

To  g"^^  tlie  A.iicliors  olFthe  1>o>vh«  Bend 
the  chains  first,  hook  the  stock-tackle  to  a  strap  around  the 
upper  arm  of  the  stock  and  to  a  bolt  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  forecastle,  and  haul  it  taut. 

Hook  the  bill-tackle  to  a  strap  around  the  inner  arm  of 
the  anchor  and  to  a  bolt  across  the  deck,  setting  it  taut 
also. 

The  stock  and  bill-tackles  are  stout  luffs. 

Single  the  shank  painter,  and  secure  it  at  the  mark 
where  it  is  to  be  when  the  anchor  is  ready  for  letting  go. 
Come  up  the  shank,  stock,  and  ring  lashings,  or  ring  rope, 
pry  the  anchor  off  the  bill-board  with  the  anchor  bar,  easing 
away  the  stock  and  bill-tackles  as  necessary. 

Tiie  ring-stopper,  which  holds  the  ring  of  the  anchor  to 
the  cathead,  is  not  touched. 

A  fore-and-aft  tackle  on  the  pee  of  the  anchor  keeps  it 
from  scending  forward  while  getting  it  off  the  bows. 

To  let  g-o  an  A^nchoi*.  The  anchor  being  off  the 
bows,  with  chain  bitted  (bitt  pin  in)  and  clear  for  running, 


GROUND-TACKLE.  207 

is  held  in  place  by  the  ring  stopper  and  shank  painter.    Vig. 
436,  Plate  94. 

The  former,  which  is  of  chain,  passes  through  the  ring 
of  the  anchor,  and  the  last  link  is  placed  over  a  hinged 
tumbler  on  the  cathead,  maintained  in  an  upright  position 
by  means  of  a  hook-lever  extending  across  tne  cathead,  a, 
llg.  436.  The  shank  painter  secures  in  a  similar  manner 
at  the  bill  port.  To  each  of  these  a  trigger  may  be  attached, 
as  in  Fig.  432,  Plate  03,  fitted  with  a  small  bar  leading  to 
the  arms  of  a  swivel,  worked  by  a  lever  shipped  in  the 
mortice  c.  Hauling  on  the  lever  disengages  both  stoppers 
at  the  same  instant.  Or  the  levers  holding  the  hinged 
tumblers,  a.  Fig.  436,  are  knocked  out  of  position  by  men 
stationed  for  the  purpose,  at  the  order,  ^'Let  go  the  star- 
board {OT  port)  anchor  I" 

In  either  case  remove  first  the  safety-pin,  b,  Fiff.  436. 

The  order  for  letting  go  is  always  preceded  by  the 
caution,  ^^  stand  clear  of  the  starboard  (or  port)  chain  r^  and 
sometimes  by  the  order  to  "  stream  the  buoy ! " 

See  hands  stationed  at  the  compressor,  which  is  hove 
back. 

Before  letting  go  anchors,  it  is  frequently  necessary  to 
run  in  the  guns  directly  underneath  them  on  the  gun 
deck. 

To  "bi'ing-  a  eliSLiii  to  tlie  Capstan.  Bouse 
up  enough  slack  from  the  locker  to  unbitt,  having  the  chain 
well  secured  forward  of  the  bitts. 

When  unbitted,  haul  the  bight  of  the  chain  around  the 
rollers  placed  so  as  to  give  the  chain  a  fair  lead  from  the 
hawse  pipe  to  the  capstan  ;  thence  about  half  way  around 
the  same  in  the  score  of  the  ribs,  or  wildcat,  and  back 
around  similar  rollers  to  the  chain  pipe.  With  the  steam 
windlass,  the  chain  is  always  brought  to.  Try  the  engines 
to  see  if  in  working-order.  The  chain  can  be  held  by  lock- 
ing the  wildcat  and  applying  the  brake. 

To  heave  up  an  A^nchor.  The  capstan  being- 
rigged,  capstan  bars  shipped  and  swiftered  in,  tne  cable  is 
stoppered  before  all,  then  unbitted  and  ''broitght  to''  the 
capstan. 

Man  the  bars!  Heave  taut/  Take  off  the  stoppers  and 
Heave  around  !  As  the  cable  comes  above  the  water,  if 
muddy,  it  is  cleaned  with  a  hose  led  from  the  head  pump. 
Sand  the  deck  if  necessary,  in  case  the  chain  is  very 
muddy,  to  prevent  the  men  from  slipping. 

By  the  capstan  are  stationed  the  gunner's  gang,  with 
chain  hooks,  to  light  the  slack  chain  around  the  rollers  and 
toward  the  chain  pipe  ;  some  hands  are  also  provided  with 
pinch  bars  to  knock  the  links  out  from  the  ribs  or  wildcat 
of  the  capstan  if  they  jam,  as  is  sometimes  the  case. 


*^08  GROrXD-TACKLK. 

The  cable  as  it  comes  in  is  paid  below,  or  ranged  readv 
for  running. 

When  a  vessel  has  two  anchors  down,  in  heaving  in  on 
one  cable,  it  becomes  necessary  to  **  veer  to"  on  the  other. 
To  do  this,  if  the  veering  cable  is  the  weather  one  and  in  a 
stiff  breeze,  veer  around  the  bitts,  takinc^  off  the  forward 
stoppers  and  slacking  the  laniards  of  tne  after  ones,  or 
taking  off  all  stoppers  and  tending  the  controller  and  com- 
pressors. 

But  if  the  veering  cable  be  the  lee  one,  it  may  be  pre- 
viously unbitted,  ana  veered  from  the  locker. 

When  all  the  slack  cable  is  hove  in  and  the  chain  leads 
right  up  and  down  from  the  hawse-hole  to  the  anchor,  the 
officer  of  the  forecastle  reports,  Up  and  down,  sir  I  When 
not  quite  up  and  down,  if  circumstances  seem  to  require  it, 
he  may  report,  Short  stay,  sir! 

A  cable  is  said  to  tend  in  a  certain  direction :  thus  the 
cable  *Hends  broad  off  the  starboard  bow  ;"  and  when  this 
occurs  so  as  to  make  a  short  nip  of  the  chain,  and  cause  a 
heavy  heave,  it  should  be  reported,  as  a  change  of  the 
wheel,  or  in  the  disposition  of  the  sail,  or  a  turn  back  with 
the  engine  (as  when  on  a  windward  tide  the  ship  has  over- 
run her  cham),  may  bring  it  to  tend  right  ahead  and  ease 
the  strain  on  the  capstan. 

When  the  anchor  is  clear  of  the  ground,  report  Anchxyr' 
is  aweigh  !  and  when  the  stock  is  visible,  Anchor  in  sight! 
Clear  {or  foul)  anchor  ! 

And  when  it  is  up  high  enough  for  catting — The  anchor 
is  up,  sir !  Or  direct  the  boatswain  to  pipe,  Belay !  The 
order  from  the  quarter-deck  will  then  be.  Hook  the  cat! 
Fig.  437,  Plate  05. 

The  cat  having  been  previously  overhauled  down,  the 
block  is  hooked  to  the  ring  of  the  anchor  by  a  hand  on  the 
stock  aided  by  the  cat-back.  When  hooked,  set  well  taut 
on  the  cat-fall,  and  caution  them  on  the  gun-deck  to  be 
ready  for  surging  the  chain  ;  then  report.  All  hooked  with 
the  cat !  As  soon  as  this  is  made  known,  the  order  is  given, 
Haul  taut !  Walk  away  with  the  cat  !  The  chain  is 
surged*  and  the  anchor  walked  up  to  the  cat-head;  at  the 
proper  time  the  boatswain  pipes  belay,  when  the  order  is 
given  to  Hook  the  fish!  As  soon  as  the  cat  is  up  the  ring- 
stopper  is  passed.  When  the  fish  is  reported.  Haul  taut! 
Walk  away  with  the  fish  I  and  when  the  fish  is  belayed, 
pass  the  shank  painter. 

SiTi'gring'  tlie  Chain.  When,  as  very  frequently 
occurs  on  heaving  in,  the  chain  comes  in  muddy,  it  must  be 
ranged  on  deck  instead  of  paying  it  below  in  the  lockers; 
thus  fifteen,  twenty,  or  more  fathoms  of  chain  may  accumu- 

*  The  proper  order  is:  ''Surge  the  chain!"    It  is  a  common  mistake  to  give 
the  order:  "  Veer  the  chaiji!''  which  is  quite  another  thing. 


Plate  93 


Fi%.434- 


GROUND-TACKLE.  209 

late  on  the  deck.  Now  when  the  order  is  given  to  surge, 
the  controller  is  hove  up  and  the  anchor  swings  to  the  cat. 
Should  the  cat-fall  part  at  this  time,  or  other  similar  accident 
happen,  the  anchor  would  go  down,  carrying  with  it  the  en- 
tire range  of  chain;  and  if  on  board  a  steamer  she  may,  by 
that  time,  be  going  ahead  under  a  full  head  of  steam.  There- 
fore, in  place  of  relying  entirely  on  any  form  of  controller, 
clap  a  stopper  on  the  chain,  allowing  a  fathom  or  so  of 
slack  for  cattinj^.  For  this  purpose  an  iron  nipper  securing 
the  cable  to  a  rin^-bolt,  or  a  slip-stopper,  is  very  convenient. 
This  precaution  insures  you  against  accident,  and  very 
little  practice  serves  to  enable  one  to  stopper  at  the  proper 
link  to  give  slack  chain  enough  to  allow  the  anchor  to  go  to 
the  cat-nead. 

Cat-F^alls.  Begin  with  the  standing  part  and  reeve 
the  end  down  through  the  forward  sheave  oi  the  cat-head, 
through  the  forward  sheave  of  the  cat-block,  placed  so  that 
the  bill  of  the  hook  will  point  inboard,  and  so  continue  till 
rove  full,  when  timber-hitch  the  end  around  the  cat-head. 
In  lar^e  ships  it  is  found  convenient  to  place  the  block  in 
the  bndle-port  for  reeving  the  fall,  after  which  round  it  up 
and  trice  back  the  hook,  if  not  wanted  immediately. 

Cat-BaeltH  are  temporary,  and  for  the  purpose  of 
facilitating  the  hooking  of  the  cat.  A  small  rope  is  rove 
through  a  block  tailed  on  to  one  of  the  fore-tack  bumpkin 
stays,  or  an  eye-bolt  conveniently  placed  over  the  bows,  and 
bent  to  a  small  eye-bolt  or  span  on  the  forward  cheek  of  the 
cat-block,  the  fall  leading  inboard.  Another  one  may  be 
bent  to  the  back  of  the  hook.  With  the  assistance  of  these, 
the  cat  is  hooked. 

A.  Fisli-Bacls:  is  for  the  same  purpose,  and  is  bent 
to  an  eye  on  the  back  of  the  hook. 

A^nclior  Ti-ip-liooli.  Fig.  429&  represents  a  sec- 
tion of  the  trip-hook  m  use  on  board  the  Fish  Commission 
steamer  Albatross,  and  is  essentially  the  same  as  that  gen- 
erally used  in  the  merchant  marine.  A,  represents  a  link 
whicn  is  made  fast  to  the  middle  of  the  shank  of  the  anchor, 
the  weight  of  which  acts  in  the  direction  of  the  arrow. 
From  the  figure,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  weight  presses  the 
hook,  B,  against  the  cam,  C,  which,  in  turn,  is  held  in  place 
by  the  lever,  D,  the  lever  resting  against  the  bolt,  E. 

The  arrangement  is  attached  to  the  lower  block  of  the 
anchor  tackle  by  the  pin,  F,  which  allows  it  to  swing 
freely. 

The  tripping-line,  G,  is  made  fast  on  the  forecastle,  with 
sufficient  slack  to  allow  the  anchor  to  be  lowered  to  the 
desired  i)oint  for  letting  go. 

To  detach  the  anchor,  slack  away  the  tackle  until  the 
tripping-line,  Q,  acts  on  the  lever,  D,  releasing  the  hook,  B, 
and  link,  A. 

The  same  style  of  trip-hook  is  also  used  in  the  place  of 


210  GROUND-TACKLE. 

the  cat-hook,  where  an  anchor  is  catted  and  fished  in  the 
ordinary  way,  so  that  the  anchor  may  be  let  go  from  the 
cat  without  waiting  to  pass  the  ring-stopper. 

Fish  I>avit.  The  present  plan  in  the  navy  is  to 
have  a  boom  which  attaches  to  the  forward  part  of  the 
foremast  by  a  goose-neck.  The  boom  is  rigged  as  in  Fig. 
435,  Plate  94. 

A  is  the  topping-lift,  hooked  to  a  band  around  the  lower 
mast,  near  the  futxock-band. 

B,  the  fish  tackle. 

C  C,  rays. 

See  also  Fig.  437,  Plate  95. 

The  hauling  part  of  the  fish-fall  may  either  lead  through 
a  sheave  in  the  Doom,  or  a  block  on  the  boom,  thence  to  a 
block  hooked  to  the  mast-band,  and  on  deck. 

By  this  purchase  (the  fish)  the  flukes  of  the  anchor  are 
raised  until  up  to  the  bill-board,  when  the  shank-painter  is 
passed.  This  is  made  of  chain  ;  when  passed,  the  chain 
encloses  the  shank ;  the  end,  rove  through  a  ring  in  the  side 
or  waterways,  is  belayed  to  an  iron  cleat  at  the  side.  The 
shank-painter  being  secured,  the  purchase  is  unrigged,  the 
fish-davit  taken  inboard,  and  the  anchor  now  hangs  by  the 
ring-stopper  and  shank-painter,  and  is  ready  for  letting 
go. 

If  the  shank-painter  is  eased  oflf  so  that  the  anchor  hangs 
by  the  ring-stopper,  it  is  then  said  to  be  cock-billed. 

Iron  fish-davits  similar  in  form  to  boat-davits,  and 
stepped  near  the  bill-board,  have  taken  the  place  of  the 
wooden  fish-boom.  A  similarly  rigged  boom,  however,  is 
now  fitted  on  all  vessels  not  having  yards. 

Cattiiiof  and  Fisliing"  a  Sheet  ^^nchor- 
Stowed  t^oi'^vai'd.  Modern  vessels  have  frequently 
tw^o  cat-heads,  one  abaft  the  other  on  each  bow,  the  after 
one  for  the  sheet  anchor.  In  catting  the  sheet,  hook  the 
forward  cat;  surge,  heave  the  stock  clear  of  the  water, 
and  hook  on  the  after  cat.  If  the  fish-davit  is  not  a  mov- 
able one,  the  fishing  will  have  to  be  done  with  a  tackle 
from  the  fore-yard. 

Chatting-  ^^nehoi-ss;  on  I  Joai*d  ^i*iiioi»e<l 
A"es!Kels.  In  ships  built  with  rani-bows  it  is  difficult  to 
heave  the  anchor  up  high  enough  to  hoox  the  cat.  That 
difficulty  is  met  by  the  use  of  a  cut  and  ground  chain,  of 
which  the  following  is  a  description: 

A  length  of  small  chain  is  shackled  to  the  ring  or  bal- 
ancing-band of  the  anchor  and  stopped  along  the  first 
length  of  the  cable;  this  is  called  the  (jvonnd  chain.  A 
corresponding  chain  reeves  through  a  block  at  the  cat-head, 
styled  the  cat  chain.  Before  weighing,  the  lower  end  of 
the  cat  chain  is  taken  through  the  hawse-pipe,  and  when 
the  end  of  the  ground  chain  is  hove  in,  the  cat  and  ground 
chains  are  connected,  the  cat  purc^hase  (which  hooks  into 


,S—. S^^- 


(lookinq  down) 


GROUND-TACKLE.  211 

the  upper  end  of  the  cat  chain)  is  manned  and  hauled  taut ; 
the  bight  of  the  small  chain  being  eased  out  of  the  hawse- 
pipe,  **  Walk  away  with  the  cat  I'' 

British  turret  ships  are  supplied  with  Martin's  anchors, 
which  lie  flat  on  the  deck  wnen  stowed,  stock  and  flukes 
being  then  in  the  same  horizontal  plane. 

To  afford  a  right  ahead,  flre  from  the  turret  and  avoid 
unnecessary  anchor  gear,  these  anchors  have  at  their 
balancing  point  on  the  shank  a  shackle  to  which  the  ground 
chain  is  attached. 

A  single  iron  davit  with  the  cat  chain  rove  and  con- 
nected (when  the  anchor  is  hove  up)  to  the  ground  chain 
places  trie  anchor  horizontally  in  its  position  on  the  bow. 

The  davit  works  on  a  hinge  at  its  case,  and  stows  flat  on 
deck,  a  temporary  derrick  being  rigged  forward  of  the 
foremast  to  raise  tne  davit  when  required. 

To  Secure  a  Bovver  tox*  Sea.  Having 
passed  the  ring-stopper  and  shank-painter,  proceed  to  ring 
up  the  anchor  by  swinging  the  flsh-boom  to  plumb  the  cat- 
head, hooking  the 'fish  between  the  stock  and  ring  and 
pulling  up  on  the  flsh  tackle.  Take  through  the  slack  of 
the  ring-stopper,  which  is  rove  through  a  ring  like  the  shank- 
painter,  ana  secure  it  around  its  cleat  for  a  full  due.  Hook 
the  stock  and  bill  tackles  as  in  getting  the  anchor  off  the 
bow,  haul  on  the  stock  tackle  to  bring  the  lower  end  of  the 
stock  clear  of  the  side  ;  then  go  to  the  bill-tackle  and  rouse 
the  anchor  up  on  the  bill-board,  and  so  to  each  tackle 
altematelv  till  the  stock  is  up  and  down  and  the  inner  arm 
lying  on  the  bill-board,  when  the  slack  of  the  shank-painter 
is  taken  through  and  the  lashings  passed.  It  is  better  to  haul 
alternately  on  the  stock  and  bill  tackles  as  described,  as 
this  prevents  the  palm  of  the  anchor  coming  in  with  a 
surge,  which  would  occur  if  the  stock  were  hove  up  and 
down  at  the  flrst  pull. 

Should  there  be  no  fish-boom  to  ring  up  the  anchor,  reeve 
a  stout  rope  {not  the  cat-fall)  through  the  sheaves  of  the 
cat-head  and  the  ring  of  the  anchor,  secure  one  end  to  the 
cat-head,  and  clap  a  tackle  on  the  other  end. 

If  a  lonff  passage  is  contemplated,  the  chain  is  unbent 
and  stowea  below  when  the  ship  is  off  soundings,  and  the 
hawse-bucklers  are  closed  and  secured.  Besides  the  ring- 
stopper,  a  good  lashing  is  passed  through  the  ring  and  over 
the  cat-head,  also  one  around  the  stock  and  through  a  ring 
in  the  side. 

Foul  A.ncli.oi'.  The  question  of  clearing  a  foul 
anchor  is  one  which  requires  good  judgment,  and  one  in 
which  the  circumstances  may  vary  greatly.  As  good  a 
general  rule  as  any  is  to  hook  the  cat  (if  necessarv  with  a 
strap)  to  whichever  end  of  the  anchor  is  first  signted.  It 
will  often  happen  that  there  is  but  one  foul  turn  of  the 
chain,  under  tne  stock.    In  that  case,  if  the  cat  is  hooked  in 


•^12  GROUND-TACKLE. 

the  ring,  with  a  turn  taken  in  the  opposite  direction  to  that 
of  the  chain  around  the  stock,  the  strain  on  the  cat  after 
surging  will  throw  the  chain  clear. 

If  the  anchor  comes  up  ivith  the  cable  foul  of  the  stocky 
and  ring  uppermost,  and  in  such  a  manner  that  it  cannot  be 
cleared  as  above  stated,  then  cat  as  usual;  in  surging  the 
chain  leave  plenty  of  slack  chain  outside  for  working.  Now 
clear  the  chain  with  slue-ropes  on  the  anchor  stock  and  slip- 
ropes  on  the  chain.  It  may  be  necessary  to  unshackle  in 
clearing ;  if  so,  hang  the  cable  before  unshackling,  clear 
the  turns  and  shackle  again. 

If  the  cat  cannot  be  hooked  in  the  rinr/,  then  hook  it  to  a 
stout  strap  around  the  shank,  just  under  the  stock,  cat  and 
proceed  as  before,  passing  the  ring-stopper. 

Anchor  comes  up  crown  first :  Cat  tne  crown  by  hooking 
the  cat  to  a  strap  around  the  crown,  and  pass  the  ring- 
stopper  over  the  crown,  unhooking  the  cat.  Now  clear,  if 
necessary  by  uiishackling  the  chain,  having  plenty  of  slip- 
ropes  to  take  its  weight.  Hook  the  cat  in  the  ring"^  and  the 
fisn  in  the  arm,  take  the  strain  on  the  cat,  ease  away  the 
ring-stopper,  and  haul  away  on  cat  and  fish. 

It  might  be  advisable,  with  the  anchor  coming  up  crown 
first,  to  hook  the  fish  first  to  a  strap  on  the  crown,- nauling 
on  it  till  the  ring  could  be  reached  to  hook  the  cat,  then 
easing  (and  unhooking)  the  fish,  catting  the  anchor,  clear- 
ing the  turns  and  fi'^hing  it.  The  whole  depends  upon  the 
circumstances,  as  above  stated  ;  and  the  latter  operation  in 
particular,  presupposes  that  there  is  not  too  much  drift  to 
the  fish,  and  that  the  fish  gear  is  reliable,  it  being  smaller 
than  the  cat.  * 

For  anchor  work,  "clear  hawse  breeches  "are  made  of 
painted  canvas,  wooden  soled  at  the  feet,  and  slung  with 
spans  long  enough  to  clear  the  man's  head. 

Marking  the  cable  so  as  to  know  exactly  how  much 
to  surge  lor  catting  saves  noise  and  delay,  but  greater 
allowance  must  be  made  when  *'foul  anchor**  is  re- 
ported. 

liuo^'s  and  Bixoy-Hopes.  Buoys  attached 
by  their  buoy-ropes  to  the  crown,  point  out  at  all  times  the 
situation  of  the  anchor.  The  can  buov  is  in  the  form  of  a 
cone,  it  floats  base  uppermost,  and  the  rope  is  attached 
to  the  apex.  The  nun  buoy  is  largest  at  the  centre, 
tapering  at  the  ends.  The  latter  is  in  general  use.  Fig. 
434,  Plate  93. 

The  size  of  buoy-ropes  is  one-third  of  the  cable.  The 
length  varies,  for  it  is  shortened  or  lengthened  according 
to  the  depth  of  the  water  in  which  you  will  drop  the 
anchor. 

It  is  bent  to  the  crown  of  the  anchor,  by  taking  a  half- 
hitch  around  one  arm,  and  putting  the  running  eye  in  its 
end  over  the  other  arm  ;  or  a  clove-hitch  is  formed  over  the 


GROUND-TACKLK.  21 3 

crown,  and  the  end  stopped  along  the  shank,  or  to  its  own 
part.     Or, 

Attach  a  large  thimble  to  the  crown  of  the  anchor^  by  a 
stout  strap  of  the  size  of  the  buoy-rope  (one-third  the 
cable).  Through  this  thimble  is  rove  the  buoy-rope,  both 
parts  leading  up  to  the  buoy.  The  advantage  of  this  is, 
that  the  buoy-rope  may  be  smaller,  and  when  necessary,  a 
stout  rope  of  the  required  size,  may  be,  by  it.  rove  through 
this  thimble  in  the  crown  of  the  anchor,  tnereby  afford- 
ing a  greater  purchase  than  that  of  a  single  rope^  for 
weifijiing. 

The  only  objection  to  this  plan  is,  that  the  two  parts  of 
the  small  buoy-rope  will  become  hawser-laid,  and  will  not 
uhreeve.  But  this  may  be,  in  a  great  measure,  remedied 
by  having  one  part  plain-laid  ana  the  other  back-handed 
rope. 

Sometimes  a  buoy  will  not  watch,  from  its  having  filled 
with  water^  or  from  the  buoy-rope  bein^  too  short,  particu- 
larly in  a  tide-way.  By  this  is  meant,  that  it  does  not  float 
on  the  surface  of  the  water.  In  the  former  case  it  will  be 
necessary  to  bleed  it,  that  is,  to  let  the  water  out.  In  the 
latter,  to  lengthen  the  buoy-rope. 

Buoys  are  generally  kept,  one  in  each  of  the  fore 
channels  for  common  use.  Spare  ones  are  kept  in  the 
hold. 

It  was  a  very  Rood  rule,  that  an  ^anchor  should  never  be 
let  go  without  a  buoy  attached.  But  since  the  screw  pro- 
peller has  been  introduced,  they  have  been  less  used, 
throu(|[h  fear  of  fouling  the  screw,  though  the  end  of  a 
chain  is  always  buoyed  m  slipping. 

To  Picls  Tip  IMooring-s  from  which  the  vessel 
has  previously  slipped.  Stand  in  and  reduce  sail  to  top- 
sails, or  slow  down  if  under  steam,  lower  a  boat,  coil  away 
a  hawser  in  her  and  let  her  pick  up  the  buoy-rojje  of  the 
chain,  attaching  the  hawser  to  it.  Tack  off  snore  if  neces- 
sary till  the  boat  has  picked  up  the  buoy,  then  stand  in  and 
round  to,  to  windward  of  the  buoy,  signal  the  boat  to  pull 
alongside.  Take  the  hawser-end  in  through  the  hawse- 
pipe,  and  run  it  in.  As  the  chain  comes  in,  make  sure  of 
enough  to  allow  for  bitting,  clap  on  stoppers  forward  of  the 
bitts  ;  bitt,  and  stopper  abaft ;  then  shackle  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible. 

To  ]M[a.ke  Fast  to  a  ]Mooi'iii«:  Bixo^. 
In  some  harbors  moorings  are  planted  for  vessels  to  ride  by, 
•in  order  that  they  may  occupy  in  swinging  as  little  space 
as  possible. 

On  approaching  the  buoy,  a  boat  may  be  sent  out  with 
the  hawser  to  make  fast  and  return,  or  she  may  leave  the 
ship  with  the  end  of  the  hawser,  just  after  clewing  up. 
Warp  the  ship  up  by  the  hawser  to  the  buoy,  unshackle  the 
bower-chain  from  its  anchor  and  shackle  to  the  buoy,  veer 


5il4  GROUND-TACKX.E. 

a  few  fathoms  and  put  a  bull  rope  on  the  buoy  from  the  end 
of  the  bowsprit  to  keep  it  clear  of  the  stem. 

The  boat  which  carries  the  warp  should  contain  a  maul, 
mooring-shackle,  spare  earing,  ana  a  tail-block.  The  earing 
is  used  to  secure  the  shackle  to  ^uard  against  losing  it  over- 
board while  shackling.  The  tail-block,  secured  to  the  ring 
of  the  buoy,  is  for  a  hauling  line  to  get  the  chain  in  position 
for  shackling. 

When  picking  up  moorings,  have  an  anchor  ready  for 
letting  go,  in  case  of  accident. 

I^^-ing*  at  Wiiio[-l^  A^nclior^  to  Veer 
Cal:>le9  Blo^wing-  Hard.  Veer  away,  by  short 
drifts  at  a  time,  through  the  compressors  and  laniards  of 
the  deck-stoppers.  If  it  is  blowing  a  gale,  with  a  heavy 
sea,  it  would  be  necessary  to  veer  with  a  deck-tackle.  A 
ghip  in  this  case,  would  double  bitt  before  veering,  if  re- 
quired, and  send  down  her  spars,  and  let  go  other  anchors 
as  necessary. 

^Wliv  v^e  Veer  Cable  in  Heavy 
^Weatner.  It  is  a  prevalent  but  fallacious  notion, 
that^  even  when  used  in  deep  water  and  with  a  severe 
strain,  the  curvature  or  deflection  of  chain  is  considerable, 
and  that  near  the  anchor  it  rests  upon  the  ^ound  undis- 
turbed by  either  the  pitching  motion  of  the  ship,  or  the  ten- 
sion which  she  causes.  At  a  testing  strain  of  six  hundred 
and  thirty  pounds  per  eighth-inch  of  circumference,  the 
utmost  deflection  was  found  to  be  only  ten  feet  upon  a 
length  of  one  hundred  fathoms,  in  ten  fathoms  water,  with 
the  hawse-hole  a  fathom  above  the  surface ;  the  diameter 
of  the  chain  being  one  and  one-half  inches,  and  the  strain 
forty  and  one-half  tons. 

In  a  common  gale,  which  would  produce  this  strain,  not 
one  link  of  the  one  hundred  fathoms  of  chain  will  quietly 
rest  upon  the  ground  ;  on  the  contrary,  it  will  be  found  by 
the  experiments  on  a  depth  of  ten  fathoms,  that  127.98 
fathoms  of  chain  are  required  to  form  a  semi-catenary* 
when  suspended  in  air,  and  137.03  fathoms  when  in  water. 
If  the  strain  be  less,  the  curvature  will  be  greater,  and  no 
danger  need  be  apprehended ;  but  in  a  severe  gale,  the 
force  of  which  may  be  supposed  equal  to,  or  nearly  equal 
to,  a  breaking  strain,  a  long  scope  is  the  only  way  to  pre- 
vent a  fatal  result ;  and  any  man  in  charge  of  a  ship  at 
anchor,  with  the  necessary  quantity  of  chain  cable  on 
board,  and  space  astern  to  allow  him  to  make  use  of  it,  but 
who  neglects  to  do  so,  must  be  considered  the  author  of  his 
own  misfortune,  whether  it  amount  to  the  loss  of  his 
anchor  or  the  loss  of  his  ship. 

To    Increase    tlie    Value    of  a    Liong- 

*  A  catenary  is  the  curve  fonned  by  a  flexible  chain  of  unlfonn  density  and 
thickness  when  allowed  to  bang  freely  between  two  points. 


GROUND-TACKLE.  215 

Scope.  To  increase  the  deflection  of  the  cable  and  bring 
the  strain  on  the  anchor,  more  in  a  horizontal  direction,  a 
heavy  kedja^e  may  be  shackled  or  lashed  to  the  bight  of  the 
riding  cable  just  before  veering  for  bad  weather.  This  is 
similar  to  ^^ backing"  an  anchor. 

ILietting-  Gro  A-dditional  .A.iichoi*s.  In 
preparing  to  ride  out  a  gale  at  anchor,  if  the  holding- 
ground  is  even  moderately  good,  a  ship  will  hold  on  longer 
and  certainljr  ride  easier  with  all  her  chain  on  two  anchors, 
than  by  letting  go  all  four  anchors  with  comparatively 
short  scopes.  Circumstances  may  compel  a  ship  to  depend 
for  safety  upon  the  number  of  anchors  down,  as  in  the  case 
of  a  crowded  harbor  with  insuflScient  room  to  veer  ^  but 
with  more  than  two  anchors  down,  unless  systematically 
laid  out  in  fine  weather,  there  is  little  probability  of  the 
strain  being  equally  divided.  Vessels  anchored  in  this  way 
have  snapped  their  cables  onejafter  another  from  the  effect 
of  the  sudden  jerks  upon  a  short  scope  such  as  a  hundred 
fathoms  would  be  in  a  gale  of  great  severity. 

Having  plenty  of  room  astern,  and  with  four  cables 
each  120  fathoms  long,  veer  to  60  fathoms  on  the  anchor 
down,  say  the  starboard  bower,  let  go  the  port  bower. 
Lengthen  each  bower  chain  by  the  sheet  chain  on  its  side, 
and  veer  two  cables  on  the  starboard  and  one  and  a  half  on 
the  port  bower.  There  remains  on  board  one-half  the  port 
sheet-cable  available  for  adding  30  fathoms  to  each  anchor 
down. 

To  use  three  anchors,  the  distribution  of  chain  would 
be  :  starboard  bower  (the  anchor  down),  with  90  fathoms  of 
starboard  sheet,  the  port  bower  lengthened  by  the  remain- 
ing 30  fathoms  of  tne  starboard  sheet  chain,  and  a  whole 
cable  on  the  port  sheet.  Having  veered  to  CO  fathoms  on 
the  starboard  bower  let  go  the  port  bower,  veer  30  fathoms, 
and  let  eo  the  port  sheet.  Veering  to  the  full  scope,  the 
starboard  bower  would  have  one  and  three-quarter  cables, 

?ort  bower,  one  and  a  quarter,  and  port  sheet,  one  cable, 
'he  arrangement  assumes,  1st,  that  a  scope  of  less  than 
100  fathoms  is  of  comparatively  little  value:  2d,  that  60 
fathoms  would  probably  be  veered  in  any  case  oef ore  letting 
go  a  second  anchor ;  3d,  that  the  anchors  should  have  as 
nearly  equal  a  scope  as  the  second  condition  admits. 

For  a  modern  steamer  with  well-proportioned  ground- 
tackle,  good  holding  ground  and  plenty  of  room  astern,  the 
plan  of  using  two  anchors  with  tlie  longest  possible  scope 
IS  considered  the  best. 

Ua^ekin^  an  Anchor.  When  the  holding  ground 
is  bad  an  anchor  may  be  "backed"  bv  another. 

In  backing  an  anchor  during  a  gale  after  it  is  down,  the 
backing  hawser  or  chain  is  taten  round  the  riding  cable 
and  secured  loosely  in  order  that  it  may  slide  down  and 
along  it  when  the  backing  anchor  is  let  go.    A  large  shackle 


*^iO  GROUND-TACKLE. 

might  be  used  for  this  purpose  on  the  riding  cable,  and  the 
backing  chain  shackled  to  it. 

To  Back  an  .^nehoi*  i^rhen  P*repai*liigr 
for  €L  Girale.  Heave  in  or  veer  away  on  the  anchor 
down,  say  starboard  bower,  till  you  bring  the  fourth  shackle 
some  few  fathoms  abaft  the  bitts ;  stopper,  unshackle,  and 
unbitt ;  pass  the  end  out  and  shackle  it  to  the  ring  of  the 
port  bower,  which  has  been  eased  down  to  the  hawse-hole  ; 
off  stopper,  and  ride  by  port  bower  cable,  with  its  anchor  at 
the  bows  until  the  gale  comes  on,  and  then  veer  it  down  to 
the  ground.  Should  the  ^ale  pass  off,  you  can  hai\g  the 
starboard  bower  cable  outside  by  the  clear-hawse  pendant, 
and  replace  both  in  their  original  position. 

If  on  veering,  to  sixty  fathoms  on  the  port  bower,  you 
found  the  gale  still  increasing,  shackle  the  remaining  surty 
fathoms  of  the  starboard  bower  to  it ;  let  go  starboara  sheet 
anchor,  and  veer  away  on  both.  Finally,  if  compelled  by 
the  violence  of  the  storm  to  make  the  utmost  of  your  re- 
sources, divide  the  remaining  sheet  chain  between  the  port 
bower  and  starboard  sheet.  There  will  then  be  sixty 
fathoms  between  the  starboard  bower  and  the  backing 
anchor  ;  two  hundred  and  forty  fathoms  on  the  port  bower, 
and  one  hundred  and  eighty  on  the  starboard  sheet. 

Anchors  have  been  oacKed  by  vessels  on  a  lee  shore, 
with  some  of  the  guns. 

Steaming'  up  to  A^yioIioith.  When  riding  out 
a  gale  at  anchor,  steamers  relieve  their  ground-tackle  by 
turning  the  eng^es.  •  But  care  must  be  taken  not  to  over- 
run the  cables,  as  in  that  case,  when  the  ship  goes  astern  to 
a  fresh  squall,  the  violent  strain  on  the  chains  would  prob- 
ably part  them  or  start  the  anchors. 

Wnen  a  ship  has  let  go  two  or  more  anchors,  in  a  gale, 
she  should  weigh  her  anchors  as  soon  as  the  gale  moderates  ; 
much  trouble  will  be  saved  bv  it. 

A.  Collier'M  Fm'cliaNe.  In  heavy  heaving,  a 
strap  may  be  put  on  the  cable  at  the  water's  edge,  hook  the 
cat  in  it  and  assist  in  that  manner.  This  is  Known  as  a 
collier's  purchase.  The  fish  may  be  clapped  on  to  the  cat- 
fall  and  taken  to  the  capstan. 

To  ^.ssist  in  Ilea  v.v  Heaving-*  Put  a  large 
block  on  the  cable,  near  the  hawse-hole,  reeve  a  hawser 
through  it,  belav  one  end  to  the  mainmast  or  bitts,  and 
clap  a  deck-tackle  on  the  other  end  ;  or  take  it  to  the  after- 
capstan. 

Some  vessels  (brigs  and  small  sloops)  use  the  deck-tackle 
entirely  in  weighing  their  anchors. 

In  using  a  deck-tackle,  particularly  in  a  large  ship,  much 
time  is  saved  by  having  a  whip  from  forward  to  assist  in 
overhauling  it. 

To  ^^nchoi*  toy  the  Stem.  This  may  be 
necessary  for  a  steamer  in  a  narrow  harbor,  where  the 


GROUND-TACKLE.  217 

vessel  is  too  long  to  turn,  or  in  a  stream  where  there  is  no 
room  ior  swinging  to  the  tide.  The  British  at  the  battle  of 
the  Nile  anchored  in  this  way  to  avoid  raking  broadsides  in 
rounding  to;  the  French  also  anchored  by  the  stem  at 
Sebastopol. 

As  snips  are  not  always  provided  with  appliances  for 
anchoring  in  this  way,  it  would  be  well  to  use  the  stream 
anchor  and  chain,  or  a  hawser,  in  performing  the  evolution, 
if  it  will  stand  the  strain  exi)ected. 

Get  up  the  stream-chain,  rouse  it  out  through  the  after- 
port,  haul  it  forward  outside  of  all  till  abreast  of  the  hatch 
where  the  anchor  is  stowed,  then  hoist  out  the  anchor, 
shackle  the  chain,  and  let  go  with  a  strap  and  squilgee,  or 
ease  the  anchor  down  to  the  bottom  with  the  bight  of  a 
hawser. 

Or,  transport  the  stream-anchor  to  the  cat-head  or 
stem,  as  may  be  most  convenient,  shackle  the  chain  there 
and  let  go. 

To  use  a  heavier  anchor,  rouse  up  the  sheet-chain  from 
below,  pass  it  through  the  after-port,  naul  the  end  forward 
by  a  ring-rope  to  the  sheet-anchor  and  shackle.  Bange  the 
intendea  scope  of  chain  on  deck.  In  the  absence  oi  after- 
bitts,  ring-bolts,  &c.,  have  plenty  of  stoppers  and  lashings 
passed;  a  stout  hawser  from  the  forward  bitts,  with  a 
couple  of  turns  taken  round  the  mainmast,  will  relieve  the 
compressor  of  some  of  the  strain  when  the  end  of  the  scope 
is  reached ;  the  cable  itself  might  be  taken  around  the 
mizzen-mast.  Stop  the  engine,  or  clew  up  and  furl  in  good 
time,  and  check  the  cable  as  much  as  possible  in  running 
out. 

In  all  cases  of  anchoring  by  the  stern,  or  with  springs 
from  aft,  use  slip-ropes  to  avoid  injury  to  the  rudder 
or  screw. 

To  Anchor  with.  a.  Spring-.  Rouse  up  the 
stream-chain  (or  a  hawser),  haul  it  aft,  as  in  anchoring  by 
the  stem,  and  thence  through  the  after-port  forward,  secure 
the  spring  to  the  bower.  Keeping  the  bower-chain  bent ; 
then  let  go  the  bower.  Now,  by  setting  taut  the  stream- 
chain  and  veering  on  the  cable,  the  ship's  broadside  is 
sprung  around,  chips  may  be  sprung  broadside  to  the 
wind,  in  warm  climates,  for  the  purpose  of  better  ventila- 
tion ;  or  in  engagements  at  ancnor,  to  bring  the  guns  to 
bear  on  various  points. 

Using  a  spring  from  the  bower  anchor  or  cable,  for  the 
purpose  of  getting  a  ship's  broadside  to  bear  steadily  on  any 
object,  can  never  be  equal  to  the  steadiness  acquired  by 
using  a  second  anchor,  with  a  stream-cable  or  hawser.  A 
spring  is  at  all  times  little  to  be  relied  on,  compared  with  a 
stem  anchor,  and  after  it  becomes  dark,  a  spring  will  much 
decrease  the  certainty  of  gun  practice.  If  a  ship  has  a 
good  scope  of  cable  with  one  anchor  ahead  and  tne  other 


^18  GROUND-TACKLE. 

astern,  rather  tautly  moored,  and  her  broadside  bearing 
well  on  the  object,  there  will  be  little  fear  of  her  sheering 
about  much.  But  should  it  be  requisite  to  fire  at  night  by 
previous  bearings,  then,  to  make  the  practice  more  certain, 
it  would  be  well  to  have  two  kedges,  with  two  good,  strong 
hawsers  laid  out  on  the  off  side,  one  on  the  bow  and  the 
other  on  the  quarter ;  the  hawser  from  aft  being  attached 
to  the  anchor  on  the  bow,  and  the  one  from  forward  to  the 
anchor  on  the  quarter ;  these  two  hawsers  crossing  each 
other  at  a  good  angle,  with  as  much  scope  as  possible,  well 
bowsed  taut,  will  insure  the  direction  oi^the  guns. 

THE  ''SARATOGA"  AT  THE  BATTLE  ON  LAKE 

CHAMPLAIN. 

As  the  success  of  the  "  Saratoga,"  in  this  action,  was 
mainly  due  to  the  superior  seamanship  of  her  officers,  as 
evinced  by  the  manner  of  working  her  kedges  and  hawsers, 
a  brief  description  of  that  part  of  the  action  may  be  in- 
structive, since  we  are  told  that  the  "  Confiance  "  (English), 
with  but  one  spring  on  her  cable,  got  just  so  far  round  as  to 
hang  while  exposed  to  a  raking,  while  the  "  Saratoga"  was 
*^  entirely  successful,  springing  her  broadside  successively 
on  ©very  vessel  wearing  the  British  flag." 

The  American  vessels  had  each  its  stream-anchor  hung 
over  the  stem,  the  cable  bent  ready  for  use  ;  and  besides 
the  usual  springs,  the  "Saratoga"  had  a  kedge  planted 
broad  off  each  bow,  the  hawser  of  each  leading  in  tnrou^h 
the  quarter  ports,  the  bights  hanging  in  the  water.  In  tne 
midst  of  the  fight,  on  firing  the  only  gun  (a  carronade)  re- 
maining mounted  in  the  starboard  battery  of  the  "  Saratoga," 
the  navel  bolt  broke  and  the  g^n  fiew  down  the  main  hatcn. 
The  attempt  was  then  made  to  wind  the  ship.  Fig.  433, 
Plate  m. 

To  this  end  the  stream-anchor  astern  was  let  go,  and 
clapping  on  the  starboard  quarter  line,  the  ship  was  roused 
over  to  the  kedge  on  that  side  ;  a  line  had  been  bent  to  the 
bight  of  the  stream-cable,  and  she  now  lay  with  her  stem 
to  the  raking  broadside  of  the  '  *  Linnet "  (position  2,  Fig. 
433,  Plate  93),  being  for  a  brief  space  in  a  critical  position, 
but  dipping  the  port  quarter  line  under  the  bows,  it  was 
passed  aft  to  the  starboard  quarter,  the  ship's  stem  sprimg 
to  the  westward,  and  the  port  battery  brought  to  bear  on 
the  enemy. 

Havixigr  ancliorecl  ^with  a  sprtxig'  to  the 
stern,  to  heave  vxp.  If  the  ship  is  stillriding  by 
the  stem  cable,  heave  in  the  bower,  veer  away  the  stern 
cable,  set  the  spanker,  and  wind  the  ship.  Hang  the 
stem  cable  outside  (or  stopper  it) ;  pass  a  stout  hawser 
out  of  the  sheet  hawse-hole ;  pass  the  end  aft,  outside  of 


OROUND-TACKLE.  219 

everything,  and  bend  it  to  the  stern  cable  at  the  nearest 
shackle.  Unshackle,  and  let  the  cable  go:  man  the 
hawser,  and  walk  the  cable  in  through  the  hawse-hole. 
When  taut  in,  clap  a  deck-tackle  on  it,  take  the  bower 
cable  to  the  capstan  and  heave  round.  Walk  away  with 
the  deck-tackle  as  the  bower  chain  comes  in.  When  the 
anchor  is  up,  unshackle  or  unbend  the  spring  and  haul  it 
inboard  out  of  the  way. 

rFo  Slip  SI.  OliAin.  In  preparing  to  slip,  put  a 
buoy-rope  on  the  chain,  stout  enough  to  weigh  it,  lead 
the  Duoy-rope  out  through  the  hawse-pipe  and  to  the  fore- 
chains,  where  it  is  made  fast  to  a '  smaller  line,  equal  to 
the  depth  of  water,  and  bent  on  to  the  buoy.  The  buoy 
sustaining  only  the  weight  of  the  small  line,  can  then 
watch  properly. 

Stopper  the  cable  forward  of  the  bitts,  or  heave  down 
the  forward  compressor ;  have  the  shackle  well  abaft  the 
bitts.  Unshackle,  stream  the  buoy,  and  slip  by  cutting  the 
stopper  or  heaving  up  the  compressor. 

In  slipping,  give  a  turn  or  two  of  the  propeller  astern 
before  starting  ahead,  to  ensure  clearing  the  buoy-rope. 

Stand  clear  of  the  end  of  the  chain  as  it  runs  out  and 
see  that  it  does  not  f  ouL 


CHAPTER  XV. 

CAPSTAN  STEAM  WINDLASS -STEERING  QEAR. 

Tlie  Oappjtan.  The  mechanical  power  employed 
in  ships  to  lieave  in  the  cable,  and  thereby  raise  the  anchor, 
is  a  modification  of  the  wheel  and  axle ;  it  is  technically  de- 
nominated a  capstan,  on(»  portion  of  which,  called  ihe  bar- 
rel, around  which  the  rope  is  wound,  answering  to  the  axle 
of  a  mechanical  machine ;  the  other  part,  the  head  with  the 
bars,  being  analogous  to  the  wheel.  To  set  this  machine  in 
motion,  a  moving  power  (the  crew  or  steam)  is  applied  to 
the  wheel,  and  the  rope  being  by  this  means  wrapped  around 
the  barrel  of  the  capstan,  the  weight  or  cable  is  raised.  The 
cable  itself  comes  to  the  capstan  in  all  modem  forms  of 
that  power.  Formerly,  however,  cables  were  connected  to 
the  capstan  by  means  of  a  rope  or  chain,  styled  a  messengeVy 
which  did  pass  around  the  capstan  and  was  made  to  unite 
itself  firmly  to  the  cable  by  means  of  nippers. 

The  messenger,'  which  may  still  be  seen  in  use  on  old- 
fashioned  capstans,  is  commonly  a  rope  or  chain  formed 
into  a  long  loop,  and,  when  of  rope,  long  enough  to  allow 
of  three  or  four  turns  around  the  barrel  of  tne  capstan, 
and  then  for  each  part  to  reach  to  a  vertical  roller  in  the 
manger,  where  the  ends  are  united  to  form  the  loop  re- 
quired. This  loop,  moving  around  the  roller  and  capstan, 
when  the  latter  is  set  in  motion,  draws  the  cable  inboard 
and  aft  when  united  to  it  by  the  nippers.  When  a  chain 
messenger  is  used  its  links  work  over  studs  placed  around 
the  barrel  of  the  capstan.  A  rope  messenger  goes  around 
the  barrel  itself  ana  increases  the  length  required  by  three 
or  four  turns  around  the  barrel,  which  have  to  be  taken  to 
prevent  slipping. 

A  frigate  is  usually  fitted  with  a  double  capstan,  the 
upper  barrel  being  on  the  spar  deck,  the  lower  on  the  main 
deck,  on  which  the  hawse-holes  are  also  placed.  Connect- 
ing "  drop  pauls,"  or  pins,  connect  the  upper  with  the  lower 
capstan. 

The  holes  in  the  head  of  the  capstan  are  termed  pigeon- 
holes. Thev  receive  the  capstan  bars  which  work  the 
capstan.     To  secure  these  bars,  holes   have  been  bored 

220 


"0=^=TT 


rj 


^ip 


13 


CAPSTAN — STEAM  WINDLASS  —  STEERING   GEAR.  221 

through  the  head  of  the  capstan  and  through  the  bars  and 
pins  placed  in  them.  At  present  the  capstan  bars  are 
usually  kept  in  place  only  by  a  rope  wound  around  their 
outer  ends,  joining  them  together  and  called  a  swiftering 
line. 

The  drumrhead  is  the  circular  top  of  the  capstan,  in 
which  are  the  pigeon-holes. 

Pauls  are  stops  which  are  fitted  so  as  to  drop  from  the 
sides  of  the  capstan  against  apaul-rim  or  rackety  to  prevent 
the  recoil  of  the  capstan. 

The  ribs  or  sides  of  the  capstan  are  termed  whelps. 

Fig.  439,  Plate  06,  represents  the  American  capstan,  the 
chain  being  taken  directly  without  the  use  of  the  messenger. 

Fig.  440,  Plate  90,  shows  Brown's  patent  capstan. 

6,  elevation  of  the  lower  capstan  with  fittings  at  the 
lower  part  of  it  formed  of  iron,  the  ribs  or  vnld  cats,  g  g, 
in  it,  acting  like  teeth  or  sprockets  to  clasp  the  cable, 
similar  to  the  sprocket-wheel  with  studs,  as  shown,  i?.  Fig. 
439. 

Plate  96,  of  the  common  capstan. 

c,  elevation  of  a  friction  roller,  round  which  the  cable  is 
wound,  as  shown  on  the  plan,  three  or  four  being  used  as 
marked. 

dy  of  the  plan,  shows  the  controller  for  stopping  the 
cable.     See  also  Fig.  441. 

hy  the  cable  leading  to  the  hawse-hole.  The  method  of 
bringing  the  cable  to  the  capstan  may  be  traced  on  the 
plan  ;  the  links  shown  in  dotted  lines  being  those  in  contact 
with  the  ribs  (gg)  of  the  elevation. 

The  "W^indlaHH  used  in  small  vessels  is  a  capstan 
with  the  barrel  worked  horizontally,  the  power  bein^  ap- 
plied by  levers,  which  are  shipped  or  worked  in  holes 
similar  to  those  in  the  capstan-head. 

In  bringing  a  hawser  to  a  capstan,  take  three  or  four 
round  turns  around  the  barrel,  the  inboard  part  being 
always  the  upper  turn. 

The  Hyde  Steam  AVincllasK  and  Cap- 
stan 9  Plates  97  and  98,  is  in  use  on  board  U.  S.  battle-ships 
of  the  Alabama  and  Wisconsin  type.  This  machinery  is 
built  by  the  Hyde  Windlass  Co.  of  Bath,  Me. 

The  Windlass  and  Capstan  are  driven  by  a  vertical 
double  engine,  the  cylinders  of  which  A,  A,  are  15  inches 
diameter,  14  inches  stroke.  The  engines  are  reversed  by 
link  motion  worked  by  the  hand  wheel  B.  The  crank  shaft 
C,  extends  under  the  windlass  shaft,  and  carries  a  worm 
which  engages  the  worm-wheel  D,  driving  the  windlass. 
Forward  of  this  is  another  worm  whi(;h  ciiga^c^s  the  worm- 
wheel  E,  which  drives  the  capstan.  The  rims  of  both  these 
wheels  are  independent.  By  throwing  out  the  pawls  F,  F, 
on  the  windlass  gear,  the  capstan  may  bc^  run  independently 
in  either  direction.     In  a  like  manner,  by  working  the  hand 


222         CAPSTAN  —  STEAM   WINDLASS — STEERING  GEAR. 

wheel,  G,  the  pawls  in  the  worm-wheel  E,  are  lifted  clear 
and  the  windlass  may  be  run  independently  of  the  capstan. 

In  heaving  in  chain,  the  capstan  being  unlocked,  the 
pawls  F,  F,  mentioned  above,  are  thrown  in.  The  wild- 
cats H,  H,  are  locked  by  the  pawls  J,  J,  which  are  thrown 
in  and  out,  by  the  sleeves  K,  K,  and  the  engine  started 
ahead.  Or,  if  it  be  desired  to  veer  the  chain  by  power,  the 
backing  pawl  L,  is  thrown  in,  and  the  engine  reversed. 

In  veering  chain,  the  wild-cats  are  unlocked  by  sleeves 
K,  K,  and  are  free  to  revolve.  Their  motion  is  then  con- 
trolled by  the  friction  bands  M,  M,  which  are  set  up  by  the 
hand  wheels  N,  N.  These  friction  bands  are  used  also  to 
control  the  chd,in  when  riding  in  heavy  weather;  the  chain 
in  this  case  being  unstoppered. 

The  Capstan  O,  is  so  arranged  that  it  may  be  used  as  a 
hand  capstan,  in  the  usual  manner.  It  revolves  at  the  same 
rate  as  the  bars,  when  they  are  worked  in  a  right  hand  direc- 
tion ;  and  at  one-third  of  this  speed,  when  they  are  worked 
in  the  left  hand  direction,  giving  increased  power,  the  bar- 
rel in  either  case  revolving  in  one  direction. 

When  used  by  steam,  by  inserting  pins  in  the  base  of 
barrel  Q,  it  is  locked  to  the  sleeve  gear,  and  the  pawls  P, 
being  lifted,  it  is  free  to  be  worked  in  either  direction. 

The  windlass  is  so  arranged,  that,  for  ordinary  opera- 
tions, little  attention  to  the  pawls  is  necessary ;  as,  in  heav- 
ing in  chain,  the  engine  is  run  ahead,  the  capstan  being 
free  to  revolve.  If  it  be  desired  to  work  the  capstan  ahead, 
the  engine  is  reversed,  the  windlass  automatically  remain- 
ing stationary. 

The  windlass  is  composed,  almost  entirely,  of  forgings 
and  steel,  or  bronze,  castings,  to  insure  the  utmost  protec- 
tion against  breakage,  and  the  minimum  of  weight. 

Steam  Steering*  Cireai*.  The  following  is  a 
description  of  the  latest  patent  of  the  steam  steering  gear 
of  Williamson  Bro's  Co.,  of  Philadelphia,  as  applied  to  the 
battle-ships  of  the  United  States  Navy. 

Plate  99  shows  plan  and  side  elevation.  The  engine 
moves  the  rudder  by  means  of  a  screw  shaft  G,  on  which 
work  sleeves,  or  driving  nuts,  connected  to  side  rods  from 
the  yoke  of  the  rudder.  One-half  the  length  of  the  threaded 
part  of  the  screw  shaft  is  right  handed  and  the  other  half 
left  handed,  so  that  the  sleeves  simultaneously  approach 
towards,  or  recede  from,  each  other;  both  side  rods  thus 
acting  to  turn  the  rudder  in  the  same  direction. 

To  operate  the  engines,  see  that  the  necessary  clutches 
are  in,  and  that  the  proper  connections  are  made:  revolve 
the  automatic  shaft  L  by  turning  the  small  steering  wheel  I 
in  either  direction  a  sufficient  number  of  turns  to  give  the 
desired  movement  to  the  rudder. 


The  Hyde  Steam  Windlass  and  Capstan. 


The  Hyde  Steom  Windlois  ond  Copston . 


CAPSTAN  —  STEAM   WINDLASS  —  STEERING   GEAR.  223 

The  movement  of  the  automatic  shaft  gives  horizontal 
motion  to  a  sleeve  working  on  a  threaded  portion  of  it. 
The  horizontal  motion  of  the  sleeve  moves  a  rock  shaft 
that  opens  the  reversing  valve  and  admits  steam  to  the 
steering  engine  H. 

The  engine  H  revolves  the  screw  shaft  G  which,  as 
above  described,  moves  the  rudder. 

This  motion  continues  until  the  rudder  is  in  the  desired 
position,  shown  by  pointers  on  a  dial  plate.  The  steering 
wheel  is  then  stopped.  A  spur  wheel,  carried  by  the  screw 
shaft,  gears  into  a  spur  wheel  that  turns  the  slec^ve  on  the 
automatic  shaft,  moving  the  sleeve  in  an  opposite  direction 
to  that  originally  given  it,  thereby  closing  the  reversing 
valve.* 

The  rudder  is  then  rigidly  held  in  this  position.  To 
move  the  rudder,  simply  turn  the  small  steering  wheel  I, 
and  the  operation  is  repeated. 

The  automatic  shaft  may  be  revolved  from  the  pilot 
house,  conning  tower,  or  any  steering  station  in  the  ship 
by  means  of  transmission  ropes  wound  on  drums  J.  The 
motion  of  the  drum  is  transmitted  by  gearing  as  shown  in 
the  plates. 

The  hydraulic  telemotor  K  is  used  to  obtain  the  same 
motion  required  of  the  transmission  ropes,  that  is,  to  operate 
the  automatic  shaft  and  by  it,  as  already  described,  the  re- 
versing valve. 

The  hydraulic  system  is  really  the  primary  system,  the 
transmission  ropes  being  intended  as  secondary,  to  be  used 
in  case  of  injury  to  the  hydraulic  system.  The  two  pipes 
can  be  run  in  any  direction  desired.  The  movement  of  the 
steering  wheel  is  very  easy,  the  only  friction  to  overcome 
being  that  of  the  hydraulic  pistons. 

To  steer  by  hand,  throw  out  clutch  M,  and  any  others 
that  move  unnecessary  parts.  See  clutchc^s  to  hand  wheels 
in  place.  Man  the  wheels.  From  the  upper  decks  the  power 
is  transmitted  through  shafting,  such  as  at  O,  from  the  steer- 
ing room,  as  indicated  at  P. 

Some  of  our  battle-ships,  such  as  the  Iowa,  are  fitted 
with  an  electric  telemotor.  Electric  motors  are  used  to  give 
motion  to  the  automatic  shaft,  and  through  it  to  open  and 
close  the  reversing  valve. 

Tlie  Hycli^aiilie  Stec^i-ing-  Ci^ofii",  The  ar- 
rangement of  yoke  and  side  rods  is  practic^ally  the  same  as 
for  the  steam  steering  gear  just  described.  The  forward  onds 
of  the  side  rods  form  cross  heads  to  piston  rods  working  in 
two  hydraulic  cylinders,  one  on  each  side.  The  forward 
end  of  each  cylinder  is  conne(*ted  l)y  a  pip(^  with  the  after 
end  of  the  other  cylinder.  Each  of  th(*se  pipes  is  connected 
to  one  of  two  pipes  of  the  main  hydraulic  system  which 


\ 


234         CAPSTAN  —  STEAM   WINDLASS  —  STEERIN(J   GEAR. 

operates  as  supply  and  exhaust  alternately,  according  to  the 
direction  of  the  rudder. 

Turning  the  steering  wheel  by  means  of  transmission 
ropes,  from  any  part  of  the  vessel,  opens  valves  which  admit 
water  into  one  or  the  other  of  the  first  mentioned  pipes,  as 
the  helm  is  to  go  to  starbord  or  to  port,  and  allows  it  to  ex- 
haust through  the  other. 

By  means  of  a  system  of  levers  connected  to  the  cross- 
heads  of  the  side  rods,  a  reverse  motion  is  given  to  the 
valves,  thus  closing  them  automatically,  when  the  steering 
wheel  stops.  The  rudder  is  held  firmly  in  place  by  the 
water  which  fills  the  hydraulic  cylinders  on  both  sides  of 
the  piston. 

The  change  from  hydraulic  to  hand  power,  or  vice  versa, 
is  simple  and  rapid. 

The  r^neixmatic  Steei*ii:igr  Ci-eai*.  In  this 
the  work  is  done  by  two  horizontal  cylinders  arranged  one 
on  each  side  of  the  tiller.  They  are  provided  with  a  com- 
mon piston  rod.  in  the  centre  of  which  is  a  hollow  cross- 
head  in  which  the  tiller  is  free  to  slide  as  it  is  moved  from 
side  to  side  by  the  pistons. 

Compressed  air  is  admitted  to  the  outer  ends  of  the 
cylinders  by  means  of  a  D-valve,  the  air  being  simultan- 
eously admitted  at  the  back  of  one  piston  and  exhausted 
from  the  other.  The  inner  ends  of  the  cylinders  are  con- 
nected by  a  pipe  so  that  the  air  may  flow  freely  from  one 
to  the  other  as  the  pistons  move.  In  the  centre  of  the  con- 
necting pipe  is  a  by-pass  valve  which  is  open  when  the 
tiller  is  being  moved,  but  closes  when  it  has  moved  through 
the  desired  angle  and  holds  the  air  in  the  cylinders,  thus 
locking  the  tiller  between  two  elastic  cushions. 

The  valve  admitting  the  compressed  air  can  be  worked 
from  any  steering  station  in  the  vessel  by  means  of  trans- 
mission ropes,  or  by  means  of  electric  motors. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  general  arrangement  of 
yoke,  side  rods,  and  the  applying  of  power,  is  practically  the 
same  in  each  system.  To  steer  with  tiller  only,  take  out  the 
bolts  connecting  the  side  rods  to  the  sleeves,  or  cross-heads. 

In  these  several  designs  the  customary  practice  is  ob- 
served of  heaving  the  wheel  in  direction  the  ship's  head  is 
to  go. 


CHAPTER    XVI. 

MOORING- CLEARING   HAWSE. 

In  speaking  of  a  vessel  as  moored,  we  may  refer  to  the 
use  of  fixed  moorings  in  a  harbor  or  alongsiae  of  a  wharf ; 
or  the  ship  may  be  moored  head  and  stern.  But  the  ex- 
pression, as  generally  understood,  means  (when  her  own 
^ound-tackle  is  used)  that  the  ship  has  two  anchors  down 
in  opposite  directions  from  the  vessel,  one  cable  having  been 
made  rather  taut  before  the  second  anchor  was  let  go,  and 
there  being  an  equal  scope  on  each  chain. 

If  a  ship  lets  go  her  single  anchor  (say  in  5  fathoms),  in 
the  very  centre  of  a  harbor,  which  we  will  call  about  200 
fathoms  wide,  and  ^^  steep  to,"  all  around,  and  then  veers 
100  fathoms  of  cable,  she  would  occupy  every  part  of  the 
harbor,  as  the  wind  or  current  happened  to  move  her. 

If  it  be  desired  to  keep  her  stationary  in  the  centre, 
shortening  the  cable  in  to  5  fathoms  would  not  effect  it,  for 
the  first  puflf  of  wind  would  cause  her  to  start  her  anchor. 

But  let  us  ascertain  from  what  quarter  the  prevailing 
heaviest  wind  blows;  weigh,  haul  over,  and  let  go  an 
anchor  in  that  direction,  60  fathoms  from  the  centre  ;  then, 
with  a  warp,  haul  the  ship  over  in  the  very  opposite  direc- 
tion, veering  the  cable  1;;^0  fathoms  from  tne  last  position, 
and  then  let  go  the  second  anchor.  Now  heave  in  60 
fathoms  of  the  first  cable,  veering  60  fathoms  on  the  last, 
and  we  shall  have  the  ship  moored  in  a  stationary  position 
in  the  centre  of  the  harbor ;  and  many  other  ships  (suppose 
room  on  each  side)  may  share  the  harbor  by  similar  means, 
as  shown  by  the  full-lined  ship  is  Fig.  443,  Plate  100. 

Now  with  regard  to  the  direction.  Say  that  the  prevail- 
ing gales  are  northerly,  and  one  comes  on  from  that  quarter 
so  heavy  that  we  should  veer  cable.  If  the  other  ships  have 
attended  properly  to  this  contingency,  all  may  veer  simul- 
taneously without  fouling  each  other,  and  the  riding  cable 
of  each  ship  will  tend  straight  to  their  weather  anchors ;  in 
other  words,  they  will  all  have  open  berths  and  open  hawse, 
as  shown  by  the  dotted  line  ships  in  Fig.  443. 

It  is  clear  that  with  a  long  scope  of  cable,  we  have  all 
the  additional  weight  of  chain  in  our  favor ;  the  ship's  bows 
are  less  dragged  downward  than  at  a  short  stay,  and  the 

325 


\- 


226  MOORING  —  CLEARING   HAWSE. 

pull  on  the  anchor  approaching  the  horizontal,  the  palm 
bites  all  the  harder.  Some  officers  prefer  veering,  even  as 
much  as  two  cables  on  end,  to  letting  go  other  anchors. 

Now  suppose  that  one  or  both  of  the  other  ships  had 
moored  without  regard  to  the  position  of  their  anchors  and 
the  direction  of  the  prevailing  gales.  Plate  100,  Figs.  444, 
445,  shows  what  would  happen  in  case  it  should  come  on  to 
blow,  and  each  vessel  had  to  veer;  also  the  trouble  that 
would  ensue  in  getting  under  way. 

Hence  it  is,  that,  when  a  flag  oflBcer  desires  to  have 
his  ships  as  close  together  as  possible,  he  orders  them  to 
moor ;  and  to  prevent  collisions  while  veering  or  picking  up 
their  anchors,  he  points  out  the  direction  of  the  anchors. 
To  preserve,  likewise,  an  imposing  and  well-dressed  line,  he 
specifies  the  quantity  of  cable  that  is  to  be  veered  by  each, 
and  also  enforces  the  use  of  buoys,  that  each  ship  may  be 
enabled  to  ascertain  the  position  of  another's  anchors. 

These  are  some,  but  not  all,  of  the  reasons  for  mooring. . 
For  instance,  in  a  river  too  narrow  for  a  ship  to  swing  in  at 
single  anchor  without  grounding,  or  too  shoal  to  do  so 
witnout  striking  on  the  upper  pee  of  her  anchor,  and  per- 
haps settling  on  it  as  the  tide  fell,  it  would  be  necessary  to 
make  her  a  fixture.  But  this  also  would  require  considera- 
tion. By  laving  the  anchors  out  in  a  line  with  the  stream, 
they  would  be  in  the  best  position  for  holding,  in  the  event 
of  freshets  or  gales  coming  on,  in  concert  with  the  tide ; 
but,  excepting  the  small  distance  she  could  sheer  by  the 
action  of  the  helm,  her  exposure  to  collisions  from  an 
enemy's  fire-ships  or  rafts  dropping  down  with  the  tide,  or 
from  vessels  navigating  the  river,  would  be  great ;  whereas, 
by  having  the  anchors  athwart  the  stream,  either  cable 
could  be  veered,  and  the  ship  quickly  moved  to  one  side  or 
other. 

If  the  water  is  shoaler  than  the  ship  can  reach,  one 
anchor  may  be  carried  out  in  a  boat,  and  a  greater  scope 
given  in  consequence. 

When  it  is  optional,  moor  in  northern  latitudes  with 
reference  to  the  chances  being  strongly  in  favor  of  gales 
beginning  at  southwest,  and  ending  at  northwest. 

For  the  same  reason,  in  northern  latitudes  lie  at  single 
anchor  with  the  port  bower ;  if  you  have  to  let  go  tne 
starboard  anchor,  you  will  then  have  open  hawse. 

If  safety  is  the  only  consideration,  and  there  is  plenty  of 
room  to  swing,  a  ship  is  obviously  better  oflf  when  riding 
at  single  anchor  than  when  moored.  For  upon  the  appear- 
ance of  a  gale,  you  can  veer  at  pleasure  and  be  certain  of 
having  your  second  anchor  in  line  with  the  wind  when  let 

go,  with  a  long  scope  on  each  chain.  A  vessel  which  has 
een  moored  never  nas  both  cables  in  line  with  the  wind, 
except  when  the  ship  is  just  between  them,  and  therefore 
only  riding  by  one,  or  after  veering,  when  she  lays  with  a 


i 


Plate  100 


/ 


iJ 


B'ig.  443 


B'ltf.  440 


\J 


MOORING  —  CLEARING   HAWSE.  227 

very  long  scope  on  one  chain,  and  a  correspondingly  short 
scope  on  the  other. 

When  moored  and  veering  in  a  gale,  the  anchors  being 
in  the  direction  of  the  wind,  the  lee  cable  must  be  shortened 
in  to  prevent  dragging  it  over  its  anchor;  for  there  is 
some  nsk  of  tripping  the  lee  anchor  as  the  weather  cable 
is  veered. 

A  ship  should  never  be  girt  by  her  moorinja^s.  At  such  a 
place  as  Panama,  for  example,  where  the  rise  and  fall  of 
the  tide  are  very  great,  suppose  a  ship  were  to  be  moored 
and  both  chains  hove  taut  at  low  water.  The  ^reat  strain 
brought  on  her  by  the  rising  tide,  provided  the  anchors 
held,  majr  be  imagined ;  and  if,  in  addition  to  this,  she 
should  swing  around  several  times  and  foul  her  hawse,  the 
effect  on  her  copper  and  fastenings  would  soon  tell. 

Preparations  forl^Iooring-,  StationK, 
etc.  All  hands  having  been  called  to  ''moor  ship,"  the 
first  lieutenant  takes  the  deck,  and  the  other  officers  repair 
to  their  stations  as  in  ' '  bringing  ship  to  anchor. "  The  officer 
of  the  forecastle  will  see  hands  by  the  anchor  to  be  let  go, 
and  will  give  directions  to  those  on  the  main  deck  as  to 
veering,  &c. 

The  officer  of  the  forecastle  will  see  the  second  anchor 
ready  for  letting  go,  and  the  chain  clear.  Let  us  suppose 
that  the  starboard  anchor  was  first  let  go,  the  port  one  must 
then  be  ready.  He  will  see  all  clear  for  veering  on  the 
starboard  cable,  and  men  at  their  stations  as  in  ''coming 
to."  When  the  starboard  cable  is  veered  as  far  as  necessary, 
he  will  *' bring  to"  on  it,  and  unbitt  the  port  one,  for 
convenience  in  veering,  unless  in  very  deep  water.  The 
boatswain  attends  on  the  forecastle,  and  pipes  as  directed 
by  the  lieutenant  in  charge  of  the  forecastle.  The  car- 
penter, with  his  crew,  will  ship  and  swifter  in  the  capstan 
bars,  put  on  gratings,  knock  up  stanchions,  &c.,  and  report 
to  the  lieutenant  in  charge  of  main  deck  when  ready. 

The  principal  stations  of  the  crew  are,  to  man  both  cap- 
stans, to  veer  cable,  on  deck  at  the  wheel,  the  lead,  signals, 
by  the  anchor,  two  men  in  each  top,  a  man  at  each  mast 
to  attend  gear.  Tierers  below,  compressor-men  on  berth- 
deck.  In  a  modern  ship  a  man  is  stationed  to  run  the  steam 
capstan.     See  steam  turned  on,  &c. 

Having-  ^A^ncliox-ecl  >^^itli  that  ^^iow  — 
to  IWCoor  iShip.  The  first  anchor  having  been  let  go 
in  the  proper  position,  and  with  reference  to  the  state  of 
the  hawse  to  prevailing  winds,  the  first  lieutenant  will  in- 
form the  officer  of  the  forecastle  as  to  the  scope  he  wishes 
on  each  chain.  The  officer  of  the  forecastle  will  veer  away 
to  double  this  range  (supposing  an  equal  scope  on  each), 
keeping  the  last  shackle  abaft  the  bitts,  for  otherwise,  sup- 
posing the  chain  well.laid  out,  it  would  be  mooring  too  taut. 


228  MOORING  —  CLEARING  HAWSE. 

The  mizzen  topsail  may  be  set,  if  necessary,  and  the  ship 
sheered  with  it,  and  the  helm,  to  the  position  of  the  second 
anchor.  The  chain  must  be  laid  well  out  before  the  second 
anchor  is  let  go ;  when  the  second  anchor  is  let  go  the  first 
lieutenant  directs  the  boatswain  to  call  '*furl  sail,"  and 
having  furled  them,  will  direct  him  to  call  '*moor  ship." 
The  chain  is  "brought  to,"  and  the  first  lieutenant  then 
commands,  "Heave  round!"  the  stoppers  are  taken  off  (if 
any  have  been  put  on),  when  the  caole  is  hove  taut,  and 
the  chain  is  unbitted  as  it  comes  in,  and  payed  below,  if 
clean.  Let  us  suppose  that  the  port  anchor  was  first  let  go, 
and  that  we  veered  ninety  fathoms  on  it.  Veering  the 
starboard  cable  is  regulated  by  the  amount  hove  in  on  the 
port ;  observing  never  to  check  her.  Finally,  veer  the  forty- 
five-fathom  shackle  half  way  between  the  hawse-hole  and 
bitts,  and  heave  in  the  forty -five-fathom  shackle  on  the 
port  chain,  to  the  same  place.  They  will  then  be  con- 
venient for  clearing  hawse. 

If  the  swivel  is  to  be  put  on  immediately,  the  lee  shackle 
had  better  be  kept  just  outside  of  the  hawse-hole,  provided 
the  swivel  is  so  small  that  it  can  be  passed  through  the 
hawse-pipe :  keep  the  shackle  of  the  riding  cable  (the  port 
one  in  this  case)  inside  the  hawse-hole.  In  regard  to  the 
position  of  the  shackles,  it  may  be  well  to  bear  in  mind,  if 
in  any  doubt,  that  it  is  much  better  to  keep  them  too  far 
inside  than  the  other  way,  as  cable  can  be  veered  by  two 
or  three  hands;  but  to  heave  it  in,  requires  a  deck  tackle 
and  all  hands. 

When  intending  to  put  the  swivel  on,  the  v/eather  cable 
may  be  veered  a  fathom  or  so  more  than  otherwise  before 
the  lee  anchor  is  let  go,  as  putting  it  on  slacks  the  chain. 

If  a  ship  is  moored  too  taut  she  may  trip  her  anchors  in 
case  of  a  foul  hawse,  and  the  cables  chafe  the  cutwater. 
If  moored  too  slack,  the  swivel  will  not  turn.  The  execu- 
tive officer  should  look  at  the  state  of  the  hawse  every 
morning,  in  order  to  assure  himself  that  the  swivel  is  in 
good  order. 

When  the  ship  is  moored  with  the  proper  scope,  the 
officer  of  the  forecastle  will  put  on  the  stoppers,  and  report 
to  the  first  lieutenant,  who  then  directs  the  boatswain  to 
"pipe  down." 

The  vessel  is  now  moored  with  a  scope  of  forty-five 
fathoms  on  each  cable,  and  will  swing  to  the  wind  or  tide, 
forming  a  sweep  within  her  moorings.  No  vessel  should 
be  moored  with  cables  so  slack,  or  with  so  little  scope  out, 
as  to  swing  over  her  buoys  or  beyond  her  own  moorings. 

The  foregoing  example  shows  the  proper  course  to  pur- 
sue, when  the  spot  to  place  the  second  anchor  is  directly  to 
leeward  of  the  first;  but  should  that  not  be  the  case,  she 
must  be,  by  the  use  of  hawsers,  taken  out  to  the  shore,  or 


MOORING  —  CLEARING  HAWSE.  229 

to  another  vessel;  or  by  the  use  of  a  kedge,  roused  over  to 
the  proper  spot,  veering  on  the  first  cable  while  doing  so. 
Then  place  the  second  anchor  and  proceed  as  just  directed. 

Should  steam  be  up,  of  course  that  would  be  used. 

To  l^Ioor  in  a.  Tide^va^.  You  may  veer  to  the 
full  scope  (ninety  or  one  hundred  and  twenty  fathoms)  any 
time  during  the  tide,  and  drop  the  second  anchor  before 
slack  water;  for  with  a  good  scope  of  cable,  and  the  current 
still  running,  you  may  give  her  a  considerable  sheer  with 
the  helm.  After  the  second  anchor  is  down,  bitt  and  stop- 
per the  cable,  and  wait  the  change  of  the  tide;  when,  hav- 
ing swung  to  the  second  anchor,  you  may  proceed  to  moor 
as  before  directed. 

To  IVfiooi*  Head,  and  Stei-n.  As  there  are 
rarely  any  fitments  for  securing  stern  cables  we  must  take 
them  to  the  mizzen  mast,  lash  them  to  bolts  in  the  bul- 
warks, or  to  the  cradle  bolts,  or  to  the  mooring  shackles 
outside. 

Sometimes  the  ends  of  the  stern  cable  are  secured  on 
shore,  the  bight  being  on  board ;  in  this  case,  after  veering 
away  on  the  bowers,  and  securing  the  stern  fasts,  heave 
ahead  until  moored  taut  enough.  When  using  hemp  cables 
or  hawsers  in  this  way,  put  plenty  of  good  parcelling  on  in 
the  wake  of  all  chafes,  and  occasionally  *' freshen  the  nips," 
or  use  mats  instead  of  parcelling. 

Should  four  anchors  be  required,  ascertain  the  ship's 
berth  when  moored,  and  mark  the  intended  position  of  each 
anchor  by  small  temporary  buoys.  Make  every  preparation 
for  mooring.  Place  the  anchor  by  the  best  available  means 
and  heave  in  on  the  chains  as  required. 

HavlupT  ]V[ooved  Head  and  Stei*n  —  to 
TTnmooi*  ^liip.  If  the  stern  moorings  are  made  fast 
to  the  shore,  simply  cast  off  the  ends,  clap  on  deck-tackles, 
and  walk  them  inboard. 

If  moored  with  anchors  astern,  to  unmoor,  proceed  to 
pick  up  stern  anchors,  then  the  bowers. 

TO   KEEP  THE  HAWSE  CLEAR  OR  TEND  SHIP  WHEN 

MOORED-(TWO  BOWERS). 

When  a  ship  is  moored  the  sails  are  generally  unbent, 
with  the  exception  of  the  jib  and  spanker.  With  these  two 
sails,  the  helm,  and  a  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  tend- 
ing ship,  an  officer  can  scarcely  go  amiss.  If  the  stern  of 
the  ship  must  go  to  starboard  to  Keep  the  hawse  clear,  put 
the  helm  to  starboard  at  the  last  of  the  old  tide,  and  to  port 
at  the  beginning  of  the  new.  This  will  have  the  effect  of 
sending  the  stem  to  starboard  and  making  her  swing  as 
desiredT    Use  the  spanker  if  it  can  be  made  effective. 

A  little  attention  in  this  matter  on  the  part  of  the  officer 


230  MOORING  —  CLEARING    HAWSE. 

of  the  deck  may  save  a  great  deal  of  work  in  clearing 
hawse.  Should  it  be  required  to  swing  against  the  wind, 
use  the  jib. 

CLEARING  HAWSE. 

A  vessel  moored,  and  riding  by  either  anchor,  having 
the  cables  clear  of  each  other,  ^^  rides  with  a  clear  hawse.^ 
If  her  head  is  in  a  line  between  the  two  anchors,  so  that 
the  cables  will  each  lead  out  from  their  respective  sides, 
and  clear  of  the  stem,  she  then  '  *  rides  to  an  open  hawse.^^ 

If,  by  swinging,  she  brings  the  cables  to  bear  upon  each 
other,  so  as  to  be  chafed  by  the  motion  of  the  vessel,  she 
has  ^^  a  foul  hawse,^^ 

If,  from  having  an  open  hawse,  she  has  swung  half 
round,  or  performed  a  half  circle,  she  brings  "  a  cross  in  the 
hawse"  and  that  cable  will  be  uppermost  from  which  she 
swung.  If  it  is  the  starboard  cable  which  is  uppermost,  she 
must  swing  to  starboard,  if  the  port,  to  port,  to  clear  the 
hawse. 

But  if  she  swings  the  wrong  way,  that  is,  continues  the 
same  way  she  swung  before,  performing  another  half 
circle,  then  there  will  be  "  aw  elbow  in  the  hawse,"  the  same 
cable  being  uppermost.  We  will  suppose  that  in  both  in- 
stances she  has  swung  to  port,  then  tne  starboard  cable  is 
of  course  over  the  port  one,  and  she  must  swine  to  starboard 
to  bring  the  hawse  clear.  Thus,  from  an  opennawse  she  has 
performed  a  full  circle  to  produce  an  elbow. 

The  next  half  circle  in  the  same  direction  brings  "a 
round  turn  "  in  the  hawse. 

And  the  next  half  circle,  "  a  round  turn  and  elbow"  and 
so  on. 

An  attentive  officer  will  always  endeavor  to  make  his 
vessel,  having  a  cross  in  the  hawse,  swin^  so  as  to  clear  it, 
by  means  of  tne  helm  or  otherwise.  But  if  she  swings  the 
wrong  way,  he  should  lose  no  time  in  resorting  to  the  opera- 
tion of  clearing  hawse  by  the  cables. 

To  Cleai*  Ha^wse.  Get  up  the  clear-hawse  gear. 
This  consists  of  deck-tackles,  hook-ropes,  the  clear-hawse 
pendant  and  the  hawse-rope. 

I>ecl£-Tackles  are  heavy  double  purchases,  with 
a  hook  in  each  block. 

HooIj:  IRopes  are  single  ropes,  with  a  hook  in  one 
end,  and  are  used  in  lighting  along  the  chain,  in  con- 
nection with  long-handled  cfeatn-Z^oofc^.  Fig.  459. 

The  Clear-Ha^WKe  Fenclaiit  is  a  heavy 
hemp  rope,  tailed  with  chain  and  having  a  shackle,  or  (better) 
a  pelican  hook  in  the  chain  end. 

The  Hawse-H/ope  is  a  stout  hemp  rope  tailed 
with  chain,  with  sister-hooks  in  the  chain  end. 


MOORING  —  CLEARING   HAWSE.  231 

If  the  turns  are  under  water  thev  must  first  be  hove  out 
clear.  This  is  usually  done  by  clapping  a  deck-tackle  on 
the  riding  cable,  forward  of  the  bitts,  hauling  in  and  stop- 
pering the  riding  chain  forward  ;  light  the  slack  around  the 
bitts  and  pass  the  after  stoppers  afresh. 

Pass  the  clear-hawse  pendant  out  of  the  sheet  hawse-hole 
on  the  side  of  the  lee  caole,  shackle  it  to  that  cable  below 
the  turns,  bouse  it  taut  with  a  deck-tackle  and  belay  it. 
Now  pass  the  end  of  the  hawse-rope  out  through  the  lee 
hawse-hole,  take  it  around  the  riding  cable  in  the  direction 
opposite  to  the  turn  in  the  hawse,  pass  the  end  in  again. 
Fig.  447,  and  hook  it  to  the  lee  cable  forward  of  the  shackle. 
Now  unshackle  the  lee  cable,  haul  away  on  the  hawse-rope 
and  light  out  the  lee  cable,  usin^  a  line  from  the  bowsprit 
if  necessary  to  assist  in  hauling  it  out. 

When  the  hawse-rope  brings  in  the  end  of  the  cable 
again,  secure  the  cable  end  temporarily  if  need  be,  and  re- 
peat the  operation  with  the  hawse-rope  from  the  beginning, 
if  there  are  more  turns  to  be  taken  out. 

When  the  lee  cable  comes  in  clear,  clap  on  a  deck-tackle, 
walk  away  and  shackle,  unhooking  tne  hawse-rope. 

Take  off  finally  the  clear-hawse  pendant,  and  dry  and 
stow  away  the  clear-hawse  gear. 

When  the  clear-hawse  pendant  is  fitted  with  a  pelican 
hook  it  can  be  readily  cleared  from  the  chain,  even  if  it  gets 
under  water,  by  a  laniard  from  the  upper  part  of  the  linK. 

In  small  vessels,  or  with  light  ground-tackle,  the  above 
plan  may  be  slig:htly  modified,  to  advantage,  especially 
when  the  hawse-pipes  are  narrow.    Fig.  448. 

The  turns  being  hove  above  water,  clap  on  the  clear- 
hawse  pendant  as  before.  It  is  advisable  also  to  clap  a 
lashing  on  the  two  cables  below  the  turns,  if  the  moorings 
are  slack,  to  keep  the  turns  from  sliding  down  under  water 
again  on  the  nding  chain.  Now,  instead  of  using  the 
hawse-rope,  pay  out  the  nearest  shackle  of  the  lee  cable 
into  a  boat  under  the  bows,  unshackle  there  and  use  a 
hook-rope  to  clear  the  turns,  having  the  hauling  end  in- 
board. When  the  turns  are  clear,  hook  the  hawse-rope  into 
the  end  of  the  lee  chain  to  rouse  it  inboard  through  the 
hawse-pipe.  Shackle,  cast  off  the  lashings  on  the  chains, 
and  take  off  the  clear-hawse  pendant. 

One  object  is  not  to  have  so  many  parts  (two  of  hawse- 
rope  and  one  of  chain)  in  the  hawse-hole  at  once.  More- 
over, when  the  use  of  the  boat  and  hook-rope  is  practicable, 
the  hook-rope  can  be  more  readily  shifted  and  the  operation 
performed  quicker. 

When  veering  out  the  end  of  the  lee  cable  have  a  good 
turn  with  the  hawse-rope,  so  that  in  case  the  clear-hawse 
pendant  parts,  the  hawse-rope  may  hold  the  weight  of  the 
chain. 

Never  clear  by  the  riding  cable,  nor  at  any  other  time 
than  at  slack  water  if  it  can  be  avoided. 


232  MOORING  —  CLEARING   HAWSE. 

A  screw  steamship,  with  steam  up,  can  turn  round  with 
her  screw  and  helm,  and  clear  hawse  in  a  short  time.  But 
the  steam  would  not  be  up  unless  she  was  about  to  sail ; 
and  in  that  case  she  should  clear  hawse,  unmoor,  and  heave 
in  to  a  short  scope  while  raising  steam. 

The  hawse  is  sometimes  cleared,  when  there  is  no  wind 
and  a  smooth  surface,  by  towing  the  stem  of  the  ship  round 
in  the  required  direction.  A  long  ship  should  never  attempt 
it,  and  it  is  not  a  very  seamanlike  way  of  clearing  hawse  at 
any  time. 

In  weighing,  if  there  is  a  cross  in  the  hawse,  the  under- 
most  cable  should  be  hove  in  first ;  the  upper  anchor,  if 
hove  up  first,  would  foul  the  under  cable. 

If  it  is  necessary  to  pick  up  the  upper  one  first,  dip  it 
before  weighing. 

In  unmooring,  heave  up  the  lee  anchor  first  to  avoid  the 
chance  of  fouling  other  ships  or  your  own  anchor. 

To  pixt  tlie  IVIooi'iiig-  S4>vlvel  on.  Fig.  449. 
By  putting  the  mooring  swivel  on,  the  hawse  is  more  easily 
kept  clear. 

The  best  time  to  put  it  on  is  at  slack  water,  or  as  near  it 
as  possible.  To  do  so,  shackle  the  clear-hawse  pendant  to 
the  lee  cable,  as  in  clearing  hawse,  and  haul  it  taut.  Send 
a  boat  under  the  bows  with  the  swivel.  Make  fast  a  bow- 
line from  the  bowsprit  end,  rouse  out  chain  and  pav  the 
shackle  into  the  boat ;  the  men  in  the  boat  unshackle  the 
chain  and  shaqkle  it  to  the  swivel. 

Now  put  the  clear-hawse  pendant  on  the  riding  cable, 
haul  it  well  taut,  unshackle  the  riding  cable,  veer  it  into 
the  boat,  and  shackle  it  there  to  the  swivel  as  we  did  the  lee 
one. 

If  there  is  any  doubt  about  the  clear-hawse  pendant 
being  strong  enough,  we  must  use  a  large  hawser,  or  the 
stream  chain,  to  secure  the  riding  cable,  or  postpone  putting 
the. swivel  on  the  riding  cable  until  the  ship  has  swung. 

When  the  swivel  is  on,  it  must  be  hove  up  clear  of  the 
water. 

It  is  usually  hove  up  close  to  one  hawse-hole,  and  the 
other  chain  is  then  overhauled  clear  of  the  bows,  or  un- 
shackled altogether.  After  the  swivel  is  on,  the  two  chains 
from  inboard  constitute  what  is  called  the  bridle. 

Finally,  take  off  the  clear-hawse  pendant. 

The  swivel  should  be  put  on  with  the  cup  upward  that  it 
may  be  more  effectually  lubricated. 

If  the  swivel  is  so  small  that  we  can  pass  it  through  the 
hawse-hole,  it  can  be  put  on  with  much  less  trouble.  We 
have  only  to  stopper  the  riding  cable  inboard,  unshackle, 
put  the  swivel  on  and  veer  it  outboard.  Then  send  a  boat 
under  the  bows  and  put  it  on  the  lee  cable  as  just  described. 

Many  seamen  object  to  the  use  of  mooring  swivels  under 
any  circumstances.  They  should  certainly  not  be  used  when 
bad  weather  is  liable  to  make  veering  necessary. 


CHAPTER    XVII. 

CARRYING  OUT  ANCHORS  BY  BOATS. 

To  cai'ry  oi:it  a  K^edg-e  oi*  Sti:*ea»m. 
.il^nclioi*  lyy  a  I3oat.  Hoist  the  kedge  out  by  yard 
and  stay  purchases  and  lower  it  into  the  water  astern  of  the 
boat.  The  coxswain,  having  previously  unshipped  the  rud- 
der, and  protected  the  stern  of  the  boat  with  old  canvas, 
hangs  it  there  by  a  piece  of  three-inch  stuff.  One  end  of  this 
is  secured  to  the  ring-bolt  in  the  stern,  the  other  end,  passed 
abound  the  shank  just  under  the  stock,  is  belayed  for  slip- 

Eing.  Settle  down  the  yard  tackle  and  unhook.  Bend  the 
awser  and  coil  it  away  in  the  boat.  When  the  kedge  is  to 
be  let  go,  heave  the  remainder  of  the  hawser  overboard  and 
slip  the  stopper. 

A  small  feedge  may  be  made  much  more  effective  by 
lashing  pig  ballast  or  other  convenient  weight  to  it. 

Circumstances  will  determine  whether  it  is  better  to  take 
the  entire  hawser  in  the  boat,  drop  the  kedge  and  bring  the 
end  back,  or  to  pay  and  go  from  the  ship,  as  assumed  above. 

CARRYING  OUT  A  HEAVY  ANCHOR  WITH  ONE  BOAT. 

F'ii'Ht  >Ietlio<l.  {The  quickest  way.)  Sling  empty 
casks  or  beef  barrels  in  pairs,  marrying  their  slings  and 
snaking  them  to  prevent  them  from  being  shaken  off. 
Bung  the  casks  weU  and  lowfer  them  overboard. 

Out  launch,  lower  it  so  that  the  stem  will  be  supported 
by  the  casks,  lash  these  securely  to  the  boat,  two  on  each 
.quarter. 

Haul  the  launch  forward  with  a  boat  rope  from  the  jib- 
boom  end,  steady  her  if  necessary  by  a  whip  from  the  fore- 
yard  braced  forward. 

Cockbill  the  anchor  and  lower  it  with  the  stock  hanging 
horizontally  across  the  stem  of  the  launch.  Take  a  stout 
strap^  around  the  shank,  reeve  one  bight  through  the  other, 
and  jam  the  turn  close  up  under  the  stock,  take  the  other 
bight  through  the  stem  nng-bolts,  and  toggle  it.  In  letting 
go,  out  toggle,  or  cut  the  strap. 

233 


234  CARRYING   OUT   ANCHORS   BY   BOATS. 

With  a  large  launch  prepared  as  above,  a  good  sized 
anchor  and  cable  can  be  carried  out.     Fig.  451,  Plate  102. 

Second  IMetliocl.  Anchor  too  heavy  to  hang  from 
launch's  stem.  In  this  case,  the  flukes  must  be  hove  up 
under  the  bottom  of  the  boat,  the  stock  being  perpendicular. 
Fig.  453. 

Out  launch,  increase  her  buoyancy  aft  as  before.  Rig 
the  fish-davit.  Seize  two  large  thimbles  into  two  straps, 
which  are  clapped  around  the  arms  of  the  anchor  just  inside 
the  flukes,  a  piece  of  a  stout  towline  is  rove  through  the 
thimbles,  the  tow-line  being  stopped  to  the  shank  to  keep  it 
middled.  Put  a  long  pair  of  slings  around  the  shank  near 
the  stock,  and  lash  them  to  its  upper  end  to  keep  the  stock 
perpendicular.  Round  the  shank  also,  and  stopped  to  the 
stock  is  the  end  of  a  stout  rope,  to  be  used  in  securing  the 
ring.  Hook  the  fish  to  the  inner  arm  from  aft  forward, 
hooK  the  cat  to  the  stock  slings  and  ease  the  anchor  down, 
keeping  the  shank  horizontal  and  the  stock  perpendicular 
until  it  is  about  four  feet  under  water ;  bring  the  launch's 
stem  against  the  stock  ;  haul  her  side  in  close  to  the  fish  ; 
secure  me  stock  end  of  the  anchor  to  the  stern  by  the  end 
of  rope  provided  for  the  purpose,  passing  the  turns  through 
the  stern  rin^-bo.ts ;  bring  the  ends  of  the  towline  stuff 
in  on  each  side  through  the  rowlocks,  and  secure  them 
throiigh  the  foremost  ring-bolts  ;  ease  up  and  unhook  cat 
and  fish  ;  stop  a  length  of  chain  round  the  boat  outside, 
and  then  range  as  much  more  chain  in  the  bottom  as  is 
intended  to  be  carried  out,  stopping  it  in  several  places,  and 
making  the  end  well  fast  that  it  may  not  fetch  away  in 
veering.     Fig.  453. 

To  let  go,  cut  or  slip  the  stock  and  fiuke  fastening^  to- 
gether. 

In  either  of  the  above  methods  the  casks  are  of  course 
dispensed  with  if  unnecessary  (Fig.  452) :  but  with  the 
relative  sizes  of  launches  and  ground-tackle  supplied  to 
our  ships  of  war,  it  is  most  nkely  that  the  additioncd 
buoyancy  will  be  needed. 

A  boat  will  tow  more  easily  by  the  first  method  than 
with  the  anchor  entirely  under  her  bottom. 

Tliircl  ]\Xetliod..  {Stock  horizontal,  flukes  perpen- 
dicular.) This  plan  was  first  suggested  by  a  Mr.  Cows,  of 
England.  The  object  is  to  bring  the  weimt  of  the  ancnor 
on  that  part  of  the  boat  most  capable  of  bearing  it,  and  to 
use  a  purchase  in  the  boat  equal  to  heaving  up  any  weight 
she  can  sustain. 

This  is  done  in  suspending  the  anchor  by  a  rope  passing 
through  a  hole  in  the  bottom  of  the  launch,  a  tube  placed 
over  the  hole  preventing  the  water  from  filling  the  boat. 

Launches  are  fitted  with  such  a  hole,  covered  by  a  brass 
screw-tap,  outside  of  which  screws  a  cojpiper  funnel.  When 
preparing  for  use,  screw  on  the  funnel,  or  trunk  as  it  is 


CARRYING   OUT   ANCHORS   BY   BOATS.  235 

sometimes  called,  unscrew  the  tap ;  as  soon  as  the  latter  is 
oflf,  the  water  rises  in  the  trunk  till  level  with  the  water 
outside. 

Immediately  over  the  trunk,  Fi^.  455,  is  placed  a  wind- 
lass, the  pins  in  its  ends  working  m  bearings  on  the  gun- 
wale. 

Haul  the  launch  forward,  cock-bill  the  anchor ;  secure 
to  its  forward  arm  the  end  of  the  windlass-rope. 

To  get  the  other  end  of  the  windlass  rope  through  the 
trunk,  drop  a  lead  and  line  through  first,  nook  the  lead- 
line from  outside  with  a  boat-hook,  and  haul  through, 
marrying  the  lead-line  to  the  end  of  the  windlass-rope. 

Lower  the  anchor  by  the  cat,  with  the  stock  athwart  the 
stern  of  the  launch,  man  the  windlass,  and  heave  the  flukes 
under  the  boat,  keeping  the  boat  clear  of  the  shank.  When 
the  anchor  is  lowered  have  the  usual  stopper  rove  through 
the  ring  and  taken  over  the  stern  roller  of  the  launcn. 
When  tne  stock  is  close  up  under  the  boat  secure  the 
stopper  through  the  after  ring-bolts,  with  turns  around  its 
own  part  and  around  the  after-thwart. 

Fig.  454:  represents  a  first-rate's  launch,  with  a  bower 
anchor  suspended  under  the  bottom,  and  a  hemp  cable 
coiled  away  in  the  boat ;  c  is  the  buoy-rope  ;  d  the  rope  by 
which  the  anchor  is  hove  up ;  e  the  line  of  flotation  when 
the  vessel  is  light ;  /  the  line  of  flotation  with  bower  anchor 
hung  in  the  ordinary  way  to  the  stern  ;  g  the  line  of  flotation 
with  anchor  hung  as  represented,  a  cable  and  twenty  men 
in  the  boat. 

When  a  ship  is  on  shore  forward,  unless  Cows'  method 
is  used  it  maj  be  impossible  to  carry  out  a  large  bower  with 
one  boat,  owing  to  the  shallow  water. 

CaxTj^itigr  out  a  Bo>\"ei*  "between  t^wo 
Onttersj  Plate  105.  The  stream  anchor  having  been 
previously  sent  out  and  planted,  with  the  top-block  at  the 
ring,  hawser  rove  off,  &c.,  prepare  to  send  out  the  bower 
between  two  cutters,  as  follows : 

Hook  the  cat  to  the  ring,  the  fish  to  a  strap  around  th*^ 
inn?r  arm  of  the  anchor,  ease  off  tlie  stoppers  and  lower  tli 
anchor  into  the  water,  stock  athwartships,  flukes  up  and 
down.  Haul  up  two  cutters,  one  on  each  side  of  the  pur- 
chases. Lash  two  suitable  spars  cut  flat  on  the  under  sides 
across  the  boats,  one  a  little  forward  of  the  centre  of 
gravity,  the  other  further  aft  at  a  distance  nearly  equal  to 
the  length  of  the  shank.  The  spars  rest  on  the  gunwales 
of  both  boats,  building  up  if  necessary  in  wake  of  the  inner 
gunwales  to  strengthen  them. 

Clap  on  the  cat  and  pull  up  till  the  stock  takes  under  the 
keels  of  the  boats,  Secure  the  ring  to  the  forward  spar  by 
a  lashing  long  enough  to  lower  the  anchor  to  the  bottom  on 
the  bight,  taking  two  round  turns  through  the  ring  and 


:i36  rARKYiN(;  out  anchors  by  boats. 

around  the  spar,  and  expending  the  ends  in  opposite  direr- 
tions  around  the  spar. 

Now  clap  on  the  fish  and  pull  up  till  the  upper  pee  is 
nearly  level  with  the  sifter  spar.  Secure  the  fluke  to  the 
after  spar  by  a  lashing  similar  to  the  ring  lashing,  and 
passed  under  the  shank.  The  strap  for  the  flsh  will  prob- 
ably be  jammed  between  the  lashing  and  the  upper  nuke 
(hence  the  reason  for  using  a  strap  instead  of  hooking  the 
nsh  itself  to  the  inner  arm),  but  by  bending  a  small  line  to 
the  strap  it  can  be  recovered  after  the  anchor  has  been 
eased  down.  Clap  rackings  on  the  lashing  and  knot  the 
ends  together  above  each  spar  until  ready  for  easing 
away. 

Fit  a  span  across  the  stems  of  both  boats,  and  to  it  secure 
the  end  oi  the  hawser  used  in  hauling  out. 

Lastly,  ease  off  and  unhook  the  cat  and  fish.  The  anchor 
now  hangs  between  the  two  boats,  which  are  only  separated 
by  a  distance  a  little  greater  than  the  width  of  the  anchor 
fiuke. 

The  bower  cable,  shackled  to  the  anchor,  is  unshackled 
at  fifteen  fathoms  and  the  end  carried  in  another  boat, 
which  tows  out  in  rear  of  the  first  two. 

When  ready  to  let  go,  the  rear  boat  being  close  up,  ease 
away  together  on  the  ends  of  the  lashings,  and  lower  the 
anchor  to  the  bottom. 

Half  the  turns  of  the  lashing  on  each  spar  being  taken 
in  one  direction  and  half  in  the  opposite  way,  the  spars  have 
no  tendency  to  roll  out  of  position,  and  any  undue  strain  on 
their  lashin^^  is  avoided. 

Cast  adnft  the  spars  and  send  back  one  boat  with  the 
standing  part  of  the  nawser.  Let  her  take  the  end  of  the 
chain  in  ner  bows  with  end  enough  to  shackle,  hang  the 
bight  to  her  stem  and  haul  out  again  by  the  hawser  from 
on  board.  When  the  chain  begins  to  drag,  the  second  boat 
is  brought  under  the  bows  and  a  bight  hung  to  her  bow  and 
stern  in  the  same  manner.  On  reaching  the  boat  support- 
ing the  end  of  the  first  fifteen  fathoms,  the  leading  cutter 
receives  that  end,  shackles,  and  both  cutters  slip  the  bights 
at  the  same  time. 

If  the  state  of  the  sea  does  not  admit  of  towing  out  the 
cutters  stern  first,  we  must  forego  the  advantage  of  sup- 

Eorting  the  greatest  weight  of  the  anchor  by  the  sterns,*Hnd 
aul  the  boats  alongside  the  purchases,  bows  aft. 
Lowering  the  anchor  instead  of  cutting  it  adrift,  enables 
the  end  of  the  chain  to  be  carried  out  in  a  boat  instead  of 
Imoying  it.  which  is  believed  to  save  time  in  the  shackling, 
while  the  tow  is  lightened. 

The  lashings  used  in  lowering  an  anchor  were  5|-ine]i 
rope,  the  depth  of  water  four  fathoms,  weight  of  the  anchor 
5,500  pounds. 


CARRYING   OUT   ANCHORS   iiY    BOATS.  23: 


NOTES  ON  CARRYING  OUT  ANCHORS. 

To  carry  out  a  heavy  anchor  and  chain  is  considered  a 
somewhat  difficult  as  well  as  a  dangerous  operation.  In 
1842  a  lieutenant  and  several  men  lost  their  lives  while 
attempting  it  in  a  launch  belonging  to  the  U.  S.  S.  Mis- 
souri, then  agroiind  in  the  Potomac  River.  This  accident 
was  due  to  the  chain  being  stowed  in  the  boat. 

A  long  range  of  chain  should  never  be  carried  in  the 
boat  with  the  anchor.  Even  when  small  anchors  and  haw- 
sers are  being  carried  out,  heave  overboard  enough  of  the 
hawser  and  plenty  to  spare  before  letting  go  the  anchor y  to 
allow  it  to  reach  the  bottom.  If  not,  the  anchor  on  beinjg 
let  go,  will  take  the  boat  with  it.  A  bight  of  chain  is 
usually  stopped  around  the  boat  ready  for  dropping,  and  if 
this  is  not  enough,  more  must  be  paid  out.  Put  check- 
stoppers  on  the  chain  while  it  is  being  stowed  in  the  boat, 
securing  them  to  a  thwart  or  ring-bolt ;  this  will  decrease 
the  danger  of  the  cable's  taking  charge  when  paid  out. 

When  about  to  let  go  the  anchor,  make  sure  oy  a  cast  of 
the  lead  that  you  have  cable  enough  outside  the  boat  to 
reach  the  bottom,  and  hang  it  well  to  the  stern  that  no 
more  may  run  out.  If  there  be  a  greater  quantity  of  chain 
in  the  boat  than  can  be  ranged  in  one  layer,  there  will  be 
damage  done  unless  you  disconnect  at  the  first  shackle  and 
bring  it  to  the  last  one,  which  will  be  the  upper  one  of  the 
range  paid  down. 

Let  go  the  anchor  with  the  ring  toward  the  vessel. 

In  veering  chain,  lash  a  capst9,n  bar  athwart  the 
stern ;  lay  the  cable  over  it  and  veer  awav  cautiously 
fathom  by  fathom.  If  the  end  of  another  cable  is  brought 
to  you,  join  it ;  hang  the  joining  shackle  outside  your  boat, 
and  throw  the  bight  out,  letting  both  parts  hang  from  the 
stem  .over  the  bar — that  is  to  say,  nave  no  cable  now 
remaining  in  the  boat,  and  when  all  is  clear,  slip  the 
bight. 

This  proceeding  will  suggest  the  necessity  of  always 
taking  pimches,  shackle-pins,  and  hammers  in  a  boat,  when 
setting  out  on  an  anchor  expedition. 

After  letting  go  an  anchor,  if  the  cable  remaining  in  the 
boat  gets  away  from  you,  direct  the  men  to  jump  overboard 
and  hang  on  to  the  gunwale  till  the  cable  is  out. 

When  using  a  buoy  on  a  bower  that  is  laid  out,  stop 
the  buoy-rope  to  one  pee  of  the  anchor  and  stopper  it  short 
of  the  (iepth  of  water ;  this  insures  canting  the  anchor  for 
biting. 

Warping  out  (igainst  wind  and  sea,  lay  out  the  cable  on 
your  return :  if  before  it,  pay  as  you  go. 

When  likely  to  weigh  a  stream  or  heavier  anchor  by 


238  CARRYING  OUT   ANCHORS   BY   BOATS. 

boat,  put  a  block  on  the  crown  and  reeve  a  double  buoy- 
rope  tnrough  it. 

In  lowering  a  waist  anchor  by  the  tackles  to  be  carried 
out,  hook  the  main  yard-tackle  on  the  inner  arm,  and  the 
fore  yard-tackle  in  the  ring  to  ease  it  down  with  the  stock 
athwartships.  A  bill-tackle  on  the  inner  arm  will  keep  the 
anchor  from  canting  too  quickly. 

Sweeping-  tV>v  -^Vnchoi'ssj  ox*  Ca'bles. 
Having  lost  an  anchor  and  chain,  attempt  first  to  catch  the 
chain ;  failing  in  that,  the  anchor  itseli.  The  position  of 
the  anchor  is  Known  by  the  cross-bearings  taken  when  the 
ship  anchored,  also  the  direction  of  the  chain. 

First:  To  catch  the  chain.  Send  out  boats  to  pull  at 
right  angles  to  its  direction,  each  dragging  a  grapnel  after 
her. 

In  addition  to  ordinary  grapnels,  use  for  this  purpose 
two  fish-hooks  (hooks  used  in  fishing  the  anchor),  joined  at 
the  eyes  and  kept  apart  with  their  hooks  in  tne  same 
direction  by  a  few  small  battens  lashed  across  their  backs. 
This  is  dragged  by  the  eyes,  the  bills  of  the  hooks  are  kept 
down  with  a  back-rope,  which  should  always  be  used  m 
grappling,  to  clear  rocKS  and  other  obstructions. 

When  the  chain  is  grappled,  send  out  the  launch  and 
weigh  it ;  hang  the  bight  ana  drop  the  creeper  down  again, 
and  so  work  till  the  end  is  l^eached,  carry  this  to  the  ship, 
heave  in,  and  heave  up  the  anchor. 

Second :  To  sweep  for  the  anchor.  Weight  the  bight  of 
a  line  for  some  distance  each  side  the  middle,  ana  put- 
ting an  end  in  each  of  two  boats,  let  them  pull  across  the 
position  of  the  anchor.  A  small  chain  is  the  best  to  sweep 
with. 

The  boats  must  be  well  apart^  and  the  line  dragging  on 
the  bottom.    Sweep  in  the  direction  from  ring  to  crown. 

When  the  anchor  is  caught,  cross  the  boats  and  haul  up 
over  it ;  drop  the  bight  of  a  hawser  down  over  the  line  so 
as  to  catch  over  the  upper  flukes,  slip  an  anchor  shackle 
down  over  both  parts  to  confine  it,  warp  the  ship  up,  take 
one  end  of  the  hawser  to  the  capstan,  clap  a  deck-tackle  on 
the  other  and  weigh  the  anchor. 

A  running  bowline  may  be  slipped  over  the  upper  fluke. 

To  AVeigh  a  I3o^ver*  Ijry  a  t«aiiiichL 
Fitted  Avith  a  Tr\%nli.  Elaving  caught  the 
upper  fluke  as  described  above,  pass  the  ends  of  the  hawser 
through  the  trunk,  bring  to  on  the  windlass  and  heave 
up. 

The  crown  being  up,  pass  the  end  of  the  after-stopper 
from  one  quarter  around  the  bow  and  aft  the  other  side, let 
go  the  bight  forward,  and  it  will  catch  the  shank  of  the 
anchor,  hook  on  the  luffs,  and  heave  up  the  stock ;  catch 
the  chain  in  the  same  way  and  heave  it  up  to  another 
boat. 


CARRYING   OUT   ANCHORS   BY   BOATS.  239 

The  boat  might  be  warped  alongside  as  soon  as  the  crown 
is  up;  then  sweep  a  strap  under  its  bottom,  crossing  the 
parts  with  a  round  turn  around  the  shank  of  the  anchor. 
Hook  the  fish  tackle  in  the  ends,  walk  up  the  anchor  crown 
first  until  the  rinff  is  high  enough  to  hoot  the  cat. 

To  get  the  anchor  up,  ring  first,  sweep  the  stream  cable 
under  the  boat  (so  as  to  catch  between  the  stock  and  flukes), 
form  a  running  clinch  with  the  end  around  the  other  part, 
heave  in  on  the  stream,  ease  off  the  hawser,  haul  the  ooat 
clear,  hook  the  cat  when  the  ring  is  high  enough.  Should  a 
portion  of  the  cable  be  attached  to  the  anchor,  sweep  under 
it,  take  the  end  through  the  hawse-hole  and  heave  in. 

Use  the  buoy-rope  instead  of  the  hawser  in  heaving  up, 
if  it  is  strong  enough. 

A.  mJjxi'y  A\^iiicllass,  in  a  launch,  may  be  rigged 
by  having  a  roimd  spar  secured  athwart  the  boat,  and 
working  it  with  straps  and  heavers,  having  the  hawser, 
buoy-rope  or  cable,  led  over  a  roller  at  the  stem. 

TO  WEIGH  THE  STREAM  ANCHOR  BY  THE  LAUNCH. 

Ship  the  davit  or  roller  in  the  stern,  pass  in  the  boat  a 
couple  of  good  luffs,  straps,  spun-yarn,  and  stuff  for  stop- 
pers. Bring  the  cable  over  tne  roller,  and  clap  on  a  luff, 
single  block  to  ring-bolt  in  the  bows.  Clap  luff  upon  luff  if 
necessary  to  break  ground.  If  the  anchor  holds  hard, 
heave  to  a  short  stay,  getting  the  stern  well  down,  and 
helsLj ;  then  let  all  hands  go  forward  and  try  to  jump  the 
anchor  out.  When  aweign,  clap  the  luffs  on  alternately, 
faking  the  cable  in  the  boat. 

When  the  anchor  is  up,  hang  it  to  the  stern  of  the  boat 
and  pull  on  board. 


CHAPTER    XVII  I. 

PORT   DRILLS   WITH    SAILS   AND    SPARS,    AND    MISCELLA- 

NEOUS   PORT   EVOLUTIONS. 

Tlie  Trampet.*  The  preceding  chapters  contain 
the  prominent  features  of  fitting  out  a  ship  for  sea.  We 
have  now  arrived  at  that  part  of  the  course  where  the 
young  officer  may  be  supposed  to  take  charge  of  the  deck 
to  conduct  the  usual  port  exercises. 

The  regularity  and  precision  of  military  movements  are 
not  suited  to  a  ship's  decks,  nor  are  the  commands  to  be  laid 
down  with  the  exactness  given  in  works  on  military  tactics ; 
but  those  officers  who  give  their  orders  in  accordance  with 
the  customs  of  the  service,  and  in  a  tone  and  manner  which 
command  attention  and  inspire  respect,  will,  all  else  being 
eaual,  get  more  work  out  of  a  ship's  company  than  those 
who  coin  expressions  for  the  occasion,  and  issue  their 
orders  as  if  obedience  were  doubtful  or  indifferent  to 
them. 

Ooiiiiiia.iicl^.  The  commands  are  of  three  kinds : 
first,  the  preparatory  command,  which  indicates  what  is  to 
be  done  ;  as  Ready  about!  Oet  the  starboard  stun^-sails 
ready  for  setting !  &c.  Second,  the  command  of  cautioUy 
which  elicits  immediate  attention,  and  which  is  quickly 
followed  by  the  third — the*  command  of  execution;  as  Haul 
well  ta  ut !  Let  go  and  Hav  l  I  in  tacking ;  Set  taut !  Hoist 
AWAY  I  when  setting  studding-sails,  hoisting  boats,  &c\ 
Stand  by!  Let  fall  I  in  loosing  sail.  (The  first  or  cau- 
tionary command  is  printed  in  italics ;  the  latter,  or  com- 
mand of  execution,  in  small  capitals.) 

When  using  the  trumpet,  place  it  so  that  the  least  con- 
cave arc  of  the  mouth-piece  may  rest  against  the  upper  lip, 
while  the  greater  is  below  and  gives  room  for  the  play  of 
the  lower  lip. 

The  commands  of  caution,  haul  taut,  and  stand  by,  are 
absolutely  essential  when  working  a  number  of  men  (as  a 
watch,  or  all  hands,  for  instance),  for  it  is  not  possible  with- 

♦  At  sea  the  officer  of  the  watch  is  required  to  carry  a  speaking-trumpet. 
This  is  done,  not  only  that  he  may  liave  an  auxiliarj',  often  necessary  to  the 
voice,  but  also  that  ne  may  be  readily  distinguished  as  the  one,  for  the  time 
l)eing,  responsible  for  the  safety  of  the  ship. 

In  port  the  distinctive  mark  is  a  binocular,  or  the  spy-glass. 

^■±KJ 


POKT   DRILLS,  ETC.  241 

out  such  commands  to  get  them  to  exert  themselves  at  the 
same  instant,  as  they  should  do. 

The  preparatory  command,  if  given  deliberately,  will  be 
better  understood,  though  it  should  not  be  uttered  without 
due  energy.  The  cautionary  command  should  be  sharp, 
quick,  and  full  of  energy,  while  that  of  execution  should 
be  distinct  and  emphatic. 


PORT  EXERCISES. 

The  following  forms  of  port  exercises  are  based  upon  the 
idea : 

1st.  That  the  drills  are  carried  on  under  nearly  the  same 
conditions  as  in  actual  practice  at  sea  ; 

2d.  That  "  ready  men  "  are  superfluous  ; 

3d.  That  the  li^nt  yardmen  start  from  the  tops  in  work- 
ing their  yards,  sails  or  topgallant  masts.  * 

The  exercises  designated  as  Color  Evolutions  are  those 
commonly  performed  at  the  hoisting  or  hauling  down  of 
colors ;  such  as  crossing  the  light  yards  or  loosing  sail  in 
the  morning,  and  sending  down  masts  and  yards  at  sun- 
set. 

When  exercising  in  obedience  to  signal,  the  squadron 
orders  will  show  the  time  allowed  between  the  preparatory 
signal  and  signal  of  execution.  That  allowance  is  usually 
as  follows  :  Crossing  or  sending  down  li^ht  yards,  loosing 
or  furling  sail,  the  preparatory  is  hoisted  six  (6)  minutes 
before  the  moment  of  execution,  and  the  execution  signal 
three  (3)  minutes  before  it  is  hauled  down. 

In  sending  up  and  down  topgallant-masts  and  yards,  the 
preparatory  signal  is  made  ten  (10)  minutes  before,  and  the 
signal  of  execution  is  hoisted  five  (5)  minutes  before  the 
time. 

In  bending  sail  the  preparatory  is  hoisted  fifteen  (15) 
minutes  before  the  time  of  execution  ;  left  up  five  (5)  min- 
utes and  hauled  down.  The  execution  signal  is  hoisted 
three  (3)  minutes  before  the  time  of  hauling  down.f 

In  color  evolutions,  if  not  exercising  in  obedience  to  sig- 
nal, give  the  order  of  execution  at  the  third  roll  of  the 
drum. 

If  obeying  signals,  always  give  the  order  of  execution 
the  instant  the  execution  signal  starts  from  the  truck. 

*  The  practice  of  sending  seamen  on  the  run  from  tlie  sheer-pole  to  the 
cross-trees  has  frequently  resulted  in  permanent  injury  to  the  individual.  It  is 
said  to  induce  heart  disease.  The  light  yardmen  should  not  only  be  sent  into 
the  tops  in  advance,  but  in  sufficient  time  to  allow  them  to  regain  their  wind 
before  going  further.— €.  B.  L. 

t  In  the  Training  Squadron,  it  has  been  customary,  after  hoistinnf  a  prepara- 
tory signal,  to  unbend  the  signal  part  and  hoist  the  preparatory  pennant,  as  a 
signal  of  execution.    This  is  convenient  and  saves  the  bunting. 


242  PORT  DRILLS,  ETC. 

That  all  the  squadron  may  be  prepared  to  cross  yards  or 
loose  sail  at  eight,  or  for  anv  other  manoeuvre  at  the  hoist- 
ing of  the  colors,  the  flagship  makes  it  a  rule  to  designate 
seven  bells  (7:30  a.m.)  by  making  a  "time"  signal  at  that 
hour.  The  squadron  then  have  an  opportunitv  of  regulating 
their  time  by  the  flagship,  and  msu^ing  such  preparations 
for  eight  as  may  be  necessary. 

No  exercise  aloft  is  completed  while  a  single  straggler 
remains  above  the  rail ;  the  order  to  lay  down  from  £uoft 
should  therefore  not  usually  be  given  until  all  can  obey  it. 
There  are  one  or  two  cases  (as  in  crossing  yards  and  loosing 
sail)  where  a  certain  number  of  men  must  remain  aloft  after 
the  rest.  In  such  instances,  these  men  perform  their  duty 
promptly,  lay  down  into  the  tops  and  remain  there  until 
piped  down. 

In  all  port  evolutions,  as  soon  as  the  crew  are  ordered  to 
their  stations,  the  men  who  are  to  go  aloft  place  themselves 
inboard  at  the  foot  of  the  rigging  Ikdders  on  their  respective 
sides  by  watches.  Men  stationed  on  the  head  booms  place 
themselves  inboard  of  the  head  rail. 

When  about  to  lay  aloft  from  the  tops,  the  light  yardmen 
place  themselves  at  the  foot  of  the  topmast  rigging  outside 
of  the  tops.  If  going  aloft  to  send  down  yards,  they  carry 
with  them  the  oending  ends  of  their  respective  tripping 
lines.  Once  bent,  these  are  often  left  permanently  aloit 
during  drills,  and  lie  in  a  loose  coil  at  the  foot  of  the  respec- 
tive masts. 

When  the  men  reach  the  yards,  they  should  remain  at 
the  slings  until  ordered  out.    This  rule  is  general. 

Substitute  signs  for  verbal  commands  whenever  practica- 
ble. Commands  can  be  frequently  omitted  with  good  effect. 
For  example,  in  crossing  yards  or  loosing  sails,  beating 
the  *•  call  bv  the  drum  ^or  sounding  it  by  DUgle)  is  a  suflB- 
cient  signal  for  the  men  lo  lay  aloft.  So  also  the  third  roll 
indicates  the  moment  of  letting  fall,  and  dispenses  with  a 
certain  amount  of  unnecessary  noise. 

Should  the  bugle  be  used  at  colors  instead  of  the  drum, 
give  the  orders  ^^  sound  the  calV^  and  '^  sound  o^." 

At  the  first  note  of  the  bugle  the  light  yardmen  lay  aloft 
from  the  tops,  or  the  yards  are  swayed  across,  sails  let  fall, 
&c.,  as  the  case  may  oe. 


EXERCISES  WITH  SAILS. 

Grenei'al  Directions.  In  all  routine  exercises 
with  sails,  as  soon  as  the  lower  yardmen  are  on  the  lower 
yards,  the  two  out-board  men  lay  out  quickly  and  unclamp 
the  quarter-irons  of  the  topmast  stun'-sail  booms.  The  two 
out-board  men  on  the  topsail-yards  lay  out  to  stop  out  the 
royal  and  topgallant  yard-ropes  to  the  topsail  liits  in  case 


PORT  DRILIiS,   ETC.  243 

the  light  yards  are  in  the  rigging.  These  men  should  per- 
form their  duty  promptly,  and  lay  out  and  in  together  to  the 
slings  of  the  yards. 

At  the  end  of  an  exercise  the  same  men  on  topsail-yards 
cast  adrift  the  yard-ropes,  and  those  on  the  lower  yards 
remain  out  to  clamp  the  boom-irons  after  the  booms  are 
lowered,  then  lay  in  quickly  and  down  from  aloft  together. 

In  loosing,  furling,  bending,  &c.,  the  captain  of  the  top, 
or  man  in  charge  at  the  slings  of  the  yard,  raises  his  right 
hand,  as  a  signal  to  his  oflficer  on  dect,  the  moment  when 
the  sail  is  ready  for  letting  fall,  as  the  case  may  be.  No 
hailing  from  aloft  is  needed,  and  none  should  be  tolerated. 

If  there  are  officers  in  charge  of  the  tops  they  should  re- 
ceive and  transmit  reports  in  a  similar  way,  and  the  officers 
in  charge  of  the  respective  masts  on  deck  should  also  sig- 
nify their  readiness  by  signal  of  the  hand  to  the  executive 
officer. 

For  frequent  port  drills  topsail-sheets  may  be  singled 
and  securea  together  with  the  clewlines  by  means  of  a 
short  pendant  fitted  with  sister-hooks  connecting  sheet  and 
clewline  to  the  clew  of  the  sail. 

The  tacks  and  sheets  may  also  be  singled,  or  you  may 
reeve  one  piece  of  half -worn  rope,  long  enough  for  both 
tack  and  sheet,  form  a  cuckold's  neck  in  the  middle,  lead 
one  end  aft  and  the  other  forward.  In  the  place  of  the 
regular  clew-garnet  reeve  a  rope  through  the  clew-garnet 
block,  half -hitch  it  to  the  cuckold-neck:  in  the  tacK  and 
sheet,  leaving  enough  to  splice  in  a  pair  of  sister-hooks, 
which  hook  into  the  clew,  tnus  connecting  tack,  sheet  and 
clew-garnet  to  the  sail. 

These  single  tacks  and  sheets  answer  all  purposes  for 
drilling,  and  preserve  the  regular  ones. 

Use  single  ropes'  ends  for  trysail  sheets. 


TO  LOOSE  SAIL  TO  THE  BUNTLINES. 

{Color  Evolution.) 

The  preparatory  signal  being  made,  direct  the  boatswain 
to  call : 

Loose  Sail! 

When  the  men  are  up  : 

Man  the  clew-jiggers  and  buntlines  !  * 

This  command  shows  how  the  sails  are  to  be  loosed. 
Let  go  and  overhaul  leechlines,  reef  tackles,  brails,  and 
bowlines;  also  tacks,  sheets,  clew-garnets,  and  clewlines, 
if  hooked. 

When  preparatory  signal  is  hauled  down : 

*  If  clew-jiggers  are  not  used  the  clewlines  should  be  kept  fast  and  the 
Imntlines  hauled  up  square  with  the  yard. 


•-i44  PORT  DRILLS,   ETC. 

LOOSERS  OF  TOPGALLANT  SAILS  AND  ROYALS  IN  THE  TOPS  I 

As  execution  signal  is  hoisted  : 

Beat  the  call !  Aloft  sail  loosers  ! 

Man  the  boom  tricing-lines  ! 

Trice  up  ;  lay  out  ;  loose  ! 

Keep  fast  topgallant  and  roval  clewlines. 

If  tne  light  yards  are  not  aloft,  the  ^ard-ropes  should  be 
overhauled.    The  light  sails  are  loosed  m  the  rigging. 

If  ship  has  fires  li&^hted,  cast  off  forward  stops  of  the 
covers  of  the  main-sail  and  main-topsail,  so  that  the  sails 
will  drop  clear.  Sail  covers  are  taken  off  the  fore  and  aft 
sails  and  head  sails. 

The  officers  having  signalled  their  readiness  :  Stand  by  ! 

To  the  drummer:  Roll  off!  At  the  third  roll,  or  when 
execution  signal  "leaves  the  truck  : 

Let  fall  ! 

Lay  in  !    Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 

The  buntlines  are  hauled  up  about  two-thirds  of  the  top- 
mast, or  square  with  the  yards.  Top-gallant  sails  and  roy- 
als hang  down,  their  clews  hauled  up  snug.  The  head  sails 
are  spread  on  the  booms,  heads  of  fore  and  aft  sails  hauled 
about  half-way  out. 

The  booms  remain  triced  up. 

Do  not  allow  the  leeches  to  be   stopped  in  along  the 

yards. 

When  loosing,  if  the  sails  are  reefed,  first  let  fall,  shake 
<  >ut  the  reefs  and  then  pull  up  the  buntlines  or  haul  out  the 
bowlines,  as  the  case  may  be. 

If  boats  are  to  be  lowered  at  colors,  give  the  command 
in  season: 

Bont-keepevfi  aft  to  lower  your  boats!  and  lower  at  the 
tliird  roll.  The  falls  should  be  hooked  in  their  beckets  and' 
hauled  taut,  boat  stoppers  passed  inboard  and  the  boats 
liauled  out  to  the  booms,  with  their  colors  set,  awnings 
»-|>read,  or  sails  loosed,  as  may  be  tho  example  of  the  flag- 
sliip.  In  addition  to  the  boat-keepers  of  the  day,  their  re- 
liefs lay  aft  to  tend  the  boats'  falls. 


TO  FURL  SAIL. 

{Loosed  to  the  buntlines.) 

The  preparatory  signal  being  made,  direct  the  boatswain 
to  call : 

Furl  sail! 

If  the  light  yards  are  across,  on  hauling  down  the  pre- 
paratory signal : 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  ! 

Have  hands  by  the  clew-jiggers  and  buntlines,  man  the 
buntwhips,  spanker  and  trysail  brails. 


PORT  DRILLS,  ETC.  245 

As  execution  signal  is  hoisted : 

Aloft  topmen!    Lower  yardarin  on  the  sheer  pole! 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  start  at  this  command 
from  the  tops. 

Aloft  lower  yardmen  !  Lay  out  1  The  men  all  get 
in  their  places,  the  sails  not  to  be  handed  until  the  execu- 
tion signal  is  hauled  down,  then  : 

Furl  away  ! 

The  leeches  are  passed  in  rapidly,  the  sail  gathered  up 
snugly,  and  the  caskets  passed  square.  When  ready,  the 
clew-]iggers  and  buntlines  are  eased  down  and  buntwhips 
hauled  up.  Haul  taut  clew-lines  and  topsail  sheets,  clew- 
Kamets,  Dowlines,  leech-lines  and  brails.  Put  covers  on 
fore  and  aft  sails. 

When  ready  aloft : 

Lay  in  !    Stand  by  the  booms  ! 

Down  booms  !    Lay  down  from  aloft  1 

And  then  : 

Square  Yards  ! 

Haul  taut  the  rigging,  square  yards  as  described  further 
on,  clear  up  the  decks  and  pipe  down. 

If  the  light  yards  are  in  tne  rigging,  the  sails  are  furled 
there — ^the  light  yardmen  laying  up  in  the  lower  rigging 
after  the  men  have  been  sent  aloft. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  time  of  giving  the  commaml 
to  Lay  aloft  and  to  fi'RL  differ  from  the  instructions  given 
in  the  signal  book ;  but  the  method  adopted  is  the  best  to 
insure  the  working  together  of  other  ships  with  the  flag- 
ship. This  is  presumed  to  be  the  object  of  port  drills  in 
squadron. 

If  the  drills  are  to  be  competitive  in  their  character,  an 
easy  method  of  attaining  the  object  is  to  hoist  a  general 
signal  without  preceding  it  by  the  preparatory. 

Rema^rl^cs  on  F'urling-.  To  furl  a  sail  well, 
every  cloth  must  be  gathered  up  in  handfuls,  and  each 
handful  stowed.  When  this  is  done,  let  all  hands  lay 
hold  of  the  skin  ;  shake  the  slack  canvas  into  it,  and  theii 
toss  the  sail  up,  bringing  the  skin  as  a  covering  over  the 
upper  side  of  it.  The  bunt  in  this  way  will  be  low  and 
round.  The  outside  only  will  be  wetted  in  the  event  of 
ram,  and  will  dry  without  even  being  loosed. 

Hig-Ii  And  Low  Bxintn.  Low,  or  rolling  bunts, 
require  bunt-gaskets,  and  are  tedious  to  stow,  anoT  secure 
snugly ;  high  or  French  bunts  require  no  gaskets,  but 
secure  to  the  topsail-tye  by  a  becket  and  stop.  Being 
larger,  and  more  open  abaft,  the  slack  sail  is  more  easily 
stowed  in  them  than  in  low  bunts ;  neither  is  any  time  or 
labor  lost  about  bunt-gaskets,  a  circumstance  not  to  be 
overlooked,  in  competing  with  other  vessels. 

The  look  is  a  matter  of  taste :  in  foreign  navies  topsail 
yards  are  thought  neatest,  with  first  or  second-reef  earings 


240 


PORT  DRILLS,   BTC. 


hauled  partly  out,  but  neither  reef -points  tied,  nor  bunt- 
gaskets  on.  In  our  service  the  reefs  are  never  hauled  out 
for  furling  and  the  bunt  is  peaked  up  by  the  bunt-jigger. 
Bunt-gaskets  are  used  in  addition,  though  objected  to  by 
many  officers,  as  superfluous. 

The  proper  place  for  the  bunt- whip  glut  is  two-thirds  the 
depth  of  the  first  reef. 

TO  LOOSE  SAIL  TO  A  BOWLINE. 

{Color  Evolution.) 

Preparatory  sic^nal  being  made,  the  boatswain  and  his 
mates  give  the  call : 

Loose  sail  ! 

The  men  bein^  up.  Lead  along  and  man  the  bowlines  and 
head  halUard.s!  This  indicates  the  manner  in  which  the 
sails  are  loosed. 

As  preparatory  signal  is  hauled  down  : 

LOOSERS  OF  TOPGALLANT  SAILS  AND  ROYALS  IN  THE  TOPS  I 

Let  go  and  overhaul  clew-jiggers,  buntlines,  leechlines^ 
down-hauls,  reef -tackles,  brails,  and  royal  and  topgallant 
clew-lines.  Lead  out  and  man  bowlines,  head  hiSliards 
and  sheets  and  spanker  and  trysail  out-hauls  and  sheets ; 
but  a  turn  is  kept  on  the  pins  till  the  men  are  ready  aloft. 

On  hoisting  of  execution  signal : 

Beat  the  call!    Aloft  sail  loosers  ! 

Man  the  boom-tricing  lines!    Trice  up  ! 

Lay  out  !    Loose  !    Toggle  the  boivlines! 

At  this  order  the  men  in  the  bunt  toggle  the  bowlines  to 
the  buntline  toggles.  Unhook  topsail  sheets  and  clewlines; 
or.  overhaul  the  latter  roundly. 

The  sails  being  ready  and  gear  manned  : 

Stand  by  ! 

To  the  drummer  :  Roll  off! 

At  the  third  roll  (or  when  execution  signal  leaves  the 
truck) : 

Let  fall  !    Haul  out  !    Hoist  away  I 

Lay  in  !    Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 

The  men  on  deck  run  away  with  the  bowlines  and  head 
halliards.  The  bowlines  are  hauled  out  square,  the  courses 
let  fall  so  as  to  hang  square,  head  sails  hoisted,  and  sheets 
hauled  aft,  fore-and-aft  sails  hauled  out,  and  trysail  sheets 
and  spanker  out-haul  hauled  aft. 

Overhaul  roundly  the  topgallant  and  royal  clew-lines^ 

In  foreign  navies  the  topgallant  and  royal  sheets  are 
hauled  taut — ^the  plan  is  not  generally  followed  in  our  own 
service.    The  booms  remain  triced  up. 

Observe  remarks  about  reefed  sails  under  Loosing  to 
the  Buntlines. 


PORT  DRILLS^   ETC.  247 


TO  FURL  SAIL  FROM  A  BOWLINE. 

The  preparatory  signal  being  made^  call : 
Furl  sail  ! 

When  preparatory  signal  is  hauled  down, 
Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  1 
Man  the  clew-jiaqers  and  huntlinesj  head  down  hauls , 
spanker  and  trysau  oralis! 

Man  the  above-named  gear,  also  the  leechlines,  top- 

Sallant  and  royal  clew-lines,  and  spanker  and  trvsail  head 
own  hauls  and  clew  ropes.  Tend  the  head  sheets  and 
halliards,  trysail  and  spanker  outhauls  and  top  bowlines. 

Signal  of  execution  being  hoisted  : 

Aloft  topmen  !    Lower  yardmen  on  the  sheer  pole! 

Aloft  lower  yardmen  ! 

The  topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  start  from  the  tops 
as  the  topmen  start  from  tne  deck. 

Haul  taut!    Shorten  sail  1 

The  men  on  deck  let  go  the  gear  tended,  and  haul  on  the 
gear  manned. 

Lay  out  1 

The  men  take  their  stations  on  the  yards. 

As  the  signal  of  execution  is  hauled  down  : 

Furl  away  ! 

The  bunt-jigeers  are  hauled  taiit  as  soon  as  practicable 
and  bunt  roused  up,  top  bowlines  untoggled  and  hitched  to 
the  neck  of  the  topsail  tye-blocks,  bights  overhauled  down 
and  stopped  to  the  forward  part  of  the  top.  Unhook  clew- 
jiggers  and  hook  them  in  the  top,  hook  clew-lines  and  sheets 
and  tacks,  if  unhooked  before  loosing. 

The  head  and  fore-and-aft  sails  are  stowed  and  covers 
put  on. 

When  ready  : 

Lay  in! 

Stand  by  the  booms !    Down  booms  1 

Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 

Then  square  yards,  clear  up  the  decks,  and  pipe  down. 


HAVING  LOOSED  TO  A  BOWLINE  TO  SHORTEN  SAIL. 

If  the  sails  are  sufficiently  dry,  it  is  usual  to  furl  at 
seven  bells  in  the  forenoon  watch  ;  before  furling,  however, 
it  may  become  necessary  to  shorten  sail.  When  a  fresh 
breeze  springs  up,  a  ship  with  so  much  canvas  gets  uneasy 
at  her  anchor ;  or,  there  may  be  indications  of  rain.  For 
whatever  reason,  if  it  becomes  desirable,  call 

Shorten  sail  ! 

And  when  the  people  are  up. 

Aloft  top-gallant  and  royal  yardmen  ! 


248  PORT  DRILLS,  ETC. 

Man  the  clew-Jigaers  and  buntUnes,  head  doum-hauls! 
spanker  and  trysail  brails  I 

Man  and  tend  the  gear  named  under  Fxtrlino  from  a 
Bowline. 

Haul  taut !    Shorten  sail  I 

Furl  the  topgallant  sails  and  royals  !  Stow  the 
plying  jib  ! 

Furling  the  light  sails  before  the  rest  is  a  common  prac- 
tice, particularly  when  short  handed.  It  is  entirely  op- 
tional, however,  and  if  preferred  to  furl  all  together,  the 
orders  relating  to  them  will  be  omitted.  The  same  applies 
to  them  when  in  the  ri&^^in^.  At  the  order.  Shorten 
sail,  the  bowlines  and  hailiaras  are  let  go,  the  head  sails 
are  hauled  close  down,  the  square  sails  are  hauled  up  by 
the  clew-jiggers  and  buntlines,  and  the  trysails  and  spanker 
brailed  up. 

TO  MEND  SAIL 

If  the  sails  have  been  badly  furled,  or  for  any  other  rea- 
son require  restowing,  the  preparatory  signal  will  be  made. 
Call: 

Mend  sail  ! 

When  the  men  are  up,  as  the  preparatory  signal  is  hauled 
down  : 

LoosERS  of  the  topgallant-sails  and  royals  in  the 

TOPS  ! 

On  hoisting  of  execution  signal : 

Aloft  sail  loosers  ! 

Man  the  boom  tricing-lines  ! 

Trice  up  !   Lay  out  ! 

On  hauling  down  of  execution  signal. 

Mend  the  furl  ! 

The  gaskets  are  cast  oflf  and  the  sails  are  restowed,  with 
a  fresh  skin  outside,  the  gaskets  secured  afresh. 

When  completed. 

Lay  in  !    Stand  by  the  booms  ! 

Down  booms  !   Lay  down  from  aloft  I 

If  the  sails  are  very  badly  furled,  send  aloft  the 
PURLERS  instead  of  the  loosers,  and  Let  fall!  then 
Furl  away  ! 

The  clew-jiggers  and  bimtlines  are  usually  run  up  a 
few  feet  while  mending  the  furl,  lowering  as  the  bunt  is 
^stowed. 

BENDING  SAIL. 

In  practice,  square  sails  should  be  kept  on  board  ship  (if 
the  sail-room  space  permits)  ready  for  bending,  made  up  a.s 
furled. 


PORT   DRILLS,  ETC.  241) 

Preparations  for  I^eYiding-.  All  square  sails 
are  fitted  with  gaskets,  stitched  on  the  head  at  equal  dis- 
tances. 

Seize  the  sail  straps  to  the  heads  of  all  three  of  the  top- 
sails at  the  middle  eyelet  holes ;  let  them  always  remam 
there,  and  when  using  them,  after  the  sail  is  roUea  up,  carry 
the  foremost  leg  round  the  after  one,  and  seize  its  bight  to 
its  own  parts.  Topmen  are  very  apt  to  cut  this  seizing  too 
soon ;  but  by  having  the  strap  fast  to  the  head,  their  mis- 
take may  be  partly  remedied  by  a  pull  on  the  sail  burton, 
which  is  always  hooked  to  the  after  leg. 

rFopsaiiH.  Haul  the  head  of  the  topsail  along  the 
deck,  after  side  downward ;  gather  all  the  slack  canvas 
back  from  the  head ;  lay  the  second  reef -band  along  the 
head,  and  haul  this  and  the  head  taut  fore  and  aft  by  the 
earings.  Bring  the  leeches  as  far  as  the  reef -tackle  cringles 
along  the  head  ;  knot  the  fourth  reef -earing  into  the  third 
reef-cringle,  and  the  third  into  the  second  ;  carry  the  clews 
into  the  quarters  about  six  feet  over  the  head  ;  bring  the 
buntline  toggles  about  a  foot  over  the  head  between  the 
clews :  coil  all  the  remainder  of  the  roping,  so  as  not  to 
ride,  leaving  the  bowline  cringles  out;  face  the  foot  and 
gather  up  ;  then  face  the  head  and  roll  up,  pass  the  gaskets 
taut ;  stop  the  clews  up  abaft  the  head,  after  having  passed 
them  over  the  fore  part  of  the  bunt ;  seize  the  strap  ;  hook 
the  sail  tackle ;  knot  the  second  reef -earing  into  the  first 
reef -cringle,  the  first  into  the  head,  unless  buU-earings  are 
used  on  the  yards  ;  and  secure  the  head-earings  along  the 
top  of  the  sail  on  each  side. 

Fig.  373  and  Fig.  375,  Plate  7*3,  show  the  mode  of  passing 
sail  straps.     The  latter  with  single  legs  is  preferable  for 

f)ermanent  straps,  as  it  is  easier  to  stow  away  aloft.     Each 
eg  should  be  seized  to  the  head  of  the  sail. 

Oonrsef^.  Place,  open  out  and  stretch  the  heads  of 
the  courses  taut  along  the  deck  well  amidships,  after  sides 
down  ;  the  foresail  on  the  starboard  side  of  the  forecastle, 
port  head-earing  well  forward  ;  the  mainsail  in  the  port 
gangway,  bunt  abreast  the  mainmast,  starboard  head-earing 
forward ;  gather  the  sail  back  from  the  head,  making  a 
smooth  surface ;  stop  the  first  reef-cringles  to  those  of 
the  head-earing  ;  pass  the  leeches  taut  untu  within  six  feet 
of  the  clews,  leaving  the  leechline  cringles  out.  If  the 
leeches  are  too  short  to  allow  the  clews  to  reach  to  the  bunt 
by  taking  the  first  reef -cringle  to  the  head-earing  cringle,  a 
bending  cringle  must  be  worked  on  the  leech  about  a  foot 
under  the  head-earing  cringle  ;  in  which  case,  make  the  sail 
up  without  seizing  the  first  reef -cringle  to  the  head-earing. 

ghe  yard-arm  jiggers  will  hoOk  to  the  bending  cringle.) 
aul  the  clews  and  the  remainder  of  the  leeches  out  clear  of 
the  head  of  the  sail ;  carry  the  foot-rope  up  to  the  head, 
leaving  the  buntline  toggles  out  clear  about  the  middle  of 


250  PORT   DRILLS,  ETC. 

the  sail ;  gather  sufficient  of  the  slack  sail  to  make  a  long 
low  bunt;  the  men  cross  over,  face  the  head,  roll  up  taut 
and  pass  the  gaskets  ;  coil  and  stop  the  earings  to  head  of 
the  sail ;  take  the  clews  over,  around  and  under  the  sail,  and 
stop  them  to  the  head  of  the  sail ;  place  marks  on  the  head 
of  sails,  at  distances  from  the  middle  equal  to  the  distance 
from  the  slings  to  the  leechline  blocks  on  the  yards,  so  that 
the  leechlines  will  haul  the  sail  up  fair  in  benaing. 

In  bending  courses  and  topsails  together,  the  topsails 
are  placed  fore  and  aft  forward  of  their  respective  masts, 
fore  and  mizzen  on  the  port  side,  main  on  the  starboard 
side.  The  courses  are  atnwai*tships  under  their  respective 
yards. 

Oear  for  Bendina  Topsails,  The  sail  burton,  hooked  be- 
fore the  sail  leaves  tne  deck ;  yard-arm  jiggers,  hooked  when 
sail  is  aloft. 

1st.  The  sail  burton  is  the  top  burton  of  the  side  on 
which  the  topsail  is  swayed  aloft.  The  upper  block  is 
hooked  into  a  strap  at  the  crotch  of  the  topmast-stav ;  the 
lower  block  and  fall  are  sent  on  deck  forward  of  all.  To 
the  hook  of  the  lower  block  secure  a  tail-block,  through 
which  reeve  the  fall,  leading  it  thence  through  a  snatch- 
block  hooked  to  a  bolt  well  forward.  This  arrangement 
guys  the  sail  clear  as  it  goes  aloft.  The  fall  leads  aft  for 
the  fore  and  main,  forward  for  the  mizzen.  The  lower 
block  of  the  sail  burton  hooks  into  the  sail  strap.  Fig.  266, 
Plate  38,  also  Figs.  :37:}  and  375,  Plate  72. 

2d.  The  yard-arm  jiggers  have  the  lower  blocks  hooked 
at  the  forward  side  of  the  top  rim,  ready  for  hooking  into 
the  second  reef -cringles  of  the  topsail  as  soon  as  they  are 
high  enough. 

The  topsail  reef -tackles  are  used  for  this  purpose. 

Oear  for  Bending  Courses,  Buntlines,  leechlines,  and 
yard-arm  jiggers;  all  bent  (or  hooked)  before  the  sail  leaves 
the  deck. 

Toggle  the  buntlines  to  the  sail ;  pass  them  abaft,  under 
and  up  forward  around  the  bunt  of  the  sail,  around  their 
standing  parts,  and  stop  to  their  own  parts. 

Leechlines  are  clinched  to  their  cringles  and  stopped  to 
their  marks  at  the  head  of  the  sail. 

The  yard-arm  jiggers  are  the  reef -tackles ;  lower  blocks 
hooking  to  the  lirst  reef-cringle,  head-earings  hitched  to 
standing  parts  oi  the  jiggers. 

Gear  for  the  Jib,  The  down-haul  and  halliards,  and  a 
strap  around  the  body  of  the  sail  to  which  the  halliards  are 
hooked  and  down-haul  bent. 

Oear  for  the  Spanker,  If  the  gaff  is  not  lowered,  a  whip 
from  unaer  the  top  to  hook  into  a  strap  around  the  head  of 


PORT   DRILLS,  ETC.  261 

the  sail.  The  detail  does  not  differ  from  the  description  of 
bending  spanker  given  under  Sails. 

The  Qourses,  topsails,  jib  and  spanker  are  generally  bent 
together.  To  perform  the  evolution,  at  the  preparatory 
signal  the  boatswain  will  be  ordered  to  call  *'  Bend  sail." 

Loosers  of  topsails  and  courses,  and  men  stationed  at 
boom  tricing-lines,  stand  by  to  lav  aloft. 

The  balance  of  the  men  in  each  part  of  the  ship  go  below 
and  rouse  up  the  sails,  or  if  the  hatches  open  fair  to  the 
sail-room,  clear  these  hatches  away  to  rouse  up  the  sails 
from  below  with  the  spare  main-top  burton ,  overhauled 
down  abaft  the  top,  or  with  the  trysail  vangs. 

On  hauling  down  of  preparatory  : 

Aloft  sail  loosers  !  Loosers  of  courses  go  on  the  lower 
yards,  overhaul  lower  blocks  of  clew-jiggers  to  the  deck, 
stand  by  to  carry  out  upper  blocks,  cast  adrift  bunt-whips, 
overhaul  buntlines  and  leechlines  to  the  deck. 

Loosers  of  topsails ;  shift  upper  block  of  sail-burton  to 
strap  on  stay,  send  down  lower  block  and  fall,  forward ; 
hook  lower  blocks  of  yardarm-jiggers  to  top  rim,  stand  by 
to  carry  out  upper  ones,  secure  back  cloths,  unless  these 
are  sewn  on  the  sail,  cast  adrift  buntlines  and  bunt- 
jiggers. 

1/OOsers  of  jib  lay  out  and  bring  in  jib  halliards  and  end 
of  down-haul,  place  centipedes. 

On  deck,  let  go  and  lead  cut  sail-burtons,  buntlines, 
leechlines  and  jib  down-haul,  lower  spanker  gaff  and  pre- 
pare sails  for  going  aloft  as  before  directed. 

Carry  out  yardarm-jiooers  !  The  men  lay  out  with 
the  upper  blocks  and  hook  them,  unclamp  the  booms,  and  if 
the  lignt  yards  are  in  the  rigging  stop  their  yard-ropes  out 
of  the  way. 

Lay  in  on  the  yards  !  The  men  aloft  lay  in  and  stand 
by  to  receive  the  sail ! 

Man  the  sail-burtons  and  buntlines  ;  jib-halliards  ! 

As  the  sifipal  of  execution  is  hoisted  : 

Haul  tarn !  Sway  aloft  !  Pull  up  on  the  jib-halliards, 
raising  jib  well  clear  of  the  rail ;  run  away  with  the  sail- 
burtons  and  jib  down-haul.  When  the  bunt  of  the  top- 
sail reaches  the  lower  yard,  start  up  the  courses. 

The  yardarm-jiggers  and  leechlines  should  not  be 
touched,  the  sails  hanging  up  and  down  the  masts  by  the 
burtons  and  buntlines.  When  high  enough,  with  the 
second  reef  cringle  of  the  top-sails  above  the  tops  and  the 
bunt  of  the  course  abreast  of  its  yard : 

A  turn  with  the  burtons !  The  men  in  the  tops  slew  turns 
out  of  the  sails  and  hook  the  yardarm-jiggers. 

Hook  the  bunt-whips  and  take  the  weight  of  the  bunts 
off  the  sails,  the  sail-burton  can  then  be  unhooked  and  the 
strap  gotten  out  of  the  way. 


'Zrti  POST  DRILLS,  ETC. 

Stand  by  to  lay  aloft ! 
and  when  ready : 

Alopt  topmen  !    Lower  yardmen  on  the  sheer  pole! 

Aloft  lower  yardmen  ! 

Man  the  boom  tricing-lines,  yardartn-jiggers  and  leech- 
lines  ! 

Trice  up  I  Haul  out  !  Lay  out  !  and  bring  to  I  as 
the  signal  starts  from  the  truck. 

At  the  order  Haul  out  : 

Tap-sails  are  hauled  out  taut  along  the  yard  by  the  yard- 
arm-jiggers,  the  burtons  slacked  until  the  middle  bending 
hole  is  abreast  the  jackstay. 

Courses  are  hauled  out  by  the  yardarm-jiggers  and 
leechlines  ;  jib  is  swayed  out  by  the  down-haul. 

At  the  order  ''  Bring  to  : 

1st.  Secure  the  midship  stop  and  two  robands  of  a  side.* 

2d.  Pass  two  turns  of  the  head-earings  through  their  re- 
spective eye-bolts  and  four  turns  through  the  thimble  of  the 
backer  and  head-earing  cringle. 

3d.  Secure  the  balance  of  the  robands. 

4th.  Cut  adrift  the  buntlines,  leechlines  and  sail-strap^ 
and  haul  the  former  up  clear. 

Let  go  on  deck  ana  cast  off  the  yardarm-jiggers^  stand 
by  to  carry  in  their  upper  blocks,  hook  the  topsail  reef- 
tackles  to  their  proper  cringles  ;  hook  the  reef  pendants  to 
the  courses ;  hook  and  haul  taut  buntwhips,  toggle  top-bow- 
lines and  topsail  buntlines  ;  hook  sheets  and  clew-lines  to  the 
clews ;  shackle  tacks  and  sheets  and  hook  clew-garnets  to 
clews  of  courses ;  shift  upper  block  of  sail-burton  to  mast- 
head pendant ;  round  up  the  burton  on  deck,  shift  its  lower 
block  and  fall  abaft  the  topsail  yard  to  its  place. 

The  jib  is  swayed  out  bv  its  down-haul  at  the  order 
"sway  aloft,"  tending  the  halliards  ;  land  the  tack  on  the 
boom,  book  the  tack,  shackle  the  sheets,  shift  the  down- 
haul  and  halliards  to  their  proper  places,  take  off  sail-strap, 
hoist  the  sail  as  the  hanks  are  being  secured.  Then  haul 
down  and  stow  it,  and  put  the  cover  on,  unless  sail  is  to  be 
made. 

While  the  sails  are  bein^  bent,  the  signal  will  probably 
be  made.  Make  sail  !    Order  : 

Stand  by  to  let  fall:  Man  the  topsail  sheets  and  hal- 
liards ! 


*A  metallic  roband  consists  of  a  ga]vanize<l  iron  book  which  hooks  upon  the 
bending  jackHtuy  and  which  has,  on  its  forward  side,  a  projecting  lug.  like  a 
button.  The  Iiend  of  this  button  is  pierced  with  a  thwartship  hole.  In  bending, 
the  roband  eyeha  on  the  sail  is  put  over  the  head  of  the  lug,  and  when  all  the 
robands  have  been  attached,  a  piece  of  ratline  stuff  is  rove  through  the  heads  ol 
all  the  lugs,  forward  of  the  sail,  as  a  preventer.  The  hooks  trayerse  on  the 
jackstay,  so  that  the  head  of  the  sail  may  be  stretched  at  any  time  by  hauling  on 
the  head  earings  without  unbending  the  sail. 


PORT  DRILLS,  BTC.  25? 

The  sail  being  bent  and  loosed  : 

Stand  by !    Let  fall  ! 

Sheet  home  ! 

Lay  in  !    Stand  by  the  booms  1 

Down  booms  !    Lay  down  from  aloft  I 
and  proceed  as  in  Making  sail. 

It  is  always  advisable  to  proceed  as  above  in  bending  new 
sails  or  preparing  for  sea,  to  see  if  the  gear  is  property  bent 
and  the  sail  sets  well. 

Should  there  be  no  signal  for  making  sail  after  bending, 
then,  the  sails  being  bent  and  the  furl  "  mended,"  as  neces- 
sary, order : 

Lay  in  !    Stand  by  the  booms ! 

Down  booms  !    Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 

The  booms  are  lowered  and  clamped,  and  all  the  men 
lay  down  from  aloft,  without  straggling. 

To  Bend  tlie  Lig-ht  Sa^ifs.  The  light  sails 
are  penerallv  bent  immediately  after  the  others,  to  do 
which,  give  tne  command : 

Stand  by  to  bend  the  light  sails !  At  this  the  yards  are 
prepared  for  getting  out  of  the  rigging,  and  the  flving-jib 
for  going  out,  on  the  port  side,  owing  to  the  lead  or  the 
downhaiu  ;  when  ready — 

Man  the  topgallant  and  royal-yard  ropes !  flying-jib  hal- 
liards ! 

Haul  tant !  Sway  out  of  the  chains  I  Pull  up  on  the 
flying- jib  halliards,  and  then  haul  out  the  flying-jib  by  the 
down-haul  at  the  same  time  that  the  yards  are  swayed  in- 
board.   The  yards  being  clear  of  the  hammock  nettings — 

Lower  away  together  ! 

The  sails  are  bent  and  neatly  furled,  with  the  clews  in ; 
the  yard-ropes  hooked  and  manned ;  the  flying-jib  being 
bent  at  the  same  time.     Then,  command : 

Man  the  yard-ropes  ! 

Haul  taut!    Sway  out  together! 

When  placed  in  the  rigging  the  bunts  of  the  light  sails 
should  be  slewed  outboard. 

On  board  large  ships,  it  is  convenient  to  get  these  yards 
in  and  out  of  the  rigging  with  the  lower  clew-jiggers. 


TO  UNBEND  SAIL. 

{Port  Routine — Light  Yards  in  the  Rigging.) 

At  preparatory  signal,  call : 
Unbend  sail  1 

On  hoisting  of  execution  signal : 
Aloft  sail  loosers  ! 

The  loosers  of  courses,  topsails,  jib,  flying-jib,  spanker 
and  trysails  go  to  their  stations. 


/ 


254  PORT  BRILLS,  ETC. 

Man  the  boom  tricing-lines  ! 

Trice  up  !    Lay  out  and  unbend  I 

Cast  gaskets  adrift  from  the  yard  and  pass  them  around 
sail. 

On  Topsail-lkTarcl.  Cast  off  midship  stop,  im- 
hook  the  bunt-whip  and  secure  it  to  the  tye,  secure  the 
buntlines  around  the  body  of  the  sail,  take  the  bight  of  the 
buntline  on  the  side  opposite  to  the  one  on  which  the  sail  is 
lowered,  and  stop  this  bight  snuglv  to  the  head-earing 
cringle.  Hitch  bowlines  to  tyes,  unhook  clews  and  stop 
them  to  the  buntlines,  unhook  reef-tackles  and  pass  the 
lower  blocks  into  the  top ;  pass  slij)  stops  if  necessary  to 
hold  up  the  sail,  single  the  head-earings  for  easing  away, 
cut  robands. 

Make  similar  preparations  on  the  lower  yards,  except 
that  the  leechlines  are  secured  to  the  slings  and  the  reef« 
pendants  stopped  along  the  yard  to  the  jack-stay. 

Hea^d.  ^a.ilis.  Cast  adrift  sail  covers,  secure  them 
with  the  sails,  unshackle  sheets,  stopping  them  to  the  stays, 
cap  or  wythe,  as  the  case  mav  be,  pass  stops  around  the 
sails,  cast  off  gaskets,  unhook  the  tacks,  hook  the  halliards 
and  secure  the  down-haul  to  a  strap  around  the  body  of  the 
sail,  cut  adrift  the  hanks,  or  untoggle  them. 

Trysails^  &c«  Let  the  covers  fall  on  deck,  hook 
whip  under  top  and  to  strap  around  head  of  sail,  unbend 
head  out-haul  and  down-haul  and  throat  lashing,  cut  adrift 
stops  on  hoops  of  gaff  and  mast,  cast  off  tack  lasning. 

Man  the  nead  halliards,  tend  buntlines,  trysail  whips, 
brails  and  clew-rope  and  head  down-hauls. 

Stand  by ! 

When  execution  signal  is  hauled  down — 

Ease  away  ! 

Ease  away  the  earings,  let  go  the  slip  stops  on  the  yards, 
run  away  with  the  topsail  buntline  of  the  opposite  side, 
tricing  up  the  upper  earing  of  the  topsail.  Run  the  head 
sails  up  by  their  halliards  some  ten  or  twelve  feet. 

Lower  together  ! 

The  men  aloft  see  the  vards  clear  of  stops  and  yams,  and 
if  so  ordered  strip  them  of  reefing  beckets  and  back  cloths, 
unless  the  latter  are  stitched  to  the  sail.  Ease  in  the  head 
sails  by  their  down-hauls. 

When  ready — 

Lay  in  !  Stand  by  the  booms  I 

Down  booms  !    Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 

Then  square  yards,  haul  taut  the  gear  and  pipe  down. 

If  the  light  yards  are  in  the  rigjging,  sails  oent,  the  sails 
may  be  unbent  in  the  rigging,  but  it  is  decidedly  more  ship- 
shape to  sway  out  of  the  chains  and  unbend  inboard  after 
the  evolution  aloft  has  been  performed. 

If  the  light  yards  are  aloft,  sails  bent,  see  Unbend  sail 

AND  SEND  DOWN  TOPGALLANT  AND  ROYAL  YARDS. 
22 


?OBT  DRILLS,  ETC.  255 

Note.  A  handsome  method  for  unbending  topsails  in 
port  is  to  reeve  a  li^ht  line  from  deck,  through  a  tail-block 
on  the  lift,  at  the  side  iipon  which  the  topsail  is  to  be  lowered, 
taking  the  end  along  the  yard  and  bending  it  to  the  opposite 
head-earing.  At  order  "ease  away"  keep  fast  the  nead- 
earing  on  the  lowering  side,  ease  away  tne  other  earing, 
hauling  on  the  light  line  on  deck  and  rousing  over  one  head- 
earing  toward  the  other. 

At  order  "  lower  away,"  lower  the  buntlines,  keep  fast 
the  light  line  and  head-earing  for  a  moment,  to  fully  aecide 
the  sail's  lowering  well  clear  of  the  lower  stay,  top  rim, 
lower  braces,  &c.,  then  lower  rapidly  together. 


TO  MAKE  SAIL. 

Preparatory  signal  will  be  hoisted  ten  (10)  minutes  before- 
hand. 

Direct  boatswain  to  call : 

Make  sail  ! 

As  soon  as  the  simal  is  made  out,  get  the  lower  booms 
alongside  and  unhook  topping-lifts ;  cast  adrift  rid^e-rope 
and  top  up  spanker  boom.  The  crew  ^o  to  their  stations  as 
in  'loosing  sails."  In  addition,  hook  leaders  and  snatch 
topsail  halBards  and  lead  the  halliards  and  sheets  out ;  lead 
jib  halliards  through  a  leader  hooked  forward,  and  close 
amidships,  clear  of  the  topsail  halliards ;  lead  out  spanker 
outhaul ;  lay  down  on  deck,  tacks,  sheets,  buntlines,  clew- 
lines, clew-garnets,  leechlines,  reef-tackles,  down-hauls, 
brails,  braces,  lifts  and  bowlines. 

Signal  of  execution  will  be  hoisted  three  (3)  minutes  be- 
forehand. 

loosers  op  the  topgallant-sails  and  royals  in  the 
tops! 

Will  be  given  as  soon  as  the  signal  of  execution  reaches 
the  truck. 

As  the  signal  is  hauled  down  : 

Aloft  sail  loosers  ! 

Man  the  topsail  sheets  and  halliards ;  jib  halliards  and 
spanker  outhaul ! 

The  starboard  fore  and  port  main  topsail  halliards  are 
manned  bv  a  few  hands,  and  a  good  strain  is  kept  upon 
them,  while  the  topsail  yards  are  being  hoisted. 

Lay  out  !   Loose  ! 

Will  be  given  as  soon  as  the  men  reach  the  vards.  Keep 
the  sails  well  up  on  the  yards  and  on  the  head  booms  :  over- 
haul topsail  buntlines,  tore  and  main  leechlines  ana  bunt 
whips  ;  the  men  on  deck  let  go  topsail  buntlines  and  reef- 
tackles  ;  tend  bunt  whips  and  topsail  clewlines,  down-hauls 
and  brails. 

Stand  by  I 


^.Vj  PORT  DRILLS,   ETC. 

Let  fall  I    Sheet  home  !     Lay  in  !    Lay  down  from 

ALOFT ! 

Hoist  the  jib  !    Haul  out  the  spanker  1 

Tend  the  braces  ! 

Hoist  away  the  topsails  ! 

Will  be  given  when  all  ready  aloft  and  about  decks. 
Make  a  short  pause  after  the  cautionary  command  "stan<l 
by."  The  remaining  parts  of  the  command,  save  the  last, 
are  given  in  quick  succession.  The  jib  is  hoisted  and  the 
spanker  hauled  out.  The  command  to  *' hoist  the  topsails" 
is  given  as  soon  as  the  men  are  off  the  yards.  The  loosers, 
(»xcept  those  stationed  aloft  to  light  up  gear,  rapidly  la}*" 
down  from  aloft  and  in  from  off  the  head  booms,  and  clap 
on  their  respective  topsail  halliards.  The  clewlines  are 
eased  down,  to  prevent  accident  to  the  men  on  the  lower 
yards.  The  topsail  braces  are  let  go  and  tended.  The  miz- 
zen  topsail  is  hoisted  by  the  men  stationed  on  the  halliards; 
the  men  on  the  fore  and  main  topsail  halliards  walk  re- 
spectively aft  and  forward,  cross  the  deck  abaft  the  engine- 
rr>om  hatch  and  forecastle,  and  clap  on  the  main  and  fore 
topsail  halliards. 

Well  the  mizzen  topsail!  Belay  the  fore  topsail 
halliards  I    Belay  the  main  topsail  halliards  ! 

Will  be  ©Yen  when  the  leeches  of  the  respective  topsails 
are  taut.  The  topsail  halliards  are  belayed,  unsnatched, 
and  coiled  down  clear  for  running. 

Topgallant  sheets  and  halliards! 

Will  be  given  as  soon  as  the  topsail  halliards  are  be- 
layed. The  gear  will  be  manned,  and  the  topgallant  clew- 
lines, buntlines  and  braces  tended. 

Sheet  home  and  hoist  away  the  topgallant  sails! 

The  topgallant  sheets  are  hauled  home  ;  the  sails  hoisted 
to  a  taut  leech  j  the  braces  are  let  go  and  tended.  When 
the  sails  are  hoisted  and  the  sheets  home  : 

Royal  sheets  and  halliards  !  Flying  jib  halliards! 

Overhaul  down-haul  and  royal  clewlines ;  tend  royal 
braces. 

Sheet  home,  hoist  away  !  hauling  aft  the  port  (star- 
board) flying  jib  sheet. 

The  halliards  and  sheets  are  belayed  and  coiled  down 
clear  for  running. 

Man  the  port  {starboard)  head  and  main,  and  starboard 
(port)  crossjack  braces  : 

Fore  and  main  tacks  and  sheets:  let  go  and  overhaul  the 
lower  lifts :  Clear  away  the  bowlines :  will  be  given  as  soon 
as  the  royals  and  flying  jib  are  set. 

Haul  taut ;  brace  up  :  clear  away  the  rigging :  haul 

ABOARD. 

A  short  pause  is  made  after  the  cautionary  command. 
The  yards  are  braced  sharp  up  on  the  starboard  (port)  tack, 
and  the  courses  set  as  when  ''by  the  wind.  ' 


I 

i 


PORT   DRILLS,  ETC.  2o7 

Haul  fduf  the  weather  lifts:  steady  out  the  bowlines: 
Lay  down  from  aloft: 

Will  be  given  as  soon  as  the  previous  command  has  be(»n 
executed.  The  lifts  and  bowlines  are  hauled  well  taut; 
everybodv  will  lay  down  from  aloft.  The  men  on  deck  will 
see  everything  clear  for  shortening  sail, 

A  common  error  in  this  evolution  is  to  man  the  topsail 
sheets  heavily,  and  ensure  getting  the  sheets  home  before 
attention  is  paid  to  hoisting  rapidly.  This  makes  heavy 
work  for-  the  sheets,  sawing  the  foot  of  the  sail  across  the 
stay.  It  is  better  to  put  all  but  a  few  hands  on  the  hal- 
liards till  the  sail  is  about  two-thirds  up,  then  if  the  sheets 
are  not  home,  break  off  hands  from  the  halliards  to  the 
sheets  as  required. 


TO  SHORTEN  SAIL 

{Ship  under  all  plain  sail  by  the  wind,) 

,  Preparatory  signal  will  be  hoisted  ten  (10)  minutes  be- 
fore clewing  up.    Direct  the  boatswain  to  call : 

Shorten  sail! 

When  the  preparatory  signal  is  hauled  down,  the  men 
stationed  in  the  tops  to  light  up  rigging  and  to  lay  out  on 
the  lower  yards  to  attend  at  tne  topsail  sheets,  are  sent 
aloft:  the  former  will  go  to  the  topmast  lieads  and  over- 
haul down  the  clew-jiggers  forward  of  the  topsails,  and 
the  latter  to  the  quarters  of  the  lower  yards,  and  stand  by 
to  carry  out  the  lower  blocks.  The  men  on  deck  lead  out 
the  royal  and  topgallant  braces,  clew-lines,  topgallant  bunt- 
lines,  nying  jib  down-haul,  and  fore  and  main  clew-garnets, 
buntlines  and  leechlines. 

Signal  of  execution  will  be  hoisted  three  (3)  minutes 
before  clewing  up. 

Man  the  royal  and  topgallant  clewlines :  flying  jib  down- 
haul  :  fore  ana  main  clew-garnets  and.  buntlines  ! 

Will  be  given  when  the  signal  reaches  the  truck. 

The  fore  and  main  clew-garnets,  buntlines  and  leech- 
lines  ;  royal  and  topgallant  clewlines,  weather  braces,  top- 
gallant buntlines  and  flying  jib  downhaul  are  mannea. 
Have  hands  by  fore  and  main  tacks  and  sheets,  royal  and 
topgallant  sheets  and  halliards,  lee  braces  and  flying  jib 
halliards.  The  men  on  the  lower  yards  lay  out  and  nook 
the  topsail  clew- jiggers. 

Haul  taut :  Shorten  sail  1 

Will  be  given  when  the  signal  of  execution  is  hauled  down ; 
a  short  pause  is  made  after  the  cautionary  command.  The 
t?ear  tended  is  let  go,  the  lee  royal  and  top-gallant  braces 
are  let  go  and  belayed  at  their  square  marks;  run  away 
with  the  gear  manned.      The  courses  are  hauled  up:   the 


•  J':"K'ri.  ari'i  tr.r  w-a^r.-r-r.-r^T^  r^'ini-ii  in  an-i  b^-iavt^l  at 
tr.^ir  vj'iar*r  rriark*:  ;h-r  i^jin^  j:'r>  i-»  haul-'i  down.  Tht- 
ta/^:itM.  .-^r-*^*.*.  and  L^Iliar»i-'*  ar^  Li^-»i  taut  and  belayed; 
X\i*z  W.*rf:r».\u>^.,  bintlin-^.  c;*rw-s^am«rts.  clrrw-lines,  braces, 
and  doT«rn-r.A'jl  are  c.il-tl  down. 

Tend  th*'  topsail  ^L»^t>.  jib  halliard-^,  spanker  outhaul 
and  V>p  >K^wlin*-<*. 

Haul  ianf  /    Shortev  sail  ! 

Hi*;  jib  i.s  hauled  dr» wn  and  spanker  brailed  up;  tht- 
}fffw]ir}f^  are  let  ^o;  the  men  run  away  with  the  topsail 
clewdin^-M  and  buntlines.  until  up  to  their  marks.  The 
ci';wdineH  and  buntlines  are  belayed  and  coiled  down. 

JUan  the  weather  brciees  !  Stand  by  the  topsail  halliards  f 
will  be  ^yen  an  h^mju  as  the  topsails  are  clewed  ap.  The 
men  jump  to  the  weather  lower  and  topsail  braces,  and 
lower  liftSy  and  stand  by  to  lower  away  on  the  topsail  hal- 
liards. 

The  men  on  the  lower  yards,  unclamp  the  studding  sail 
iKH^ms,  and  lay  in  to  the  slm^  of  the  yard. 

Settle  away  the  topsail  halliards!  square  away  ! 

Will  >>e  given  as  soon  as  the  gear  is  manned.  The  topsail 
halliards  are  lowered  roundly,  until  the  topjsail  yards  are 
down,  when  haul  them  taut,  belay  and  coil  them  down. 
The  braces  are  hauled  in  and  the  lower  lifts  down  and 
belav(;d  at  their  square  marks,  and  coiled  down. 

Furl  sail  ! 

Will  be  given  when  the  "signal  of  execution"  for  that 
evolution  is  hoisted.  This  order  will  be  repeated  by  the 
boatswain  and  his  mates,  and  executed  as  per  furling  sails 
when  looH(?d  to  the  buntlines.  But  after  '^  Aloft  lower 
YARDMEN,  add  :  Man  the  boom  tricing  lines!    Trice  up  ! 

If  the  ch^w-jiggers  are  already  hooked  (or  not  used)  the 
nuai  stationed  on  the  lower  yardarms  are  not  sent  alott  till 
(execution  signal  is  hoisted. 


TO   SQUARE  YARDS. 

Th(^  yards  are  generally  squared  daily  in  port  at  seven 
bcOlH  in  thi'  morning  watch,  and  also  after  any  exercise 
aloft. 
Ordor : 

SguARK  yards  !    Call  away  the cutter! 

Mastnion  lay  down  braces  and  falls  of  lower  lifts.  The 
Htiuuro  vardniiMi  stand  bv  to  lay  aloft. 

The  boatswain  should  first  assure  himself  that  the  slings 
of  tljo  light  yartls  are  down  in  their  places^  and  also  that 
the  nuists  an^  proi>erly  lined  ;  particularly  the  lofty  spars 


PORT  DRILLS,  ETC.  259 

which  are  apt  to  get  out.  Then  commencing  forward,  the 
boatswain  squares  the  yards  by  the  braces,  fining  them  by 
the  break  of  the  forecastle,  coamings  of  hatches,  &c.,  as 
may  be  most  convenient. 

The  yards  being  squared  by  the  braces,  and  the  cutter 
manned  at  the  port  gangway,  as  the  boatswain  leaves  the 
side  command — 

Aloft  square  yardmen  ! 

Get  the  lift-jiggers  on  ! 

The  square  yardmen  stand  by  to  come  up  the  racking^ 
seizing  and  tend  the  lifts.  The  boatswain  pulls  ahead  of 
the  ship,  the  chief  boatswain^s  mate  lays  out  to  the  flying 
iibboom  end,  and  repeats  such  orders  as  are  issued  by  the 
boatswain.  The  boatswain's  mates  place  themselves  at  each 
mast,  and  carry  out  the  orders  received. 

When  the  yards  are  square  by  the  lifts  and  braces,  the 
boatswain's  mates  go  to  the  sides  or  poop  to  repeat  such 
orders  as  the  boatswain  may  give  in  pulling  around  the 
ship. 

The  boatswain  carries  with  him  a  white,  a  red,  and  a  blue 
flag,  each  bent  to  a  short  staff,  to  denote  respectively  yards 
on  the  fore,  main,  and  mizzen  masts.  He  faces  the  ship.  A 
flag  held  in  the  left  hand  signifies  yards  to  starboard,  that 
is,  the  starboard  lift  must  be  hauled  upon;  in  the  right 
hand,  yards  to  port,  port  lift  to  be  hauled  upon. 

For  lower  yards  the  flag  is  held  depressed  at  an  angle  of 

For  topsail  yards  it  is  held  horizontal. 

For  topgallant  yards  it  is  elevated  45°,  and  for  royal 
yards  held  vertically  over  the  head. 

Signal  for  topping  up  lower  booms  with  empty  hand. 

The  lower  yards  are  squared  first,  beginning  with  the 
fore,  then  the  upper  yards.  In  squaring  the  topsail-yards 
by  the  lifts  the  laniards  are  come  up  to  two  or  three  turns, 
and  the  jiggers  hooked  and  hauled  taut — that  when  topping 
up  on  one  the  other  may  be  eased  by  the  jigger  steadily. 
When  belay  is  piped  clap  on  a  heavy  racking  of  spun-yarn. 

In  squaring  light  yards  by  the  lifts,  terid  the  oraceSy  or 
the  yards  will  get  bowed.  The  boatswain's  mate  at  the 
mast  must  see  fnat  in  checking  a  light  brace  the  yard  is 
kept  square  by  the  braces.  Sometimes  a  hand  must  be  sei  .t 
aloft  to  ride  a  light  yard  down. 

Having  squared  the  yards,  the  boatswain  pulls  around 
the  ship,  directing  all  gear  to  be  hauled  taut,  and  boats  and 
lower  Dooms  squared.  The  stun'-sail  booms  should  be 
rigged  out  alike  and  heels  square,  gaflfs  peaked  up  alike, 
the  head  booms  properly  stayed  (usually  straight,  or  with 
a  slight  downward  curve — never  with  an  upward  curve).- 
Harbor  clothes-lines  should  be  on  a  level  from  fore  to  miz- 
zen mast,  whips  hauled  up  alike. 

See  that  no  ropes'  ends  are  overboard  or  hanging  from 


2(70  PORT   DRILLS,   ETC. 

the  tops ;  windsails  squared ;  hammocks  leveled ;  clew- 
lines chock  up  :  and  that  the  tops,  chains,  &:c.,  look  neat. 

When  satisned,  the  boatswain  returns  on  board  and  re- 
ports to  the  officer  of  the  deck  : 

The  yards  are  square  and  the  rigging  hauled  taut. 

And  the  decks  being  cleared  up,  he  is  directed  to 

PiPB  DOWN  ! 

At  which  the  square  yardmen  lay  down  from  aloft  to- 
gether. 

HANDLING  LIGHT  YARDS. 

For  description  of  fittings  on  the  yards  see  BiGOiNa 
Ship. 

Ti^ippinor  Lines.  The  hauling  end  reeves  through 
a  small  tail-block.  In  port  the  other  end  is  kept  perma- 
nently bent  to  the  snorter,  and  when  the  yard  goes  aloft  it  is 
toggled  at  the  slings.  It  serves  in  this  way  to  guy  the  yards 
clear  when  going  aloft. 

In  sendingdown  the  toggle  is  slipped  at  the  first  roll.* 

^ITaiTcl  Itopew.  Tne  after  or  hauling  part  of  the 
yard-rope  is  kept  coiled  down  in  the  top,  and  is  paid  down 
on  decK  and  rove  through  a  snatch-block  hooKed  to  the 
deck,  abaft  the  mast,  when  prepared  for  use. 

When  not  crossed  the  yards  are  kept  in  the  lower  rigging, 
the  topgallant  yard  on  one  side  and  the  royal  yard  on  the 
other,  their  lower  ends  resting  in  a  becket  or  stirrup,  and 
the  upper  end  secured  to  the  lorward  shroud. 

The  fore  and  mizzen  topgallant  yards  are  kept  on  the 
port  side,  the  main  on  the  starboard. 

When  the  light  yards  are  crossed  the  gear  should  always 
ho  bent  and  clear  for  making  sail.  The  *'  gear  "  comprehends 
topgallant  and  rojal  sheets  and  clewlines,  topgallant  bunt- 
line  and  bunt-whip. 

13u.lI-Hope  for  topgallant  yards.  A  small  bull's- 
eve  is  secured  to  the  forward  swifter,  at  the  height  of 
tlie  upper  topgallant  yard-arm,  when  the  yard  is  m  the 
rigging. 

The  bull-rope  has  a  good-sized  eye  formed  in  its  upper 
end,  and  a  small  whip  from  the  pm-rail  tailed  on  to  its 
lower  end  ;  or  it  mav  reeve  through  a  leader  at  the  rail, 
then  through  the  bulrs-eye,  with  the  standing  part  seized 
to  the  swifter. 

The  eye  (or  bight)  of  the  bull-rope  is  overhauled  to  the 
lower  yard,  and  there  slipped  over  the  ui)per  yard-arm  as 
the  yard  comes  down,  in  order  to  trice  it  into  the  rigging. 
When  in  the  rigging  the  upper  yard-arm  is  secured  l>y  a 

grab  lashing  and  the   eye  of  the  bull-rope  hove  off  and 
rought  down  to  the  pin-rail,  or  the  bight  hauled  taut. 

*  See  these  tripping  lines  coiled  down  clear  when  exercising  at  making  oaU 
with  light  yards  aloft. 


PORT  PBILLS,  BTC.  261 

Grewkir  Stops  are  placed  on  each  side  of  the  topmast 
head,  secured  at  the  eyes  of  the  topmast  rigging.  They  are 
used  to  stop  in  the  topgallant  sheets,  topgallant  clewline, 
royal  sheet  and  clewline,  and  eye  of  the  topgallant  lift  and 
brace. 

Topgfallant  StvLxi'-sa^il  JTe^vel  I31ock». 
The  eves  of  the  jewel-blocks  are  marled  to  the  eyes  of  the 
topgallant  lifts  and  braces. 

»lieet»  stud.  Ole^wlineN  of  topgallant  sails,  also 
of  royals,  are  made  fast  together,  so  that  they  may  be  bent 
with  one  motion. 

C^nairtei'  Blocks.  When  unhooked  from  the 
yards,  the  topgallant  quarter-blocks  hook  to  the  topmast 
cap,  royal  quarter-blocks  •  to  beckets  at  the  eves  of  the  top- 
gallant rigging.  Topgallant  buntline  and  bunt-whip  stop 
to  the  forward  edge  of  the  topmast  cap. 

Indi^^idiial  tstsitioiiH,  showing  number  of  men 
aloft : 

SENDING  UP  YARDS.  J  SENDING  DOWN  YARDS. 

Tn  top — To  tend  lifts,  send  In  top-^To  tend  lifts  and 
down  yard  ropes  and  put  checking  lines,  send  down 
on  topgallant  halliards.*  yard  ropes,   take  oflE  top- 

1      gallant  halliards. 

The  captains  of  tops  and  two  men. 

TOPGALLANT    YARDS. 

On  topmast  cap — Rig  upper  i  On  topmast  cap — Unbend 
yard-arm,  tend  lizard,  pass  gear,  stop  out  yard  rope, 
parrel,  bend  gear.  cast  off  parrel,  draw  toggle 

of  tripping  line. 

One  man. 


On  topmast  crosstrees — Over- 
haul lower  lift  and  brace 
down,  assist  with  parrel 
and  gear. 

One  man. 


On  topmast  crosstrees — Bear 
off  yard,  unbend  gear,  as- 
sist man  on  cap. 


On  topsail  yard — Rig  lower 

?rara-arm,   then   in  top  to 
ower  lift. 

One  man  (from  the  top). 


On    topsail    yard — To    bear 
off. 


In  topmast  rigging — To  over- 
haul down  lower  lift,  then 
in  top. 

One  man. 


In  the  top — At  checking  lines, 
&c. 


*  VsobWj  put  on  at  croM-trees. 


262  PORT  DRILLS,  ETC. 


In  lower  rigging — Clear  away 
the  upper  yard-arm,  then 
to  yard  rope. 


On  lower  yard — ^With  eye  of 
bull  rope  to  heave  over 
the  upper  yard-arm. 


One  man, 
with  additional  assistance  in  the  chains,  as  needed. 

ROYAL  YARDS. 
SENDING  rr  YARDS.  \  SENDING  DOWN  TABD6. 

At  jack — To  rig  upper  yard-  i  At  jack — Unbend  gear,  stop 
arm,  tend  lizard,  pass  par-  out  yard  rope,  cast  off  par- 
rel, bend  gear.  rel,  draw  toggle  of  tripping 

line. 
One  man. . 


On  topmast  cross-trees — Rig 
lower  yard-arm,  bear  off 
yard,  bend  gear. 


On  topmast  cross-trees — ^Un- 
bend gear,  light  up  yard 
rope,  bear  off  yard,  &c. 


One  man. 

In  lower  rigging — Clear  away     In   lower   rigging — Receive 
yard,  then  to  yard  rope.  yard  and  secure  it. 

One  man. 

Note. — The  stations  given  above  are  those  adopted  in  the 
Navy  Station  bill.  But  a  common  practice  is  to  put  on  both 
royal  lifts  at  the  jack,  the  upper  topgallant  lift,  Ac,  at  the 
cap  and  the  lower  one  at,  or  lust  below,  the  cross-trees.  In 
each  case  the  upper  lift  and  brace  is  put  on  first,  the  yard 
then  swayed  cnock  up,  and  the  lower  lift  put  on.  This 
avoids  overhauling  down  the  lower  lifts  and  braces. 

TO  CROSS  TOPGALLANT  AND  ROYAL  YARDS. 

{Color  evolution,) 

Preparatory  signal  being  made,  give  the  order  to  call : 

Up  topgallant  and  royal  yabds  1 

The  crew  having  gained  their  stations,  when  the  pre- 
paratory is  hauled  down. 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  ! 

Send  down  the  yard  ropes  I 

Lead  them  out  and  man  them.  When  execution  signal 
is  hoisted : 

Beat  the  call ! 

This  is  the  signal  for  the  light  yardmen  to  lay  aloft  from 
the  tops.  (If  not  at  colors  substitute  the  order  Aloft  top- 
gallant and  royal  yardmen  !) 

Set  taut !  Sway  out  op  the  chains  1 

At  this  command,  the  upper  topgallant  yard-arm  is  car- 
ried clear  of  the  top  rim.  the  royal  yard  clear  of  the  topsail 
yard. 


PORT  DRILLS,  ETC.  26^- 

When  the  yards  are  steady  and  the  men  shortened  in  on 
their  holds — 

Sway  aloft  !  When  high  enough  for  rigging  the  yard- 
arms,  the  conmiand  is  given — 

High  enough !    And  when  rigged — 

Sway  higher  ! 

When  ready  for  crossing — 

Tend  the  lifts  and  braces  ! 

Stand  by  ! 

To  drummer  :  Roll  off!  and  at  the  third  roll,  or  as  signal 
is  hauled  down  : 

Sway  across  I  Bend  the  gear  ! 

The  yards  are  squared  by  lifts  and  braces. 

Haul  up  the  yard  ropes  !  * 

When  they  are  hauled  up  and  neatly  coiled  away  in  the 
tops.     Then : 

Lay  down  prom  aloft  ! 

When  topgallant  yards  are  across,  the  jack  must  be 
hoisted  and  nauled  down  with  the  colors. 

If  a  yard  has  been  crossed  with  a  lift  and  brace  foul, 
stop  out  the  yard  rope  for  a  preventer  lift  lay  out— take  off 
the  lift  and  brace  and  clear  it,  then  cast  off  the  stop  and 
haul  taut  the  yard  rope. 


TO  SEND   DOWN  TOPGALLANT  AND  ROYAL  YARDS. 

(Color  evolution,) 

At  five  (6)  minutes  of  sundown  preparatory  signal  will 
be  made.    Order  the  boatswain  to  call : 

Down  topgallant  and  royal  yards  ! 
when  preparatory  is  hauled  down, 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  I 

Sevid  down  the  yard-ropes! 

At  the  hoisting  of  the  execution  signal  three  (3)  minutes 
before  sundown : 

Beat  the  call!  The  light  yardmen  lay  aloft  from  the 
tops.  (If  not  at  colors,  substitute  the  command:  Aloft 
topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  I) 

Snatch  and  lead  along  the  yard  ropes,  man  them  (but  not 
too  strongly),  take  them  near  a  cavil  ready  to  catch  a  turn 
for  lowermg,  which  should  be  done  by  a  careful  hand.  The 
tail  blocks  of  the  tripping  lines  are  secured  to  eye-bolts  well 
forward  of  the  mast  and  at  the  side.  Yard  ropes  and  trip- 
ping lines  are  toggled  in  to  the  slings  of  the  yards  by  a 
toggle  to  be  drawn  at  the  first  roll. 

Man  the  yard-ropes  and  tripping  lines !  Tend  the  lifts 
and  braces !    Stand  by ! 

*  Not  usually  given,  if  drills  are  to  be  continued. 


204  PORT   DRILLS,  ETC. 

Be  careful  to  start  nothing  till  the  execution  signal  is 
hauled  down,  then : 

Sway  ! 

Sway  at  the  third  roll  if  not  working  by  signal. 

Pause,  till  all  the  lifts  and  braces  are  clear,  then 

Lower  away  together  ! 

Keeping  a  ^ood  strain  on  the  tripping  lines. 

The  checking  lines  being  hauled  m  and  everything 
secure  aloft : 

Lay  down  prom  aloft  ! 

When  the  yards  are  crossed  in  the  morning,  the  vard- 
rope  is  left  stopped  out  to  the  quarter  strap,  and  the  oight 
overhauled  down  and  stopped  in  to  the  slings  ;  then  at  the 
first  roll  at  sunset,  the  stop  may  be  cut  or  broken  ;  or  toggle 
it  with  the  tripping-line  toggle. 

TO    CROSS    TOPGALLANT   AND    ROYAL   YARDS    AND 

LOOSE  SAIL  TO  A  BOWLINE. 

{Color  evolution.) 

When  the  preparatory  signal  is  hoisted,  call : 
Loose  sail  !  Up  topgallant  and  royal  yards  ! 
Lead  along  the  bowlines  and  head  halliards.     (Indicates 
fNanner  of  loosing.) 

On  hauling  down  the  preparatory  : 
Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  ! 
Send  down  the  yard  ropes ! 
At  signal  of  execution  :  Beat  the  call ! 
Aloft  sail  loosbrs  !  Set  tavt !  Sway  out  of  the  chains  I 
Man  the  boom  tricing  lines  I 
Sway  ALOFT  !    Trice  up  I    Lay  out  and  loose  ! 
Man  the  bowlines,  halliards^  and  head  outhauls! 
As  soon  as  the  yards  are  high  enough  for  crossing,  th« 
men  on  the  topmast  cap  and  jacK  cast  adrift  the  gaskets  of 
the  lig^ht  sailSy  keeping  fast  the  lower  bunt  gasket,  and  hold 
the  sails  up. 
When  ready : 
Roll  off  I 

At  the  third  roll  (or  when  execution  signal  is  hauled 
down), 

Sway  across  !    Let  fall  ! 
Lay  in  !    Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 

At  which  command  the  men  run  awav  with  the  halliards 
and  bowlines,  and  head  outhauls. 

Bend  the  gear  of  the  light  sails! 
The  light  yardmen  lay  down  into  the  tops  when  they  have 
bent  the  gear,  and  will  lay  down  on  deck  at  the  command: 
Pipe  down  I 

The  evolution  of  Adding  topgallant-masts,  crossing  yards 
and  loosing  sail  is  also  frequently  performed  with  a  well- 


PORT  DRILLS,  ETC.  *65 

drilled  crew,  and  is  similar  to  the  above,  the  masts  being 
fidded  first,  and  the  sail  loosers  sent  aloft  when  the  yards 
are  swayed  out  of  the  chains. 


TO   SEND   DOWN  TOPGALLANT   AND   ROYAL  YARDS 

AND  UNBEND  SAIL. 

{Sails  loosed  to  a  bowline.) 

Preparatory  signal  being  made,  call :  | 

Furl  and  unbend  sail  I 

When  preparatory  is  hauled  down  : 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  I 

Send  down  the  yard  ropes  I 

Man  and  tend  the  gear  as  in  furling  sail  from  a  bowline. 
When  execution  signal  is  hoisted  : 

Alopt  topmen  !    Lower  yardmen  on  the  sheer  pole  f 

Aloft  lower  yardmen  I    Haul  taut  I    Shorten  saiu 

Note.  If  short-handed,  it  may  be  necessary  to  shorten 
sail  before  the  topmen  are  sent  aloft,  in  which  case.  Shorten 
SAIL !  as  execution  signal  is  hoisted. 

Man  the  boom  tricing  lines!    Trice  up  ! 

Lay  out  !    Furl  and  unbend  1 

Oet  the  light  yards  ready  for  cominq  down  I 

In  addition  to  the  ^ear  named  and  manned  in  unbend- 
ING  SAIL,  man  the  yard-ropes  and  tripping-lines. 

Tend  the  lifts  and  braces !    Stand  oy ! 

As  the  simal  of  execution  is  hauled  down  : 

Sway  !    Ease  away  ! 

Sway  the  yards,  ease  away  the  head-earings. 

Lower  away  together  ! 

Lower  the  light  yards  on  deck  ;  unbend  their  sails. 

Lay  IN !    Stand  by  the  booms  I 

Down  booms  ! 

Lay  down  from  aloft  I 

When  the  light  sails  are  unbent — 

Man  the  topgallant  and  royal  yard  ropes! 

Sway  out  In  the  chains  ! 

Square  y;ards  ;  clear  up  the  decks  and  pipe  down. 

It  in  this  instance  the  topgallant-masts  are  also  to  be 
sent  down,  take  the  strain  off  the  fids  *  by  swaying  up  on 
the  mast-ropes  before  sending  the  men  aloft. 

After  the  vards  are  swayed,  and  the  royal  yardmen  off 
the  jack,  the  nd  is  drawn  by  the  man  on  the  cross-trees. 

The  command  Man  the  mast-ropes  would  come  in  after 
Send  down  yard-ropes. 

The  yard  ropes  in  this  instance  reeve  through  jack- 
blocks,  as  explained  further  on. 

*  This  does  not  mean  to  draw  them,  as  topmen  are  likely  to  do,  U  not  ctiVk 
tioned. 


266  PORT   DRILLS,   ETC. 


SENDING  UP  AND  DOWN  TOPGALLANT-MASTS. 

The  Mast-rope  reeves  from  aft  forward  through  the 
topgallant  top-block,  at  the  topmast  cap,  then  through 
the  thimble  of  a  lizard  and  the  sheave  in  the  heel  of 
the  mast.  The  end  is  hitched  to  a  cap  bolt  on  the  op- 
posite side. 

The  Lizard  is  lone  enough  to  pass  through  the  royal 
sheave-hole,  around  the  standing  part  of  the  mast-rope, 
and  to  secure  with  two  half -hitches  to  its  own  part  close  to 
the  thimble. 

The  Heel-rope  is  fitted  with  a  tail-block,  like  a  tripping- 
line.  When  in  use  its  upper  end  is  hitched  to  the  link  in 
the  heel  of  the  topgallant-mast ;  lower  end  and  block  paid 
down  on  deck. 

Preventer  Fid,  If  used,  each  mast  is  bored  parallel  to 
and  about  sixteen  inches  above  the  regular  fid,  to  take  a 
preventer  fid  of  iron,  about  an  inch  in  diameter,  with  an 
eye  in  the  end.  To  this  eye  is  secured  a  laniard  made  fast 
to  the  eyes  of  the  topmast  rigging. 

The  reeving  line  has  a  tail-block  which  secures  to  the 
after  topgallant  shroud.  Both  ends  of  the  whip  are  sent 
on  deck,  and  one  end  secured  to  the  mast-rope,  previously 
•rove  through  its  top-block  and  lizard.  When  swayed  aloft, 
hook  the  top-block,  cast  off  the  reeving  line,  and  reeve  the 
mast-rope. 

The  flying  jih  heel-rope  reeves  through  a  tail-block  which 
secures  to  the  jib-stav;  Hitch  the  end  of  the  heel-roi)e 
through  the  score  in  the  heel.  The  flying  jib  down-haul  is 
bent  to  the  heel  of  the  boom  to  assist  in  rousing  in. 

The  flying  jib,  if  bent,  is  roused  in  with  tne  boom  and 
secured  alongside  the  jib-boom. 

The  flying  jib-boom  is  not  usually  rigged  in  when  exer- 
cising top^aUant-masts. 

Topgallant  and  royal  yard-ropes.  In  port,  when  top- 
gallant-masts are  to  be  frequently  sent  up  and  down,  the 
mast-ropes  are  kept  aloft  ready  for  use,  and  the  yard-ropes 
rove  off  through  the  jack-blocks  at  the  eyes  of  the  top- 
gallant and  royal  rigging. 

The  topgallant-masts  when  down  are  landed  up  and 
down  and  forward  of  their  respective  masts.  The  flying 
jib-boom  is  rigged  in  alongside  of  the  jib-boom,  its  end 
pointing  througn  the  wythe. 

When  the  topgallant-mast  is  up  and  down,  put  a  stop 
around  the  royal  pole,  securing  it  to  lower  stays.  If  there 
is  any  danger  of  tne  ship's  rolling,  secure  the  heel  also,  or 
land  the  mast  on  deck. 

In  swaying  aloft  to  fid,  when  short-handed,  the  standing 
part  of  the  mast-rope^  may  lead  through  a  second  top-block, 
hooked  to  the  eye-bolt  where  the  end  is  usually  hitched. 


PORT   DRILLS,  ETC.  267 

The  top  burton  of  the  side  (led  down  on  deck)  is  then  hooked 
into  a  thimble  clinched  in  the  end  of  the  mast-rope.  After 
swaying  the  mast  aloft  as  high  as  possible  with  the  mast- 
rope,  cross  the  deck  and  clap  on  the  burton. 

In  unfidding,  belay  the  mast-rope,  pull  up  on  the  burton, 
out  fid,  belay  burton,  and  lower  with  the  mast-rope. 


TO  SEND  DOWN  TOPGALLANT-MASTS. 

{Port  Routine.) 

Light  yards  on  deck,  using  lizards. 

Preparatory  signals  being  made,  call— 

Down  topgallant-masts  I 

On  hauling  down  preparatory  signal : 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  I 

Send  down  heel-ropes  and  reeving  lines ! 

On  deck.  Get  up  the  mast-ropes,  and  bend  on  the 
reeving  lines  ready  to  sway  aloft.  Let  go  all  ^ear  holding 
the  mast ;  lifts,  braces^  and  topgallant  studding-sail  hal- 
liards.  Stand  by  to  come  up  royal  and  topgallant  back-stays. 

In  tops.  Pay  down  reeving  line  aoaft  and  heel-rope 
forward. 

On  hoisting  of  execution  signal : 

Aloft  topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  ! 

On  decky  slack  up  topgallant  and  royal  back-stays,  stays 
and  flying-jib  guys ;  sway  aloft  the  mast-ropes  and  top- 
gallant top-blocks  ;  lead  out  the  mast-ropes. 

Aloft.  Slack  up  topgallant  and  royal  shrouds  and  stays ; 
hook  topsail  clew-jiggers  to  the  crane  lines  on  the  back- 
staySy  and  haul  them  taut ;  unhook  block  (if  any)  at  the 
heel  of  the  topgallant-mast,  shift  to  strap  on  collar  of  top- 
mast stay,  bend  the  heel-rope,  secure  the  Iblock  of  the  reev- 
ing whip  to  the  after  topgallant  shroud,  and  when  mast- 
rope  ana  block  are  swayea  aloft,  hook  the  block  and  reeve 
the  mast-rope  ;  cast  off  laniards  of  Jacob's  ladder,  and  light 
up  all  the  ^ear  and  topgallant  shrouds. 

On  Flying  jib-boom  and  bowsprit  cap.  Secure  tail-block 
of  heel-rope,  pass  the  heel-rope,  bend  the  flying  jib  down- 
haul  to  the  heel  of  the  boom ;  render  the  flying  jib  and 
royal  stays  through  their  scores,  and  cast  off  belly  lashing, 
if  used.    Let  go  flying- jib  halliards. 

Man  the  topgallant  mast-ropes  ! 

Haul  taut  I  Sway  and  unpid  ! 

Haul  out  the  regular  fid,  stand  by  to  haul  out  the  pre- 
venter. 

On  bowsprit  cap,  unclamp  the  heel  of  the  flying  jib- 
boom.  Take  turns  for  lowering  fore  and  aft  (or  for  easmg 
in). 


268  PORT  drill:;,  etc. 

Stand  by!    Men  aloft  draw  preventer  fid. 
As  signal  of  execution  is  hauled  down : 

Lower  away  together  !    Rig  in  ! 

Lower  roundly  till  the  topgallant-mast  head  is  clear,  then 
handsomely  till  the  lizard  is  passed  through  the  royal 
sheave-hole :  haul  on  the  heel-rope  to  keep  the  heel  clear, 
and  land  the  masts  up  and  down  with  their  heels  on  chocks. 
Ease  in  the  flying  jib-boom,  hauling  in  on  the  down-haul ; 
secure  the  spar  alongside  the  jib-boom.  In  the  chains  and 
head  stop  in  the  bights  of  all  topgallant  and  royal  stays  and 
back-stays. 

Aloft.  Open  the  gate  when  the  topgallant-mast  head  is 
abreast  of  the  cap ;  pass  the  lizard ;  secure  the  topgallant 
and  roval  funnels  to  the  cap,  and  make  everything  snug 
about  the  cross-trees  and  in  the  tops. 

As  soon  as  the  work  is  done ; 

Lay  down  from  aloft  1 


TO  SEND  UP  TOPGALLANT-MASTS. 

V 

{Pot't  Routine.) 

The  mast-ropes  being  rove  off. 

Preparatory  signal  being  made,  call : 

Up  topgallant-masts  1 

When  preparatory  signal  is  hauled  down  : 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  1 

On  deck.  Lead  out  mast-ropes  and  heel-rope  of  flying 
jib-boom  ;  have  straps  and  jiggers  ready  for  setting  up  top- 
gallant and  royal  stays,  back-stavs  and  flying  jib  guys  ;  let 
go  royal  and  topgallant  gear,  lifts,  braces,  clewlines,  bunt- 
unes,  &c.,  and  topgallant  studding-sail  halliards. 

Man  the  topgallant  biast-ropes  1 

At  the  same  time  man  the  flying  jib  heel-rope. 

Signal  of  execution  being  hoisted  : 

Aloft  topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  ! 

At  cross-trees.    Cut  stops  on  royal  and  topgallant  stays. 

At  the  cap.  Place  the  truck  and  funnels  fair  for  receiv- 
ing the  topgallant-mast ;  see  signal  halliards  and  royal 
braces  clear. 

In  the  tops.  Out  the  stops  on  the  topgallant  and  royal 
shrouds ;  tnence  to  the  topsail-yard  to  keep  mast  on  the 
right  slue. 

Forward.  Cast  off  lashings  that  secure  flying  jib-boom ; 
have  clamp  ready  for  heeL 

Sway  aloft  ! 

Men  on  the  topsail-yard  keep  the  mast  on  the  right 
slue  for  Adding,  using  a  heaver  through  the  heel. 

At  the  cross-trees.  The  lizard  is  cast  off  and  mast-head 
pointed  ;  clamp  the  gate  when  the  heel  is  above  the  topsail- 


PORT  DRILLS,  ETC.  269 

yard ;  light  up  rigging :  stand  by  with  preventer,  then  with 
regular  fid. 

On  the  cap.    Place  the  truck  and  funnels. 

The  flying  jib-boom  is  roused  out  by  its  heel-rope,  bear- 
ing down  on  the  heel  if  necessary. 

When  the  sheave  of  the  topgallant-mast  arrives  above 
the  cap,  shorten  in  on  the  mast-rope. 

As  execution  signal  is  hauled  down  : 

Sway  and  fid  ! 

At  the  topmast  cap  keep  the  Jacob's  ladder  from 
fouling  ;  *  give  timely  warning  if  any  gear  holds  the  mast ; 
prepare  reeving  line  to  send  down  mast-rope,  if  desired. 

At  cross-trees  shove  in  preventer,  and  then  regular  fid 
as  soon  aspossible.    When  fid  is  in.  sing  out  " Launch !^^ 

Cast  on  the  mast-rope,  send  it  down  with  the  top-block, 
by  the  reeving  line,  it  desired,  then  carry  the  latter  into 
the  top.    Unhook  clew-jiggers  from  crane  lines. 

Set  up  all  topgallant  and  royal  shrouds,  stays  and  back- 
stays ;  naul  taut  on  deck  all  topgallant  and  royal  gear ; 
stow  away  mast-ropes,  luffs,  and  jiggers. 

When  ready  aloft : 

Lay  down  prom  aloft  I 

If  these  exercises  are  to  be  continued  the  mast-ropes  re- 
main rove  off  in  port. 


TO  SEND  DOWN  TOPGALLANT  AND  ROYAL  YARDS 

AND  TOPGALLANT  MASTS. 

{Color  evolution.) 

Mast  ropes  rove  off. 

The  preparatory  signal  being  made,  call : 

Down  topgallant  and  royal  yards  and  topgallant 

MASTS  I 

Men  go  to  their  stations  for  sending  down  the  light  yards 
excepting  those  who  can  be  spared  to  prepare  for  coming 
up  the  topgallant  and  royal  back-staj^s,  &c. 

On  hauling  down  of  preparatory  signal : 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  I  Send 
down  the  yard-ropes  and  h'eel-ropes  ! 

The  execution  signal  being  hoisted  : 

Beat  the  call,  or 

Aloft  topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  I 

Man  the  yard  ropes  and  tripping  lines! 

Tend  the  lifts  and  braces !    Stand  by  ! 

As  execution  signal  is  hauled  down, 

*  A  small  qnarterround  chock  on  after  part  of  topmast-head  will  accomplish 
this  purpose.  Similarly  a  scorod  wedge  forward  on  the  under  side  of  the  cap  is 
used  to  prevent  the  hounds  from  catching. 

23 


270  PORT   DRILLS,  ETC. 

Roll  off!    At  third  roll: 
Sway  !  Lower  away  1 

The  men  on  the  jack  lay  down  to  the  cross-trees  as  soon 
as  the  yards  are  swayed. 

Man  the  mast-ropes  !    Swat  and  unfid  1 
When  ready  :  Lower  away  together  1    Ria  m  I 
And  when  everything  is  secure  aloft : 
Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 


TO  SEND  UP  TOPGALLANT  MASTS  AND  TOPGALLANT 

AND  ROYAL  YARDS. 

{Color  evolution,) 

Masts  up  and  down. 

The  preparatory  signal  being  made,  call : 
Up  topgallant   masts   and    topgallant   and  royal 
yards! 

Men  go  their  stations  for  sending  up  topgallant  masts. 

When  preparatory  signal  is  hauled  down  : 

Topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  in  the  tops  1 

Man  the  topgallant  mast  ropes  I 

At  the  same  time  man  the  flying  jib  heel  rope. 

When  the  signal  of  execution  is  hoisted. 

Aloft  topgallant  and  royal  yardmen  I    Sway  aloft 

AND  FID  ! 

When  Added,  ^^  Launch  ^^  (the  fore,  main,  or  mizzen). 
Then  go  to  stations  for  crossing  light  yards. 

Man  the  yard  ropes  !  Beat  the  call  I  Sway  out  of 
THE  chains  I 

When  the  yards  are  up  and  down  : 

Sway  aloft  I 

Proceed  as  in  sending  up  topgallant  and  royal  yards. 
When  ready  for  crossing  : 

Tend  the  lifts  and  braces  ! 

Stand  by !  As  signal  is  hauled  down,  Roll  off  I  At  the 
third  roll : 

Sway  across  !    Bend  the  gear  ! 

And  when  ready : 

Lay  down  from  aloft  ! 

For  quick  work  the  topgallant  mast  ropes  and  topgallant 
yard  ropes  should  be  on  the  same  side,  the  men  turning^ 
from  one  to  the  other. 


PORT  ROUTINE-MISCELLANEOUS. 


To  H^ipr  Oixt  cincl  In  T^owei*  Booms. 

Having  the  booms  rigged  for  port  and  ready,  command: 
Man  the  boom  topping-lifts !  Forward  guys !  This  gear  is 
manned,  both  sides  equally,  if  by  the  watch,  first  part  star- 


PORT  DRILLS,  ETC.  271 

board  side,  second  part  port  side,  and  have  a  hand  to  tend 
the  after-guy. 

Hani  taut !    Top  up  I 

Walk  away  with  the  topping  lifts  until  the  blocks  are 
down  to  the  mark.  When,  Rig  out!  ease  away  the  after- 
guys  and  square  the  booms. 

To  get  them  alongside — Man  the  after-gnys!  Tend  the 
topping-lift  and  forward  guy!    Set  taut!    Rig  in! 

To  Spi*eacl  A-wninpr®*  Place  the  awning 
stanchions  and  ridge  ropes,  get  the  awnings  up  out  of  the 
sail  room  and  fore-and-aft  in  their  respective  parts  of  the 
ship.  (If  awnings  are  up  and  on  a  stretch  they  must  be 
slacked  down  together  to  loose).    Call : 

Spread  awnings  ! 

Loose  the  awnings,  haul  out  on  the  fore-and-aft  tackles, 
reeve  and  man  the  earings.     When  ready, 

Haul  out  !  and  when  the  earings  are  out, 

Lay  up  and  Bring  to  ! 

The  men  all  lay  out  together,  haul  out  the  side  stops, 
expending  the  ends.  Pass  the  lacings  connecting  the 
dinerent  awnings.     When  finished,  Lay  in  ! 

Let  go  crow-foot  halliards  before  hauling  out  earings 
and  stops,  and  haul  taut  again  after  these  are  passed. 

To   FiM-l  ^vrning-is.    Call : 

Furl  awnings  I 

Men  being  up : 

Lay  up  and  cast  off  side  stops  ! 

At  the  same  time  cast  adrift  the  lacings.    When  ready, 

Ease  away  !    Lay  in  ! 

The  earings  are  eased  away  together,  the  men  lay  in, 
roll  up  the  awnings  neatly^  hook  tne  fore-and-aft  tackles, 
and  HAUL  OUT .!  together. 

Ha  III  mock  Grirt  lines  a^ncl  Hax'l>or 
Clothes-lines  are  fitted  double.  In  the  bight  of  the 
line  is  seized  a  hook  and  thimble :  the  hook  secures  to  a  bolt 
in  the  stem.  The  two  lines  leading  forward  pass  through 
thimbles  in  rope  iackstays  that  hang  up  and  down  each 
mast.  Forward,  the  ends  of  the  lines  are  spliced  together 
around  the  after-sheave  of  a  fiddle-block.  Through  the  for- 
ward sheave  is  rove  a  whip,  one  end  spliced  into  a  block 
hooked  at  the  bowsprit  cap,  the  other  rove  through  the 
fiddle-block,  and  thence  through  the  block  on  the  cap  and 
inboard. 

The  rope  jackstav  at  each  mast  has  an  eye  in  its  upper 
end  for  the  mast-whip  and  a  tail  at  the  lower  end  to  use  as 
a  down-haul. 

These  lines  are  prepared  beforehand,  and  triced  up  at 
the  third  roll  at  sunset,  at  which  time  boats  are  also 
hoisted. 

To  HiOiver  "Wasli  Clothes  Avith  the 
A-wning-s  Spread. ;  after  the  men  are  on  deck  : 


272  PORT   DRILLS,  ETC. 

Stand  by  to  lay  out!  When  ready,  Lay  out!  Cast  off 
side  tops — Easb  away!    Lay  in! 

Easing  away  the  earings  and  slacking  the  lacings,  then : 

Pipe  down!  the  clothes;  and  when  the  lines  are  triced 
up  again,  or  unhooked  for  sending  below,  haul  out  the 
earings;  Stand  by  to  lay  out!  Sec,  as  in  spreading  awn- 
ings. 

Have  the  master-at-arms  on  deck  to  look  out  for  cloth- 
ing of  men  away  in  boats.  See  the  lines  weeded  of  rope- 
yarns  before  tricing  up  again  or  stowing  below,  but  it  is 
still  better  to  enforce  the  use  of  regular  clothes  stops,  which 
are  secured  to  the  clothing  and  cast  adrift,  not  cut. 

In  firing  a  salute,  with  scrubbed  hammocks  or  clothes 
on  the  lines,  man  the  down-hauls  and  lower  and  haul  down 
before  the  first  gun,  tricing  up  again  after  the  last  gun. 


CHAPTER    XIX. 

INTERNATIONAL    REGULATION'S   FOR   PREVENTING 

COLLISIONS   AT   SEA. 

(See  Act  of  Congress,  Aug.  10, 1800;  May  25, 1804;  June  10, 188G.) 

VESSELS'  LIGHTS,  AND  RULES  OF  THE  ROAD. 

The  following  regulations  for  preventing  collisions  at 
sea  are  law,  by  international  agreement,  and  have  to  be  fol- 
lowed by  all  public  and  private  vessels  upon  the  high  seas 
and  in  all  waters  connected  therewith,  navigable  by  sea- 
going vessels. 

Preliminai^y  Definitions.  In  the  following 
rules  every  steam-vessel  which  is  under  sail  and  not  under 
steam  is  to  be  considered  a  sailing-vessel,  and  every  vessel 
under  steam,  whether  under  sail  or  not,  is  to  be  considered 
a  steam- vessel. 

The  word  '* steam-vessel"  shall  include  any  vessel  pro- 
pelled by  machinery. 

A  vessel  is  **imder  way"  within  the  meaning  of  these 
rules  when  she  is  not  at  anchor,  or  made  fast  to  the  shore, 
or  aground. 

LIGHTS,  AND  SO  FORTH. 

The  word  *' visible"  in  these  rules  when  applied  to  lights 
shall  mean  visible  on  a  dark  night  with  a  clear  atmosphere. 

Article  1.  The  rules  concerning  lights  shall  be  complied 
with  in  all  weathers  from  sunset  to  sunrise,  and  during  such 
time  no  other  lights  which  may  be  mistaken  for  the  pre- 
scribed lights  shall  be  exhibited. 

Art.  2.  IMast-Head.  Lig-ht.  A  steam-vessel 
when  under  way  shall  carry — (a)  On  or  in  front  of  the  fore- 
mast, or  if  a  vessel  without  a  foremast,  then  in  the  forepart  of 
the  vessel,  at  a  height  above  the  hull  of  not  less  than  twenty 
feet,  ai^  if  the  breadth  of  the  vessel  exceeds  twenty  feet, 
then  at  a  height  above  the  hull  not  less  than  such  breadth, 
so,  however,  that  the  light  need  not  be  carried  at  a  greater 
height  above  the  hull  than  forty  feet,  a  bright  white  light, 
so  constructed  as  to  show  an  unbroken  light  over  an  arc  of 
the  horizon  of  twenty  points  of  the  compass,  so  fixed  as  to 
throw  the  light  ten  points  on  each  side  of  the  vessel,  namely, 


274  PREVENTING   COLLISIONS   AT   SEA. 

from  right  ahead  to  two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  either 
side,  and  of  such  a  character  as  to  be  visible  at  a  distance 
of  at  least  five  miles. 

(b)  Side  I-^i^IitH*  On  the  starboard  side  a  green 
light  so  constructed  as  to  show  an  unbroken  light  over  an 
arc  of  the  horizon  of  ten  points  of  the  compass,  so  fixed  as 
to  throw  the  light  from  right  ahead  to  two  points  abaft  the 
the  beam  on  the  starboard  side,  and  of  such  a  character  as 
to  be  visible  at  a  distance  of  at  least  two  miles. 

(c)  On  the  port  side  a  red  light  so  constructed  as  to  show 
an  unbroken  light  over  an  arc  of  the  horizon  of  ten  points  of 
the  compass,  so  fixed  as  to  throw  the  light  from  right  ahead 
to  two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  the  port  side,  and  of  such  a 
character  as  to  be  visible  at  a  distance  of  at  least  two  miles. 

(d)  The  said  green  and  red  side-lights  shall  be  fitted  with 
inboard  screens  projecting  at  least  three  feet  forward  from 
the  light,  so  as  to  prevent  these  lights  from  being  seen 
across  the  bow. 

(e)  Jl.a.ng'e  I^i^IitH.  A  steam-vessel  when  under 
way  may  carry  an  additional  white  light  similar  in  con- 
struction to  the  light  mentioned  in  subdivision  (a).  These 
two  lights  shall  be  so  placed  in  line  with  the  keel  that  one 
shall  be  at  least  fifteen  feet  higher  than  the  other,  and  in 
such  a  position  with  reference  to  each  other  that  the  lower 
light  shall  be  forward  of  the  upper  one.  The  vertical  dis- 
tance between  these  lights  shall  be  less  than  the  horizontal 
distance. 

Art.  3.  Towing*  T^ipfhts*.  A  steam-vessel  when 
towing  another  vessel  shall,  in  addition  to  her  side-lights, 
carry  two  bright  white  lights  in  a  vertical  line  one  over  the 
other,  not  less  than  six  feet  apart,  and  when  towing  more 
than  one  vessel  shall  carry  an  additional  bright  white  light 
six  feet  above  or  below  such  light,  if  the  length  of  the  tow, 
measuring  from  the  stern  of  the  towing  vessel  to  the  stem 
of  the  last  vessel  towed,  exceeds  six  hundred  feet.  Each  of 
these  lights  shall  be  of  the  same  construction  and  character, 
and  shall  be  carried  in  the  same  position. as  the  white  light. 
mentioned  in  article  two  (a),  excepting  the  additional  light, 
which  may  be  carried  at  a  height  of  not  less  than  fourteen 
feet  above  the  hull. 

Such  steam-vessel  may  carry  a  small  white  light  abaft 
the  funnel  or  af termast  for  the  vessel  towed  to  steer  by,  but 
such  light  shall  not  be  visible  forward  of  the  beam. 

Art.  4.  Si>ecia,l  Lig-litsi*,  (a).  A  vessel  which  from 
any  accident  is  not  under  command  shall  carry  at  the  same 
height  as  a  white  light  mentioned  in  article  two  (a),  where 
they  can  best  be  seen,  and  if  a  steam-vessel  in  lieu  of  that 
light,  two  red  lights,  in  a  vertical  line  one  over  the  other, 
not  less  than  six  feet  apart,  and  of  such  a  character  as  to 
b(^  visible  all  around  the*  horizon  at  a  distance  of  at  least 


PREVENTING   COLLISIONS   AT   SEA.  275 

two  miles;  and  shall  by  day  carry  in  a  vertical  line  one  over 
the  other,  not  less  than  six  feet  apart,  where  they  can  best 
be  seen,  two  black  balls  or  shapes,  each  two  feet  in  diameter. 

(b)  A  vessel  employed  in  laying  or  in  picking  up  a  tele- 
graph cable  shall  carry  in  the  same  position  as  the  white 
light  mentioned  in  article  two  (a),  and  if  a  steam-vessel,  in 
lieu  of  that  light,  three  lights  in  a  vertical  line,  one  over  the 
other,  not  less  than  six  feet  apart.  The  highest  and  lowest 
of  these  lights  shall  be  red,  and  the  middle  light  shall  be 
white,  and  they  shall  be  of  such  a  character  as  to  be  visible 
all  around  the  horizon  at  a  distance  of  at  least  two  miles. 
By  day  she  shall  carry  in  a  vertical  line,  one  over  the  other, 
not  less  than  six  feet  apart,  where  they  can  best  be  seen, 
three  shapes  -not  less  than  two  feet  in  diameter,  of  which 
the  highest  and  lowest  shall  be  globular  in  shape  and  red 
in  color,  and  the  middle  one  diamond  in  shape  and  white. 

(c)  The  vessels  referred  to  in  this  article,  when  not  mak- 
ing way  through  the  water,  shall  not  carry  the  side-lights, 
but  when  making  way  shall  carry  them. 

(d)  The  lights  and  shapes  required  to  be  shown  by  this 
article  are  to  be  taken  by  other  vessels  as  signals  that  the 
vessel  showing  them  is  not  under  command  and  can  not 
therefore  get  out  of  the  way. 

These  signals  are  not  signals  of  vessels  in  distress  and 
requiring  assistance.  Such  signals  are  contained  in  article 
thirty -one. 

Art.  5.  I^i^IitK  Toi*  Sailing— Vesseln  and. 
Vesselw  in  To^v.  A  sailing-vessel  under  way  and 
any  vessel  being  towed  shall  carry  the  same  lights  as  are 
prescribed  by  article  two  for  a  steam-vessel  under  way,  with 
the  exception  of  the  white  lights  mentioned  therein,  which 
they  shall  never  carry. 

Art.  6.  X^iglitH  for  Small  T^ewwelH.  When- 
ever, as  in  the  case  of  small  vessels  under  way  during  bad 
weather,  the  green  and  red  side-lights  can  not  be  fixed,  these 
lights  shall  be  kept  at  hand,  lighted  and  ready  for  use ;  and 
shall,  on  the  approa(^h  of  or  to  other  vessels,  be  exhibited 
on  their  respective  sides  in  sufficient  time  to  prevent  col- 
lision, in  such  manner  as  to  make  them  most  visible,  and  so 
that  the  green  light  shall  not  be  seen  on  the  port  side,  nor 
the  red  light  on  the  starboard  side,  nor,  if  practicable,  more 
than  two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  their  respective  sides. 
To  make  the  use  of  these  portable  lights  more  certain  and 
easy  the  lanterns  containing  them  shall  each  be  painted 
outside  with  the  color  of  the  light  they  respectively  contain, 
and  shall  be  provided  with  proper  screens. 

Art.  7.  Lig-htK  f  <>!•  Small  Steam  and  Sail- 
ing—Vessels and  i<>r  Open  X^oatK.  Steam- 
vessels  of  less  than  forty,  and  vessels  under  oars  or  sails  of 
less  than  twenty  tons  gross  tonnage,  respectively,  and  row- 


276  PREVENTING   COLLISIONS  AT  SEA. 

ing  boats,  when  under  way,  shall  not  be  required  to  carry 
the  lights  mentioned  in  article  two  (a),  (b),  and  (c),  but  if 
they  do  not  carry  them  they  shall  be  provided  with  the  fol- 
lowing lights : 

First,  steam-vessels  of  less  than  forty  tons  shall  carry — 

(a)  In  the  forepart  of  the  vessel,  or  on  or  in  front  of  the 
funnel,  where  it  can  best  be  seen,  and  at  a  height  above  the 
gunwale  of  not  less  than  nine  feet,  a  bright  white  light  con- 
structed and  fixed  as  prescribed  in  article  tM  o  (a),  and  of 
such  a  character  as  to  be  visible  at  a  distance  of  at  least 
two  miles. 

(b)  Green  and  red  side-lights  constructed  and  fixed  as 
prescribed  in  article  two  (b)  and  (c),  and  of  such  a  character 
as  to  be  visible  at  a  distance  of  at  least  one  mile,  or  a  com- 
bined lantern  showing  a  green  light  and  a  red  light  from 
right  ahead  to  two  points  abaft  the  beam  on  their  respective 
sides.  Such  lanterns  shall  be  carried  not  less  than  three 
feet  below  the  white  light. 

Second.  Small  steamboats,  such  as  are  carried  by  sea- 
going vessels,  may  carry  the  white  light  at  a  less  height 
than  nine  feet  above  the  gunwale,  but  it  shall  be  carried 
above  the  combined  lantern  mentioned  in  subdivision 
one  (h). 

Tnird.  Vessels  under  oars  or  sails  of  less  than  twenty 
tons  shall  have  ready  at  hand  a  lantern  with  a  green  glass 
on  one  side  and  a  red  glass  on  the  other,  which,  on  the  ap- 
proach of  or  to  other  vessels,  shall  be  exhibited  in  sufficient 
time  to  prevent  collision,  so  that  the  green  light  shall  not 
be  seen  on  the  port  side  nor  the  red  light  on  the  starboard 
side. 

Fourth.  Rowing  boats,  whether  under  oars  or  sail,  shall 
have  ready  at  hand  a  lantern  showing  a  white  light  which 
shall  be  temporarily  exhibited  in  sufficient  time  to  prevent 
collision. 

The  vessels  referred  to  in  this  article  shall  not  be  obliged 
to  carry  the  lights  prescribed  by  article  four  (a)  and  article 
eleven,  last  paragraph. 

Art.  8.  Lights  foi-  Pilot- Vessels.  Pilot- 
vessels  when  engaged  on  their  stations  on  pilotage  duty 
shall  not  show  the  lights  required  for  other  vessels,  but 
shall  carry  a  white  light  at  the  masthead,  visible  all  around 
the  horizon,  and  shall  also  exhibit  a  flare-up  light  or  flare- 
up  lights  at  short  intervals,  which  shall  never  exceed  fifteen 
minutes. 

On  the  near  approach  of  or  to  other  vessels  they  shall 
have  their  side-light  lighted,  ready  for  use,  and  shall  flash 
or  show  them  at  short  intervals,  to  indicate  the  direction  in 
which  they  are  heading,  but  the  green  light  shall  not  be 
shown  on  the  port  side,  nor  the  red  light  on  the  starboard 
side. 


1»RKVENT1NG  COLLlSIOKS  AT  SEA.  277 

A  pilot-vessel  of  such  a  class  as  to  be  obliged  to  go 
alongside  of  a  vessel  to  put  a  pilot  on  board  may  show  the 
white  light  instead  of  carrying  it  at  the  masthead,  and  may, 
instead  of  the  colored  lights  above  mentioned,  have  at  hand, 
ready  for  use,  a  lantern  with  a  green  glass  on  the  one  side 
and  a  red  glass  on  the  other,  to  be  used  as  prescribed  above. 

Pilot-vessels,  when  not  engaged  on  their  station  on  pilot- 
age duty,  shall  carry  lights  similar  to  those  of  other  vessels 
of  their  tonnage. 

Art.  9.  Lights^etc.jof Fishing"- Vessels. 
Fishing-vessels  of  less  than  twenty  tons  net  registered  ton- 
nage, when  under  way,  and  when  not  having  their  nets, 
trawls,  dredges,  or  lines  in  the  water,  shall  not  be  obliged  to 
carry  the  colored  side-lights ;  but  every  such  vessel  shall  in 
lieu  thereof  have  ready  at  hand  a  lantern  with  a  green  glass 
on  the  one  side  and  a  red  glass  on  the  other  sidie,  and  on  ap- 
proaching to  or  being  approached  by  another  vessel  such 
lantern  shall  be  exhibited  in  sufficient  time  to  prevent  a 
collision,  so  that  the  green  light  shall  not  be  seen  on  the 
port  side,  nor  the  red  light  on  the  starboard  side. 

ILiig-Iits  forFisliing'-'Vessels  oflTEvxro- 
pestn  Coasts.  The  following  portion  of  this  article 
applies  only  to  fishing-vessels  and  fishing-boats  when  in  the 
sea  oflf  the  coast  of  Europe  lying  north  of  Cape  Finisterre : 

(a)  All  fishing- vessels  and  fishing-boats  of  twenty  tons 
net  registered  tonnage  or  upward,  when  under  way,  and 
when  not  having  their  nets,  trawls,  dredges,  or  lines  in  the 
water,  shall  carry  and  show  the  same  lights  as  other  vessels 
under  way. 

(b)  All  vessels  when  engaged  in  fishing  with  drift-nets 
shall  exhibit  two  white  lights  from  any  part  of  the  vessel 
where  they  can  be  best  seen.  Such  lights  shall  be  placed 
so  that  the  vertical  distance  between  them  shall  be  not  less 
than  six  feet  and  not  more  than  ten  feet,  and  so  that  the 
horizontal  distance  between  them,  measured  in  a  line  with 
the  keel  of  the  vessel,  shall  not  be  less  than  five  feet  and 
not  more  than  ten  feet.  The  lower  of  these  two  lights  shall 
be  the  more  forward,  and  both  of  them  shall  be  of  such  a 
character  and  contained  in  lanterns  of  such  construction  as 
to  show  all  round  the  horizon,  on  a  dark  night,  with  a  clear 
atmosphere,  for  a  distance  of  not  less  than  three  miles. 

(c)  All  vessels  when  trawling,  dredging,  or  fishing  with 
any  kind  of  drag-nets  shall  exhibit,  from  some  part  of  the 
vessel  where  they  can  best  be  seen,  two  lights.  One  of 
these  lights  shall  be  red  and  the  other  shall  be  white.  The 
red  light  shall  be  above  the  white  light,  and  shall  be  at  a 
vertical  distance  from- it  of  not  less  than  six  feet  and  not 
more  than  twelve  feet;  and  the  horizontal  distance  between 
them,  if  any,  shall  not  be  more  than  ten  feet.  These  two 
lights  shall  be  of  such  a  character  and  contained  in  lanterns 


278  PREVENTING   COLLISIONS  AT  SEA. 

# 

of  such  construction  as  to  be  visible  all  around  the  horizon, 
on  a  dark  night,  with  a  clear  atmosphere,  the  white  light 
to  a  distance  of  not  less  than  three  miles  and  the  red  light 
of  not  less  than  two  miles. 

(d)  A  vessel  employed  in  line-fishing,  with  her  lines  out, 
shall  carry  the  same  lights  as  a  vessel  when  engaged  in 
fishing  with  drift-nets. 

(e)  If  a  vessel  when  fishing  with  a  trawl,  dredge  or  any 
kind  of  drag  net,  becomes  stationary  in  consequence  of  her 
gear  getting  fast  to  a  roc^k  or  other  obstruction,  she  shall 
show  the  light  and  make  the  fog-signal  for  a  vessel  at  anchor. 

(f )  Fishing  vessels  may  at  any  time  use  a  flare-up  in  ad- 
dition to  the  lights  which  they  are  by  this  article  required 
to  carry  and  show.  All  flare-up  lights  exhibited  by  a  vessel 
when  trawling,  dredging,  or  fishing  with  any  kind  of  drag- 
net shall  be  shown  at  the  after-part  of  the  vessel,  excepting 
that  if  the  vessel  is  hanging  by  the  stern  to  her  trawl, 
dredge,  or  drag-net  they  shall  be  exhibited  from  the  bow. 

(g)  Every  fishing-vessel  when  at  anchor  between  sunset 
and  sunrise  shall  exhibit  a  white  light,  visible  all  round  the 
horizon  at  a  distance  of  at  least  one  mile. 

(h)  In  a  fog  a  drift-net  vessel  attached  to  her  nets,  and 
a  vessel  when  trawling,  dredging,  or  fishing  with  any  kind 
of  drag-net,  and  a  vessel  employed  in  line-fishing  with  her 
lines  out,  shall,  at  intervals  of  not  more  than  two  minutes, 
make  a  blast  with  her  fog-horn  and  ring  her  bell  alter- 
nately. 

Art.  10.  LigflitK  loi-  a,n  Ovoi'taken  Ves- 
sel. A  vessel  which  is  being  overtaken  by  another  shall 
show  from  her  stern  to  such  last-mentioned  vessel  a  white 
light  or  a  fiare-up  light. 

The  white  light  required  to  be  shown  by  this  article  may 
be  fixed  and  carried  in  a  lantern,  but  in  such  case  the  lan- 
tern shall  be  so  constructed,  fitted,  and  screened  that  it 
shall  throw  an  unbroken  light  over  an  arc  of  the  horizon  of 
twelve  points  of  the  compass,  namely,  for  six  points  from 
right  aft  on  each  side  of  the  vessel,  so  as  to  be  visible  at  a 
distance  of  at  least  one  mile.  Such  light  shall  be  carried  as 
nearly  as  practicable  on  the  same  level  as  the  side-lights. 

Art.  11.  .A^iichoi*  T^iprlits.  A  vessel  under  one 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  in  length,  when  at  anchor,  shall 
carry  forward,  where  it  can  be  best  seen,  but  at  a  height 
not  exceeding  twenty  feet  above  the  hull,  a  white  lantern 
so  constructed  as  to  show  a  clear,  uniform,  and  unbroken 
light  visible  all  around  the  horizon  at  a  distance  of  at  least 
one  mile. 

A  vessel  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  or  upwards  in 
length,  when  at  anchor,  shall  carry  in  the  forward  part  of 
the  vessel,  at  a  height  of  not  less  than  twenty  and  not  ex- 
ceeding forty  feet  above  the  hull,  one  such  light,  and  at  or 


1^ 


PREVENTING   COLLISIONS   AT   SEA.  279 

near  the  st^ern  of  the  vessel,  and  at  such  a  height  that  it 
shall  be  not  less  than  fifteen  feet  lower  than  the  forward 
light,  another  such  light. 

The  length  of  a  vessel  shall  be  deemed  to  be  the  length 
appearing  in  her  certificate  of  registry. 

A  vessel  aground  in  or  near  a  fair-way  shall  carry  the 
above  light  or  lights  and  the  two  red  lights  prescribed  by 
article  four  (a). 

Art.  12.  Special  Sigrka^lH.  Every  vessel,  may, 
if  necessary  in  order  to  attract  attention,  in  addition  to  the 
lights  which  she  is  by  these  rules  required  to  carry,  show  a 
flare-up  light  or  use  any  detonating  signal  that  can  not  be 
mistaken  for  a  distress  signal. 

Art.  13.  Naval  Lig-lits  and.  Xl/ecog-nitloii 
Sig'nals.  Nothing  in  these  rules  shall  interfere  with 
the  operation  of  any  special  rules  made  by  the  Government 
of  any  nation  with  respect  to  additional  station  and  signal- 
lights  for  two  or  more  ships  of  war  or  for  vessels  sailing 
under  convoy,  or  with  the  exhibition  of  recognition  signals 
adopted  by  ship  owners,  which  have  been  authorized  by 
their  respective  Governments  and  duly  registered  and  pub- 
lished. 

Art.  14.  Steam-Vessel  xmcler  Sail  \>y 
T>ay«  A  steam-vessel  proceeding  under  sail  only  but 
having  her  funnel  up,  shall  carry  in  day-time,  forward, 
where  it  can  best  be  seen,  one  black  ball  or  shape  two  feet 
in  diameter. 

SOUND  SIGNALS  FOR  FOG,  AND  SO  FORTH. 

Art.  15,  Preliminary.  All  signals  prescribed  by 
this  article  for  vessels  under  way  shall  be  given : 

First.  By  ** steam  vessels"  on  the  whistle  or  siren. 

Second.  By  ''sailing  vessels"  and  "vessels  towed  "on 
the  fog  horn. 

The  words  ''prolonged  blast"  used  in  this  article  shall 
mean  a  blast  of  from  four  to  six  seconds  duration. 

A  steam-vessel  shall  be  provided  with  an  efficient  whistle 
or  siren,  sounded  by  steam  or  by  some  substitute  for  steam, 
so  placed  that  the  sound  may  not  be  intercepted  by  any  ob- 
struction, and  with  an  efficient  fog  horn,  to  be  sounded  by 
mechanical  means,  and  also  with  an  efficient  bell.  (In  all 
cases  where  the  rules  require  a  bell  to  be  used  a  drum  may 
be  substituted  on  board  Turkish  vessels,  or  a  gong  where 
such  articles  are  used  on  board  small  sea-going  vessels. )  A 
sailing  vessel  of  twenty  tons  gross  tonnage  or  upward  shall 
be  provided  with  a  similar  fog  horn  and  bell. 

In  fog,  mist,  falling  snow,  or  heavy  rainstorms,  whether 
by  day  or  night,  the  signals  described  in  this  article  shall 
be  used  as  follows,  namely : 


1 


280  PRBVENTING  COLLISIONS  AT  SEA. 

(a)  Steaixi-^'ewHel  undei?  AVay*  A  steam 
vessel  having  way  upon  her  shall  sound,  at  intervals  of  not 
more  than  two  minutes,  a  prolonged  blast. 

(b)  A  steam  vessel  under  way,  but  stopped,  and  having 
no  way  upon  her,  shall  sound,  at  intervals  of  not  more  than 
two  minutes,  two  prolonged  blasts,  with  an  interval  of 
about  one  second  between. 

(c)  Sail-VetsMel  vxndex*  TV^ay.  A  sailing 
vessel  under  way  shall  sound,  at  intervals  of  not  more  than 
one  minute,  when  on  the  starboard  tack,  one  blast;  when 
on  the  port  tack,  two  blasts  in  succession,  and  when  with 
the  wind  abaft  the  beam,  three  blasts  in  succession. 

(d)  A'^ewwelw  at  .A^nclioi^.  A  vessel  when  at 
anchor  shall,  at  intervals  of  not  more  than  one  minute,  ring 
the  bell  rapidly  for  about  five  seconds. 

(e)  VeHKels  nrc»vingr  oi*  Towed  stnd 
>"ewwelH  XTxial>le  to  iVIanenvei*.  A  vessel 
when  towing,  a  vessel  employed  in  laying  or  in  picking  up 
a  telegraph  cable,  and  a  vessel  under  way,  which  is  unable 
to  get  out  of  the  way  of  an  approaching  vessel  through  be- 
ing not  under  command,  or  unable  to  maneuver  as  required 
by  the  rules,  shall,  instead  of  the  signals  prescribed  in  sub- 
divisions (a)  and  (c)  of  this  article,  at  intervals  of  not  more 
than  two  minutes,  sound  three  blasts  in  succession,  namely : 
One  prolonged  blast  followed  by  two  short  blasts.  A  vessel 
towed  may  give  this  signal  and  she  shall  not  givp  any 
othe. 

Small  SailinpT-VewwelH  and  Boats. 
Sailing  vessels  and  boats  of  less  than  twenty  tons  gross 
tonnage  shall  not  be  obliged  to  give  the  above-mentioned 
signals,  but  if  they  do  not  they  shall  make  some  ofiter 
efficient  sound  signal  at  intervals  of  not  more  than  one 
minute. 

Art.  1G.  Speed  in  Fopf.  Every  vessel  shall,  in  a 
fog,  mist,  falling  snow,  or  heavy  rain-storms,  go  at  a  mod- 
erate speed,  having  careful  regard  to  the  existing  circum- 
stances and  conditions. 

A  steam-vessel  hearing,  apparently  forward  of  her  beam. 
the  fog-signal  of  a  vessel,  the  position  of  which  is  not  ascer- 
tained, shall,  so  far  as  the  circumstances  of  the  case  admit, 
stop  her  engines,  and  then  navigate  with  caution  until  dan- 
ger of  collision  is  over. 

STEERING  AND  SAILING  RULES. 

P8.islc  oT  Collinion.  can,  when  .circumstances 
permit,  be  ascertained  by  carefully  watching  the  compass 
Ixviring  of  an  approa(*hing  vessel.  If  the  bearing  does  not 
appreciably  change,  such  risk  sliould  be  deemed  to  exist. 

Art.  17.    Sailingr-A'ewwels.     When  two  sailing 


PREVENTING   COLLISIONS  AT  SEA.  281 

vessels  are  approaching  one  another,  so  as  to  involve  risk 
of  collision,  one  of  them  shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the 
other  as  follows,  namely : 

(a)  A  vessel  which  is  running  free  shall  keep  out  of  the 
way  of  a  vessel  which  is  close-hauled. 

(b)  A  vessel  which  is  close-hauled  on  the  port  tack  shall 
keep  out  of  the  way  of  a  vessel  which  is  close-hauled  on  the 
starboard  tack. 

(c)  When  both  are  running  free,  with  the  wind  on  differ- 
ent sides,  the  vessel  which  has  the  wind  on  the  port  side 
shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  other. 

(d)  WTien  both  are  running  free,  with  the  wind  (m  the 
same  side,  the  vessel  which  is  to  the  windward  shall  keep 
out  of  the  way  of  the  vessel  which  is  to  leeward. 

(e)  A  vessel  which  has  the  wind  aft  shall  keep  out  of 
the  way  of  the  other  vessel. 

Art.  18.  Steam-A"eKHel»*««  When  two  steam  ves- 
sels are  meeting  end  on.  or  nearly  end  on,  so  as  to  evolve 
risk  of  collision,  each  shall  alter  her  course  to  starboard,  so 
that  each  may  pass  on  the  port  side  of  the  other. 

This  article  only  applies  to  cases  where  vessels  are  meet- 
ing end  on  or  nearly  end  on,  in  such  a  manner  as  to  involve 
risk  of  collision,  and  does  not  apply  to  two  vessels  which 
must,  if  both  keep  on  their  respective  courses,  pass  clear  of 
each  other. 

The  only  cases  to  which  it  does  apply  are  when  each 
of  the  two  vessels  is  end  on  or  nearly  end  on,  to  the  other ; 
in  other  words,  to  cases  in  which,  bv  day.  each  vessel  sees 
the  masts  of  the  other  in  a  line  or  nearly  in  line  with  her 
own;  and  by  night  to  cases  in  which  each  vessel  is  in  such 
a  position  as  to  see  both  the  side  lights  of  the  other. 

It  does  not  apply  by  day  to  cases  in  which  a  vessel  sees 
another  ahead  crossing  her  own  course;  or  by  night,  to 
cases  where  the  red  light  of  one  vessel  is  opposed  to  the  red 
light  of  the  other,  or  where  the  green  light  of  one  vessel  is 
opposed  to  the  green  light  of  the  other,  or  where  a  red  light 
without  a  green  light,  or  a  green  light  without  a  red  light, 
is  seen  ahead,  or  where  both  green  and  red  lights  are  seen 
anywhere  but  ahead. 

Art.  10.  TA'Vo  Steain  A^e^KKel^s  C>i'c>!-«Kiii<r- 
When  two  steam- vessels  are  crossing,  so  as  to  involvi'  risk 
of  collision,  the  vessel  which  has  the  other  on  her  own 
starboard  side  shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  other. 

Art.  20.  When  a  steam-vessel  and  a  sailing-vessel  are 
proceeding  in  such  directions  as  to  involve  risk  of  collision, 
the  steam-vessel  shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  sailing- 
vessel. 

Art.  21.  Coixvsse  Mn<l  Si>eecl.  Where,  by  any 
of  these  rules,  one  of  the  two  vessels  is  to  keep  out  of  the 
way  the  other  shall  keep  her  course  and  speed. 


282  PREVENTING   COLLISIONS   AT   SEA. 

Note,  When,  in  consequence  of  thick  weather  or  other 
causes,  such  vessel  finds  herself  so  close  that  collision  can 
not  be  avoided  by  the  action  of  the  giving-way  vessel  alone, 
she  also  shall  take  such  action  as  will  best  aid  to  avert  col- 
lision.    (See  articles  twenty-seven  and  twenty -nine.) 

Art.  22.  Every  vessel  which  is  directed  by  these  rules  to 
keep  out  of  the  way  of  another  vessel  shall,  if  the  circum- 
stances of  the  case  admit,  avoid  crossing  ahead  of  the  other. 

Art.  2;{.  Every  steam-vessel  which  is  directed  by  these 
rules  to  keep  out  of  the  way  of  another  vessel  shall,  on  ap- 
proaching her,  if  necessary,  slacken  her  speed  or  stop  or 
reverse. 

Art.  24.  Overtalting-^^eHwelis.  Notwithstand- 
ing anything  contained  in  these  rules  every  vessel,  over- 
taking any  other,  shall  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  over- 
taken vessel. 

Every  vessel  coming  up  with  another  vessel  from  any 
direction  more  than  two  points  al)aft  her  beam,  that  is,  in 
such  a  position,  with  reference  to  the  vessel  which  she  is 
overtaking  that  at  night  she  would  be  unable  to  see  either 
of  that  vessel's  side-lights,  shall  be  deemed  to  be  an  over- 
taking vessel ;  and  no  subsequent  alteration  of  the  bearing 
between  the  two  vessels  shall  make  the  overtaking  vessel 
a  crossing  vessel  within  the  meaning  of  these  rules,  or  re- 
lieve her  of  the  duty  of  keeping  clear  of  the  overtaken  ves- 
sel until  she  is  finally  past  and  clear. 

As  by  day  the  overtaking  vessel  can  not  always  know 
with  certainty  whether  she  is  forward  of  or  abaft  this  di- 
rection from  the  other  vessel  she  should,  if  in  doubt,  assume 
that  she  is  an  overtaking  vessel  and  keep  out  of  the  way. 

Art.  25.  IVai'i*<>AV  Cliaiiiielw.  In  narrow  chan- 
nels every  steam-vessel  shall,  when  it  is  safe  and  practica- 
ble, keep  to  that  side  of  the  fair-way  or  mid-channel  which 
lies  on  the  starboard  side  of  such  vessel. 

Art.  20.  PMorhtw  of  AVa^' orFiwhirig- A^es- 
>«els«  Sailing-vessels  under  way  shall  keep  out  of  the 
way  of  sailing-vessels  or  boats  fishing  with  nets,  or  lines, 
or  trawls.  This  rule  shall  not  give  to  any  vessel  or  boat 
engaged  in  fishing  the  right  of  obstructing  a  fair- way  used 
by  vessels  other  than  fishing-vessels  or  boats. 

Art.  27.  Ciren.ei*al  Pi-vicleiitial  !R.iile.  In 
obeying  and  construing  these  rules  due  regard  shall  be  had 
to  all  dangers  of  navigation  and  collision,  and  to  any  spe- 
cial circumstances  which  may  render  a  departure  from  the 
above  rules  necessary  in  order  to  avoid  immediate  danger. 

Art.  28.  Soixnd-SigrialH  for  Vessels  in 
Sigrlit  of  One  ^^.iiotlier.  The  words  *' short 
blast "  used  in  this  article  shall  mean  a  blast  of  about  one 
second's  duration. 

When  vessels  are  in  sight  of  one  another,  a  steam-vessel 


PREVENTING   COLLISIONS   AT   SEA.  283 

under  way,  in  taking  any  course  authorized  or  requirea  by 
these  rules,  shall  indicate  that  course  by  the  following  sig- 
nals on  her  whistle  or  siren,  namely : 

One  short  blast  to  mean,  ""  I  am  directing  my  course  to 
starboard." 

Two  short  blasts  to  mean,  '*  I  am  directing  my  course  to 
port." 

Three  short  blasts  to  mean,  **My  engines  are  going  at 
full  speed  astern. " 

Art.  29.  I^recavitions.  Nothing  in  these  rules 
shall  exonerate  any  vessel  or  the  owner  or  master  or  crew 
thereof,  from  the  consequences  of  any  neglect  to  carry 
lights  or  signals,  or  of  any  neglect  to  keep  a  proper  lookout, 
or  of  the  neglect  of  any  precaution  which  may  be  requirecl 
by  the  ordinary  practice  of  seamen,  or  by  the  special  cir- 
cumstances of  the  case. 

Art.  30.  Reservation  ot"  K.ulew  Foi*  Tlar- 
l>or^«  and  Inland  Navig'ation.  Nothing  in 
these  rules  shall  interfere  with  the  operation  of  a  special 
rule,  duly  made  by  h>cal  authority,  relative  to  the  naviga- 
tion of  any  harbor,  river,  or  inland  waters. 

Art.  31.  T>iHtT*eK!Si;  Sig-nalK*  When  a  vessel  is 
in  distress  and  requires  assistance  from  other  vessels  or 
from  the  shore  the  following  shall  be  the  signals  to  be  used 
or  displayed  by  her,  either  together  or  separately,  namely : 

In  the  dniitime — First.  A  gun  or  other  explosive  signal 
fired  at  intervals  of  about  a  minute. 

Second.  The  international  code  signal  of  distress  indi- 
cated by  N.  C. 

Third.  The  distance  signal,  consisting  of  a  square  flag, 
having  either  above  or  below  it  a  ball  or  anything  resem- 
bling a  ball. 

Fourth.  A  continuous  sounding  with  any  fog-signal  ap- 
paratus. 

At  night — First.  A  gun  or  other  explosive  signal  at  in- 
tervals of  about  a  minute. 

Second.  Flames  on  the  vessel  as  from  a  burning  tar 
barrel,  oil  barrel,  and  so  forth. 

Third.  Rockets  or  shells  throwing  stars  of  any  color  or 
description,  fired  one  at  a  time,  at  short  intervals. 

Fourth.  A  continuous  sounding  with  any  fog-signal  ap- 
paratus. 


284:  YfiSSELS'  LIGHTS,   ETC. 

BUOYS. 

ON  THE  COAST  OF   THE  UNITED  STATES. 

In  ^  a^proSiChing  the  channel,  &c.,  frma  seaward,  red 
buoys  with  even  numbers  will  be  found  on  the  starboard 
side  of  the  channel,  and  must  be  left  on  the  starboard  hand 
in  passing  in. 

In  approaching  the  channel,  &c.,  from  seaward,  black 
buoys  with  odd  numbers  will  be  found  on  the  port  side  of 
the  channel,  and  must  be  left  on  the  port  hand  in  passings 
in. 

Buoys  painted  with  red  and  black  horizontal  stripes  will 
be  found  on  obstructions  with  channel  ways  on  either  side 
of  them,  and  may  be  left  on  either  hand  in  passing  in. 

Buoys  painted  with  white  and  black  perpendicular  stripes 
will  be  found  in  mid-channel,  and  must  be  passed  close-to 
to  ^void  danger. 

All  other  aistin^uishins'  marks  to  buoys  will  be  in  addi- 
tion to  the  foregoing,  and  may  be  employed  to  mark  par- 
ticular spots. 

Buoys  to  mark  abrupt  turning  points  in  channels,  or 
obstructions  requiring  a  specific  and  prominent  mark,  may- 
be fitted  with  staves  surmounted  by  balls,  cages,  triangles, 
and  other  distinctive  marks.  Yellow  buoys,  without  num- 
bers, are  used  to  mark  any  danger  at  a  quarantine  station. 

The  largest  description  of  buoys  (*' mammoth"  or  special 
buoys)  are  to  mark  the  approaches  to  channels  over  sea- 
ward bars  and  isolated  shoals,  rocks,  or  other  obstructions 
to  navigation  which  lie  at  considerable  distances  from  the 
coast. 

First  and  second  class  buoys  are  to  mark  the  approaches 
to,  the  obstructions  in,  and  to  point  out  and  mark  tne  limits 
of  channels  leading  to  the  principal  harbors  along  the  coast, 
and  also  to  mark  the  channels  and  obstructions  adjacent  to 
the  coast  and  those  in  the  large  bays  and  sounds. 

Second  and  third  class  buoys  are  to  mark  the  approaches 
to  and  the  channels  and  obstructions  of  the  lesser  narbors, 
bays,  &c. 

Nun  or  can  buoys  liable  to  be  damaged  or  swept  away 
by  floating  ice  are  removed  on  the  approach  of  freezing 
weather,  and  spar  buoys  put  in  their  places.  In  the  spring 
the  larger  buoys  are  replaced. 

Small  spar-buoys  are  to  mark  channels  and  obstructions 
in  shoal-water  navigation. 

Different  channels  in  the  same  bay,  sound,  river,  or 
harbor  are  marked,  as  far  as  practicable,  by  diflferent 
descriptions  of  buoys.  Principal  channels  are  marked  by 
nun-buoys,  secondary  channels  by  can-buoys,  arid  minor 
channels  by  spar-buoys.     When  there  is  but  one  channel. 


vessels'  lights,  etc.  285 

nun-buoys,  properly  colored,  and  numbered,  are  placed  on 
the  starboard  side,  and  can-buoys  on  the  port  side  of  it. 

Buoys  are  placed  in  the  best  positions  to  mark  obstruc- 
tions, or  to  define  channels,  and  are  made  to  float  as  high, 
and  as  nearly  upright,  as  possible,  during  the  strongest 
winds  and  tides.  White  numbers,  as  large  as  the  class  of 
the  buoy  will  admit,  are  painted  on  four  sides  of  red  and 
black  buoys,  and  the  other  distinguishing  marks  made  to 
show  as  prominently  as  possible. 

Canada  is  buoyed  on  the  same  system  as  the  United 
States. 

White  buoys  are  used  to  mark  special  points  but  have  no 
reference  to  dangers  to  navigation. 

Buoys  indicate  the  set  of  the  tide  by  the  trdf/  they  natch, 
that  is,  the  direction  in  which  they  are  inclined. 


CHAPTER     XX. 

GETTING  UNDER  WAY  AND  ANCHORING  UNDER  SAIL. 

I{.eiiiax*kK  on  CaHting-.  When  there  is  plenty 
of  sea-room,  and  the  wind  is  fair,  it  is  best  to  cast  under 
the  head-sails  and  to  make  sail  when  before  the  wind. 

In  casting  with  the  square  sails  set,  ships  invariably 

gather  stemway  the  moment  the  anchor  breaks  ground, 
^n  this  account,  and  under  these  circumstances,  it  is  con- 
sidered a  ffood  general  rule  (in  the  case  of  a  foul  wind) 
to  cast  with  the  head  towards  the  nearest  of  the  neigh- 
boring dangers,  to  make  a  stern  board  while  the  anchor 
is  being  catted,  then  to  fill  and  make  sail  enough  to  insure 
going  about  in  stays  when  requisite. 

When  there  is  not  room  to  admit  of  going  much  astern, 
set  the  main-sail  before  starting  the  ancnor,  if  possible,  or 
as  soon  after  as  it  will  take,  and  have  a  purchase  all  ready 
to  clap  on  the  cable  the  moment  that  the  anchor  promises 
to  give  a  heavy  heave  ;  otherwise  the  ship  may  go  tripping 
it  astern  into  shoaler  water,  and  certainly  will  oe  unman- 
ageable until  it  is  at  the  bows. 

As  a  general  rule,  and  one  not  to  be  neglected,  when 
weighing  one  anchor  have  the  other  ready  lor  letting  go, 
and  as  soon  as  an  anchor  is  weighed  get  it  ready  for  letting 
go  at  once. 

Before  getting  under  way,  shift  the  helm  over  two  or 
three  times,  to  insure  the  rendering  of  the  wheel  ropes,  and 
that  the  tiUer  is  clear  in  its  sweep. 

When  you  have  room,  and  are  pitching,  it  will  be  best  to 
get  the  anchor  up  before  making  sail.  By  so  doing  you  will 
ease  the  chain,. capstan,  &c. 

When  about  to  get  under  way  (the  ship  being  tide  rode 
and  the  wind  aft),  the  comparative  strength  of  wind 'and 
tide  must  be  well  considered  before  coming  to  the  decisiou 
to  make  sail  and  weigh,  or  to  weigh  first  and  to  make  scul 
afterwards.  For  it  does  not  look  seamanlike  to  see^  a  ship 
under  canvas  forging  ahead  over  her  anchor,  tearing  the 
copper  off  her  bottom,  and  sheering  unmanageably  about 
before  breaking  ground  ;  and  it  is  equally'  bad  management 
when  the  anchor  is  hove  up  and  the  ship  is  drifted  oy  the 
tide  without  steerage  wav. 

If  the  wind  were  light,  it  would  be  necessary  to  make 

286 


Plato  106 


/ 


/ 


/nrtgn     ■  ■  ■  ?*      \ 


GETTING  UNDER  WAY  UNDER  SAIL  287 

nearly  all  sail  before  breaking  ground ;  or  if  moderate, 
merely  to  loose  them.  If  it  were  blowing  strong,  the  ship 
might  stem  the  tide  without  any  sail ;  out  in  this  latter 
case  it  would  be  well  to  have  a  head-sail  set,  so  as  to  pre- 
vent the  possibility  of  breaking  the  sheer  while  stowing  the 
anchor. 

TO  GET  UNDER  WAY  AND  STAND  OUT  ON  A  WIND. 

(Case  1,  Plate  106.) 

Having  the  vessel  in  readiness  for  sea.  and  unmoored, 
prepare  to  get  under  way  as  under  ordinary  circumstances, 
witn  the  wind  fair  for  standing  out  of  the  harbor. 

Big  the  capstan  and  fish-boom,  reeve  the  cat  and  fish 
purchases,  ship  the  gratings,  swifter  the  bars,  call : 

Up  anchor  ! 

If  there  are  two  capstans,  the  one  on  the  g^n-deck  is 
Inanned  by  the  port  watch.  If  fitted  with  a  steam  capstan, 
see  steam  turned  on,  and  a  man  stationed  to  run  it.  The 
principal  stations  are : 

Forecastlemen  to  clean  off  chain  with  hose,  stand  bv 
with  cat,  fish,  &c. 

Mastmen  see  gear  ready  for  making  sail. 

Quartermaster  and  men  stationed  at  the  wheel  go  to 
their  stations ;  also,  leadsmen  in  both  chains  or  quarter 
boats. 

Gunner's  gang  tend  chain  around  capstan,  fore  and 
main  topmen  port  watch  be  ready  to  bitt  or  unbitt,  tend 
stoppers,  or  at  controllers,  &c.  Master-at-arms  and  servants 
or  berth-deck  cooks  tend  berth-deck  compressors  ;  tierers  in 
the  chain  locker.  Man  the  bars.  Heave  around  !  and  heave 
in  the  cable  to  a  short  stay. 

As  soon  as  "brought  to,"  the  first  lieutenant  orders  the 
officer  of  the  forecastle  to  inform  him  when  the  chain  is  in 
to  a  certain  scope,  say  fifteen  fathoms  chain  in  five  fathoms 
water,  though  it  depends  entirely  upon  the  strength  of  the 
wind  and  sea.*  When  in  to  the  required  scope,  the  officer  of 
the  forecastle  commands.  Avast  heaving!  and  reports  to 
the  first  lieutenant,  who  then  directs  the  men  to  be  sent  up 
(supposing  it  a  frigate)  to  make  sail. 

The  cable  being  in  to  a  short  stav,  Heave  and  paul! 
stopper  the  cable  well,  and  unship  the  bars,  on  the  spar 
deck. 

Stations  for  making  sail !  Lay  aloft  sail  loosers  !  and 
when  the  men  are  aloft  and  readv,  Lay  out  and  Loose  ! 
Man  the  topsail  sheets  and  halliards !  In  the  meantime  the 
forecastle  men  are  loosing  the  head  sails,  and  the  afterguard 
the  spanker ;  when  ready,  Stand  by !    Let  fall  !    Sheet 

*  The  old  rale  for  a  short  stay  was,  that  the  cable  should  be  on  a  line  with 
the  foretopmaflt  stay. 


-5^^  GETTING   UNDER  WAY   UNDER  SAIL. 

home!  Lay  in!  Lay  down  from  aloft  !  The  men  all  lay 
down  on  deck,  except  a  few  hands  in  the  tops  to  liirht  up 
and  overhaul  the  rigeing ;  at  the  same  time,  ease  away  the 
topsail  clewlines,  and  haul  close  home  the  topsail  sheets 
As  soon  as  the  men  are  clear  of  the  yards,. Ifenrf  the  braces! 
Haul  taut !  Hoist  away  the  topsails  !  giving  also  the 
cautionary  order  Light  up  the  rigging  aloft !  Hoist  the 
topsails  to  a  taut  leech,  and  Belay  the  topsail  halliards  » 
or  High  enough  the  fore !  Well  the  mizzen  !  Belay  the  main  f 
&c.,  &c.  Sheet  home  and  hoist  the  topgallant  sails,  and 
then  the  royals,  if  the  wind  is  light.  Brace  up  the  after 
yards  for  the  tack  on  which  you  wish  to  cast,  and  the  head 
vards  abox  to  pay  her  off.  Top  up  the  spanker  boom,  and 
bear  it  over  on  the  side  you  wish  to  cast. 

The  following  commands  are  commonly  given,  sail  be- 
mg  made : 

Man  the  port  head  brakes  !  Starboard  main,  port  cross* 
jack  braces !  —or,  the  reverse,  as  you  wish  to  cast  (after  part 
generally  to  after,  forward  part  to  head  braces). 

Let  go  and  overhaul  the  lifts !  Clear  away  all  the  bow- 
lines !    Tend  the  lee  braces  ! 

Haul  taut ! 

Brace  up  ! 

Brace  abox  ! 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  booms  are  not  triced  up  when 
loosing  to  get  under  way. 

The  sails  being  set,  Man  the  bars!  ship  and  swifter 
them  ;  Heave  abound  !  at  the  same  time  giving  her  a  sheer 
with  the  helm.  The  officer  of  the  forecastle  reports  when 
the  cable  is  ''up  and  down,"'  and  also  when  the  anchor  is 
a  weigh!  at  the  former  report,  Man  the  rib  and  flying-jib 
halliards !  The  fore  topsail  pays  her  head  off,  ana  as  soon 
as  the  head  sails  will  tate  the  right  way,  Let  go  the  down- 
hauls,  hoist  away  !  Put  the  helm  a-lee  for  stemboard,  at 
the  same  time,  heave  the  anchor  up  to  the  bows  ;  and  as  soon 
as  it  is  high  enough,  Ava^t  heaving !  Paul  the  capstan  I 
stopper  the  cable  ;  cat  and  fish  the  anchor.  When  sne  has 
fallen  off  sufficiently,  Right  the  helm  !  Brace  around  the 
liead  yards,  and  set  the  spanker.  Trim  the  yards  and  stand 
out  to  sea,  making  sail  as  required. 

As  soon  as  the  anchor  is  catted  and  fished,  the  cable  is 
bitted  and  cleared  for  running.  Having  passed  the  bar- 
buoy,  and  seeing  that  all  the  sails  are  properly  set,  the 
anchors  and  boats  secured,  and  no  further  necessity  for  all 
hands  to  be  on  deck,  the  first  lieutenant  reports  the  fact  to 
the  captain,  who  directs  him  to  **pipe  down."  On  the 
boatswain  piping  down,  the  officers  leave  their  stations  and 
the  lieutenant  of  the  watch  takes  the  trumpet,  receiving  the 
course  from  the  pilot  or  navigator. 

In  some  cases,  though  rarely,  the  captain  gets  the  ship 


GETTING  UNDER  WAY   UNDER   SAIL.  289 

under  way.  When  he  does  not.  the  first  lieutenant  does 
it,  though  the  captain  is  still  responsible  for  the  manner  in 
which  it  is  done. 

In  getting  under  way  in  a  spacious  harbor,  where  you 
have  sufficient  room,  if  circumstances  will  admit  of  it,  it  is 
advisable,  particularly  if  blowing  fresh,  to  keep  the  f oretop- 
sail  to  the  mast  until  the  anchor  is  catted  and  fished  :  to  do 
w^hich  set  the  spanker  as  soon  as,  or  before,  she  oreaks 
^oimd,  and  keep  the  head  sails  down ;  or  flow  the  jib- 
sheet. 

Should  it  blow  sufficiently  fresh,  and  present  appear- 
ances of  heavy  weather  outside,  it  is  advisable  to  reei  the 
topsails  while  setting  them. 

When  getting  under  way  to  stand  off  on  a  wind,  the 
spanker  may  be  set,  and  very  often  is,  when  sail  is  made  ; 
guying  the  boom  on  the  lee  quarter,  or  the  side  to  which 
you  cast,  as  this  catches  the  vessel  snould  she  be  inclined 
to  fall  off  too  much. 

To  Cret  uncler*  ^^^^y  fi*oiix  F'ixecl  IMooi-- 
ingrs.  Proceed  as  in  the  above,  bracing  the  yards  as  you 
wish  to  cast,  then  slip  the  moorings  and  trim  the  yards  to 
the  course,  or  use  a  spring  from  the  moorings  if  circum- 
stances require,  taking  both  ends  of  the  spring  inboard  that 
you  may  let  go  one  end,  unreeve  and  haul  it  on  board. 

RIDING   HEAD   TO  WIND, 

WITH  A  BOCK  OR  SHOAL  ASTERN,  AND  CLOSE  ABOARD — ^TO  GET 
UNDER  WAY  AND  MAKE  SAIL,  BY  THE  WIND,  ON  THE  STAR- 
BOARD TACK.     (Case  4.) 

The  object  now  is  to  get  the  vessel  under  way  without 
losing  anythin|^,  either  in  drift  after  the  anchor  is  aweigh, 
or  in  falline  on  after  casting. 

Having  hove  in  to  a  safe  scope,  run  out  a  hawser  ahead, 
^th  a  kedge,  from  the  starboard  bow ;  and  having  let  it 
go,  haul  the  nawser  well  taut ;  masthead  the  topsail  and 
topgallant  yards,  having  the  sails  loosed,  and  only  confined 
to  the  yards  by  the  quarter  gaskets  ;  brace  the  yards  sharp 
up  by  the  port  braces,  fore  and  aft ;  loose  the  courses,  jib 
and  spanker,  and  have  them  ready  for  setting ;  the  star- 
board jib-sheet  aft,  and  the  fore  and  main  tacks  and  sheets 
stretched  along  the  deck. 

Man  the  bars  and  heave  around  briskly,  until  the  anchor 
is  up,  taking  in  at  the  same  time  the  slack  of  the  hawser ; 
cat  and  fish  the  anchor ;  and  have  it  ready  for  letting  go  as 
soon  as  possible. 

Man  the  hawser  and  warp  the  vessel  ahead,  sheering  her 
with  the  starboard  helm.  Have  the  topsail  sheets  well 
manned,  and  as  soon  as  the  kedge  is  short  apeak,  or  comes 


290  (iETTINd   UNDER   WAY   UNDER   SAIL. 

home,  sheet  home  the  topsails,  run  up  the  jib,  haul  out  the 
spanker,  with  the  boom  on  the  port  quarter;  and  as  soon  as 
the  jib  takes,  with  the  wind  on  the  starboard  bow,  run  the 
kedge  up  to  the  bows. 

As  she  falls  off,  and  the  moment  the  topsails  take,  draw 
the  jib,  set  the  courses  and  topgallant  sails,  and  right  the 
helm.  Should  the  kedge  come  home  before  it  is  apeak, 
make  sail  immediately,  hauling  in  the  hawser  at  the  same 
time. 

If  she  is  falling  off  rapidly  when  the  topsails  take,  set 
the  spanker  and  mainsail  alone,  easing  off  the  jib-sheet ; 
and  as  she  comes  to,  board  the  fore  tack,  haul  aft  the  jib- 
sheet,  and  meet  her  with  the  helm. 

If,  when  the  kedge  is  aweigh,  she  should  fall  off  to  star- 
board, and  bring  the  wind  on  the  port  bow,  let  go  the 
anchor  and  bring  her  up.  By  this  process  you  have  warped 
considerably  ahead  or  the  anchorage,  and  by  counter 
bracing  the  head  yards  you  may  get  under  way,  as  under 
ordinary  circumstances,  or  you  may  run  out  the  kedge 
again,  and  make  a  second  trial. 

If,  while  warping  ahead,  the  kedge  comes  home,  or  the 
hawser  part^,  proceed  at  once  to  make  sail  or  let  go  the 
anchor. 

GETTING  UNDER  WAY  IN  A  TIDEWAY. 

In  the  foregoing  examples,  we  have  had  nothing  to  con- 
sider, in  getting  under  way,  but  the  effect  of  the  sails  and  helm 
on  the  vessel :  but  in  a  tideway,  we  have  also  the  force  of  the 
current  to  guard  against,  or  profit  by,  during  the  operation. 
The  principles  involved  are  the  same  in  both  cases,  bein^ 
careful  to  keep  in  mind  that  the  tide,  running  past  the  ves- 
sel, will  act  on  the  rudder  in  the  same  manner  as  if  the 
vessel  were  going  ahead  at  that  rate  of  speed ;  and  to  allow 
for  the  drift  of  the  vessel  after  the  anchor  breaks  ground. 
Lying  at  anchor  in  a  tideway,  a  vessel  will  ride  to  the  wind. 
or  tide,  which  ever  is  the  stronger. 

I>etlnitioii  of  Ticlew.  Flood  tide,  is  the  in- 
coming tide. 

Ebb  tide,  is  the  outgoing  tide. 

A  windward  fide,  is  when  the  wind  and  tide  are  con- 
trary. 

A  leeward  tide^  is  when  the  wind  and  the  tide  are 
together. 

A  windward  ebb,  is  when  the  tide  is  setting  out,  and  the 
wind  blowing  in. 

.4  windward  flood,  is  when  the  tide  is  setting  in,  and  the 
wind  blowing  out. 

A  leeward  ebb,  is  when  the  tide  and  wind  are  both  set- 
ting out. 


GETTING   UNDER   WAY   UNDER   SAIL.  201 

A  leeward  flood,  is  when  the  wind  and  tide  are  both  set- 
ting in. 

A  spring  tide  is  the  highest  tide,  and  occurs  just  su^- 
sequent  to  the  fttll  and  change  of  the  moon. 

A  neap  tide  is  the  lowest  tide,  occurring  when  the  moou 
is  near  the  first  and  third  quarters. 

TO  BACK  ASTERN.    (Case  7,  Plate  109.) 

If  you  have  not  room  to  cast,  either  to  port  or  starboard, 
from  your  anchorage— suppose  a  vessel  on  each  quarter — 
weigh  the  anchor,  and  drift  down  between  the  vessels  be- 
fore you  cast,  thus : 

Heave  short ;  set  the  topsails  and  spanker ;  brace  all  the 
yards  about  halfway  up  by  the  port  braces  ;  then  heave  in 
on  the  cable,  and  as  soon  as  the  anchor  is  aweigh,  put  the 
helm  to  port ;  the  tide  acting  against  the  starboard  side  of 
the  rudder,  casts  the  stern  to  port ;  the  sails  being  aback, 
she  will  soon  gather  stemboard,  when  the  effect  of  the  tide 
upon  the  rudder  will  be  lost ;  but  the  resistance  by  stern- 
board  on  the  port  side  of  the  rudder  and  the  effect  of  the 
spanker  will  counteract  the  tendency  of  the  fore  topsail  to 
pay  her  off.  In  this  manner  let  her  drift  down  with  the 
tide,  between  the  two  vessels.  Shoidd  she  pay  off  too  much 
you  may  bear  the  spanker  boom  well  over  to  windward, 
and  brace  the  niizzen  topsail  sharp  up.  Should  she,  in 
stemboard,  be  m  danger  of  fouling  the  one  vessel,  she  will 
increase  the  distance  from  the  other,  when  you  may  brail 
up  the  spanker,  shiver  the  after  yards,  hoist  tne  jib,  and  let 
her  go  around  before  the  wind,  righting  the  helm  as  she 
gathers  headway. 

In  like  manner  a  vessel  may  be  backed  astern  where 
there  is  no  tide. 

But  this  manoeuvre  should  not  be  attempted  except  with 
a  smart  working^  ship,  as  a  sluggish  vessel  or  one  that  takes 
a  rank  sheer,  will  be  likely  to  foul  one  of  the  two  dangers 
before  any  change  in  the  disposition  of  canvas  will  affect 
her  movements.  Therefore,  with  an  ordinary  cruising 
vessel,  getting  imder  way  under  sail,  proceed  as  follows  : 

Heave  short ;  set  the  topsails,  reeled  if  necessary,  and 
keep  the  yards  sauare ;  the  helm  amidships.  Heave  in 
again,  ana  when  sne  breaks  ground  and  starts  astern,  paul 
the  capstan  and  stopper  the  cable.  You  may  thus  chib 
down,  and  when  clear  of  danger  heave  up  briskly,  wear  and 
make  sail  as  requisite. 

H.em.Cii*ks  on  "Weigliiiigr*  If  a  J^hip  has  a 
leading  wind  and  is  anchored  in  a  narrow  channel,  or  in 
the  midst  of  a  number  of  a  vessels,  she  should  be  got  under 
way  before  the  tveather  tide  is  done,  as  it  would  be  ex- 
tremely difficult  to  cast  her  upon  the  lee  tide. 


^21)2  GETTINti    UNDER   WAY    UNDER   SAIL. 

TTlie  Kleclgr*^  a^nd  Tog-gle.  When  using  a 
spring  the  weighing  of  the  kedge  may  be  much  facili- 
tated by  bending  the  hawser  to  the  crown  of  the  anchor ^  and 
securing  it  to  tne  ring  by  means  of  a  squilgee  toggle.  If 
the  anchor  has  been  carried  out  by  a  boat  let  her  hang  on  to 
the  buov,  and  at  a  signal  from  the  ship  pull  out  the  toggle, 
when  tne  kedge  mav  be  run  up  to  the  quarter,  and  when 
the  ship  finds  room  sne  will  heave  to  and  pick  up  the  boat. 


ANCHORING. 

[•al     Heiiiai*kK     on 

Ships,  on  getting  within  signal  distance  of  the  senior  officer, 
are  required  to  show  their  number,  and  on  this  being  recog- 
nized, that  officer  gives  his  number  in  return. 

Local  signals,  or  temporary  additions  to  the  si^al  books, 
general  orders,  and  copies  of  the  squadron  routine,  should 
be  procured  without  delay  after  joining  company. 

Shortening  all  sail  together,  in  coming  to  anchor,  how- 
ever well  done  aloft,  cannot  but  crowcT  the  decks  at  a 
time  when  you  want  silence  and  the  power  of  carrying  out 
a  sudden  alteration  in  your  plans.  Except  when  you  want 
to  **  charge  "  into  a  station  with  great  way,  or  catch  breezes 
over  the  land  with  your  lofty  canvas,  the  seamanlike  way 
to  come  to  is  under  topsails,  after  the  courses  and  upper 
sails  have  been  taken  in  and  the  upper  yards  squared.  Y  ou 
can  then  feel  your  way  with  the  to}^sails,  deaden  it  with  a 
check  of  the  braces,  freshen  it  with  a  small  addition  of  can- 
vas, or  stop  it  by  heaving  aback. 

When  about  to  shorten  sail,  get  the  marks  on  the  lee 
lower  lifts  down ;  clew  up ;  man  all  the  braces,  and  lower 
and  square  all  together. 

In  coming  in,  while  blowing  hard,  get  as  much  sail 
reefed  and  furled  as  you  can  spare  with  prudence,  and  the 
cables  double-bitted.  If  running,  round  to  before  letting  go, 
and  have  hands  by  the  second  anchor  ready  for  letting  go. 

Always  double-bitt  before  anchoring  in  deep  water,  as  at 
Madeira,  and  similar  anchorages. 

Should  you  use  a  buoy,  do  not  part  with  it  until  veering 
obliges  you  to  do  so. 

The  rolling  motion  may  be  checked,  when  at  anchor, 
provided  there  be  not  too  much  wind,  by  making  sail  ana 
oracing  by.  This  is  no  unimportant  object,  especially  in 
liandling  boats. 

No  one  who  could  help  it  would  moor  in  a  roadstead.  At 
single  anchor  a  ship  is  ready  for  sea,  and  her  remaining 
anchors  are  disposable  for  a  gale  from  any  quarter. 

The  common  rule  for  giving  the  proper  scope  to  ride  by, 
in  moderate  weather,  is  six  times  the  depth  of  water. 

If  possible,  in  coming  to,  the  vessel  should  be  given  a 


AN'CHORING.  293 


sheer  with  the  helm  so  that  the  anchor  let  go  will  be  the 
weather  one  to  insure  the  ship  swinging  away  from  it. 
This  should  be  done  whether  under  sail  or  steam. 

In  coming  to  an  anchor,  it  is  desirable  to  run  the  cable 
out  straight,  clear  of  the  anchor,  after  letting^  go.  To  do 
this  we  must  either  wait  for  stemway  before  letting  go,  or 
else  let  go  while  there  is  heawiway  on,  and  pay  out  roundly. 

For  tie  former  there  must  be  wind  enough^(if  there  is  no 
tide)  to  force  the  ship  astern.  In  the  latter,  there  is  the 
chance  of  damaging  the  copper  and  snapping  the  chain, 
and  thus  of  running  on  board  a  vessel  which  we  had 
reckoned  on  clearing.  It  is  evidently  an  unnecessary  risk 
in  strong  breezes,  and  therefore  only  adopted  in  light  ones, 
where  tne  risk  is  small.  The  mizzen  topsail  is  often  set 
aback  to  g[ive  the  ship  stemboard. 

The  object  in  thus  laying  out  the  cable  is,  that  not  only 
will  the  anchor  be  clear,  but  that  (except  in  strong  breezes 
and  tides)  the  ship  will  ride  far  from  her  anchor  by  the 
mere  weight  of  the  chain,  where  it  rises  from  the  bottom. 


PREPARATIONS  FOR  ENTERING  PORT. 

It  will  be  assumed  that  the  ship  has  had  a  long  and 
boisterous  passage,  and  that  she  is  approaching  her  port 
of  destination  under  favorable  circumstances,  pleasant 
weather,  and  with  a  reasonable  prospect  of  making  a  speedy 
run  in. 

On  striking  soundings,  bend  chains  and  get  the  anchors 
oflf  the  bows.  A  day  or  two  before  making  the  port,  send 
down  any  extra  rigging  that  may  be  aloft,  scrape  and 
grease  spars,  get  the  upper  masts  in  line,  and  see  that 
all  the  sauare  marks  are  on  the  lifts  and  braces.  Scrub 
paint- work  inside  and  out,  and  if  found  necessary  give  the 
ship  a  light  coat  of  paint  outside.  Touc^h  up  all  chafes  on 
the  spars  aloft.  The  morning  before  going  in.  holystont' 
decks,  and  scrub  boats,  spars,  and  oars.  Sling  clean  ham- 
mocks the  evening  before. 

As  you  near  the  port,  send  down  all  chafing  gear,  lower 
the  boat  davits  and  square  the  boats,  having  them  all  ready 
for  lowering,  have  all  the  half  ports  squared,  and  see  that 
no  lines  are  towing  overboard.  Have  sentry  boards  placed, 
and  sentries  ready  for  posting,  the  ac^commodation  ladder 
scrubbed  and  ready  for  shipping.  All  sheets  snug  home, 
and  sails  up  taut;  clew-jiggers  hooked,  if  used.  If  antici- 
pating a  long  stay  in  port,  the  studding-sails  may  be  unbent, 
the  gear  unrove,  tallied,  and  stowed  away.  If  intending  to 
moor  inunediately  after  anchoring,  rig  the  capstan  for  th" 
chain  of  the  anchor  first  let  go.  unless  the  bars  will  be  \u 
the  way.     The  officers  and  crew  should  be  dressed  in  the 


*>4  AX'  H-»FIV",. 

urr.iorrn  pr'-^Tif^*-d  Ky  th^  r-apiain,  E^»-r7  prv-paration 
*»fjOi,'J  Fj^  rna^ifr  for  firin;^  a  saiut*-,  and  tin:  fla^  to  be  Ui^t^ 
in  r^-ix/iiu-^^ 

S^^m^imfrs  the  toj»saiI  <sheets  and  fore  and  mam  tacks  and 
«hf?*fts  ar*-  sin^l*-d  to  facilitate  shortening  sail. 

If  cornini^  in  under  steam  alune,  have  all  the  sails  neatly 
furl^rd,  yardh  J^^^uare^i,  and  rijrtring  hauled  taut. 

On  approaehinj^  a  p^^irt  at  any  tune,  day  or  night,  have  the 

colors  h^'t.     If  It  has  been  too  dark  to  make  out  the  colors 

Uf^ffi  th*-  *»lj:f/s  ♦'nt^-rinK  iH»rt.  th^y  are  to  be  hoisted  at  day- 

bn-ak  th**  next  morning,  and  hauled  down  a  few  minutes 

iM'f'ire  th*'  time  for  ••colors." 

I'fKin  nearing  the  anchorage,  the  officer  of  the  deck,  when 
H/i  orden-d.  direr-t*;  the  boatswain  to  call  '•Brixg  ship  to 
AVf'HOR  I"  Tlie  first  lieutenant  then  takes  the  tnunpet.  and 
offirer^  and  crew  refiair  to  their  stations.  The  officers,  fol- 
lowing the  executive,  repair  in  the  order  of  rank  to  the  fore- 
cjtKtle,  main  d^-ck.  starlxmrdand  port  g^angwaysandmizzen 
mast.  The  officer  assigned  to  this  duty,  will  see  that  both 
anchors  are  ready  for  letting  go,  that  the  chains  are  bitted 
and  clear  for  nmning.  compressors  thrown  back,  with  men 
U>  man  the  falls,  hfK>k-ropes,  stopi>ers,  &:c.,  at  hand. 

The  junior  officers  are  distributed  about  the  ship  to  the 
best  advantage. 

The  principal  stations  of  the  crew  are  at  the  wheel,  lead, 
anchors,  conn,  signals,  clew-jiggers  and  buntlines,  down- 
hauls  and  brails,  and  weather  braces.  Hands  by  tacks  and 
slicets,  halliards,  outhauls,  bowlines,  lee  braces,  and  on  the 
low(?r  yards  to  overhaul  the  topsail  sheets.  Also  hands  by 
the  compressors,  and  hook-rope  on  the  main  deck. 

Only  those  men  stationed  aloft  will  go  there ;  all  others 
must  keep  below  the  rail,  out  of  the  chains  and  clear  of  the 
ports.  Care  should  be  taken  that  the  general  appearance  of 
the  ship  is  neat  and  seamanlike. 

For  detail  of  duties  of  the  men  stationed  at  the  anchors 
at  the  order  Let  go  !  see  Chapter  XIV. 

If  a  senior  officer's  ship  is  lying  in  the  port,  observe  the 
disposition  made  of  his  light  spars,  and,  if  need  be,  make 
the  usual  signals  and  all  preparations  for  sending  down 
light  yards  and  masts,  should  his  be  on  deck.  Sway  at  the 
onler  Lay  down  from  aloft  !  after  furling  sail,  but  lower 
carefully  while  men  are  in  the  rigging. 

A  v(\sHol  entering  port  with  Tight  yards  in  the  rigging 
should  make  similar  preparations  for  crossing  them  on 
anchoring  if  the  senior  officer  has  his  light  yards  across. 

As  soon  as  the  sails  are  furled,  lay  down  all  but  the 
square  yard  men,  send  a  boat  ahead,  square  yards  haul  taut 
and  stop  in  rigging,  and  pipe  down. 

Get  the  lower  booms  out,  rigged  for  port,  and  lower  boats 
according  to  circumstances.     When  coming  in  under  steam 


ANCHORING.  295 

alone,  the  former  are  generally  rigged  out  as  the  anchor  is 
let  go.  At  the  same  time,  circumstances  permitting,  run  up 
the  jack  if  the  topgallant  yards  are  across,  and  fire  the  first 
gun  of  the  salute. 

The  catamaran  should  be  ready,  so  that  the  copper  may 
be  scrubbed  and  oiled  the  morning  after  coming  to. 

Immediately  after  anchoring,  the  navigator  get's  bearings 
of  the  prominent  objects  in  sight,  that  the  ship's  position 
may  be  plotted  on  the  chart.  These  bearings  must  be  en- 
tered in  the  loe. 

On  pipine  down,  the  first  lieutenant  gives  up  the  deck  to 
the  officer  of  the  watch. 


HAVING  A  LEADING  WIND, 

TO  RUN  IN  AND  ANCHOR.      (NO  TIDE.) 

Bring  ship  to  anchor!  See  that  all  the  officers  and 
crew  are  on  deck  and  at  their  stations.  Top-gallant  and 
ROYAL  YARDMEN  IN  THE  TOPS !  Stand  by  to  take  in  all  the 
studding-sails  and  royals  !  After  the  men  are  stationed,  take 
them  in,  giving  the  command.  Haul  taut !  In  studding- 
sails  AND  ROYALS  I  Or  give  the  command  for  the  stun' 
sails  in  detail.  Rig  in  and  get  alongside  the  studding-sail 
booms,  make  up  and  stow  away  the  sails,  trice  up  the  gear, 
take  the  burtons  off  the  topsail  yard,  and  jiggers  off  the  top- 
gallant lifts,  if  used. 

Man  the  top-gallant  clewlines!  Fore  clew-garnets  and 
huntlines!  ancl  when  ready,  Haul  taut  I   In  top-gallant 

SAILS,   UP  FORESAIL  ! 

Furl  the  top-gallant  sails  and  royals  !  The  moment 
this  command  is  given,  the  light-yard  men  should  lay  aloft 
from  the  top,  and  after  furling  the  sails  snugly,  lay  down 
on  deck. 

Square  the  lower  yards  by  the  lifts,  and  let  the  captains 
of  the  tops  square  the  top-gallant  and  royal  yards. 

Man  the  topsail  clew-jiggers  and  bnntlines ;  jib  down- 
haul!  spanker  outhaul !  At  this  command  hands  lay  out  on 
lower  yards  to  overhaul  topsail  sheets.  Have  hands  sta- 
tioned by  the  topsail  sheets  and  halliards,  jib  halliards  and 
spanker  brails,  and  to  attend  the  braces.  Bear  the  spanker 
boom  over  on  the  quarter. 

When  near  the  anchorage,  put  the  helm  to  starboard  or 
port,  as  the  case  may  be,  having  allowed  for  head  -reach  in 
l)ringing  her  to  the  wind.  Then  give  the  command,  Haul 
taut!  Let  go  the  topsail  sheets!  Clew  up!  Haul  down 
THE  JIB  !  Haul  out  the  spanker  !  As  soon  as  the  sails 
shake,  having  the  wind  abeam.  Settle  away  the  topsail 
halliards  !  Square  away  !  Take  in  the  slack  of  the  braces 
as  the  yards  come  down,  keeping  them  square.     The  bunt- 


296  ANCHORING. 

lines  are  hauled  up  above  the  yard,  the  clews  hauled  for- 
ward by  the  clew-jiggers. 

She  comes  to  the  wind  by  the  effect  of  the  helm  and 
spanker,  and  as  soon  as  she  loses  entirely  her  headway  givt- 
the  commands.  Stand  clear  of  the  starboard  (or  port)  chain .' 
Let  go  the  starboard  (or  port)  anchor  !  Spanker  braiLs.' 
and  as  soon  as  she  swings  to  the  anchor.   Brail  up  the 

SPANKER ! 

Direct  the  officer  of  the  forecastle  as  to  the  scope  to  be 
given,  he  reporting  the  order  carried  out  when  the  chain  is 
secured:  furl  sails,  square  yards,  haul  taut  rigging,  and 
pipe  down. 

If  coming  in  before  the  wind,  or  with  the  wind  well  aft. 
the  head  sails  may  be  down,  or  hauled  down  before  short- 
ening sail. 

If  the  crew  has  been  well  drilled,  all  the  studding-sails, 
top-gallant  sails,  rovals,  and  foresail  may  be  taken  in  to- 
gether ;  and  this,  when  well  done,  has  a  fine  eflfect. 

The  best  command  to  give  on  such  occasions,  where  every- 
thing is  started  together,  is  : 

Haul  taut  I    Shorten  sail  ! 

This  should  be  done  in  time  sufficient  to  admit  of  getting 
the  sails,  booms,  and  gear  out  of  the  way  before  taking  in 
the  topsails. 

The  top-gallant  sails  and  royals  should  be  furled  at  once, 
when  clewed  up.  To  this  end  it  is  well  to  have  the  light- 
vard  men  on  tne  jack  and  cross-trees  ready  to  lay  out  the 
moment  the  yards  are  down. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  attempt  to  reduce  a  cloud  of  canvas 
at  once,  unless  the  crew  and  rigging  are  in  such  a  state  as 
to  insure  success. 


TO  COME  TO  ''HEAD  ON." 

If  there  is  not  room  to  take  the  necessary  sweep,  in  comings 
to  anchor  with  the  wind  aft,  check-stoppers  may  be  put  on 
the  cable  to  deaden  the  headway.  Having  clewed  up  the 
sails  in  good  time,  furl  them,  that  you  may  approach  the 
anchorage  with  as  little  headway  as  possible.  The  anchor 
being  let  go,  the  checks,  breaking  one  after  the  other,  serve 
to  stop  her  headway  before  the  range  is  veered  to.  If  no 
cable  IS  ranged,  have  careful  hands  at  the  compressors. 


TO  STAND  IN  ON  A  WIND  AND  ANCHOR. 

Coming  to  anchor  with  the  yards  braced  up,  you  must 
have  the  weather  braces  well  manned,  and  nave  hands 
ready  to  square  the  lower  lifts,  before  the  topsails  are  clewed 
up ;  and  the  moment  the  order  is  given  to  clew  up,  let  the 


ANCHORING.  297 

braces  be  hauled  in,  and  the  lower  lifts  hauled  taut  to  the 
square  mark.  Some  officers  square  the  yards  by  the  braces 
before  they  clew  up  the  sails.  This  hastens  to  stop  her 
headway,  and  it  is  necessary  in  some  cases,  as,  for  instance, 
in  coming  to  in  a  crowded  harbor,  or  where  70U  have  little 
room.  But  it  renders  the  operation  of  clewing  up  difficult, 
from  the  sails  being  aback  and  binding  against  the  rigging. 
Others  clew  up  the  topsails,  and  then,  manning  all  the 
weather  braces,  command.  Settle  away  the  topsail  hal- 
liards! Square  away  !  When  circumstances  permit,  this 
is  preferable. 

As  soon  as  the  cable  is  taut  and  the  anchor  ahead,  "  veer 
to  "  on  the  cable,  giving  it  to  her  as  she  will  take  it. 

Standing  in  on  a  bowline  iinder  all  sail,  the  most  approved 
method  is  to  shorten  sail  to  topsails,  jib,  and  spanker,  and 
to  come  to  under  that  sail. 

Everything  being  in  readiness,  give  the  conmiand — 

Man  the  fore  ana  main  clew  garnets  and  buntlines  I 

Top-Gallant  and  royal  clewlines,  flying  jib  downhaul! 

Aloji  top-gallant  and  royal  yard  men  I  * 

Having  hands  by  the  tacks,  sheets,  halliards,  and  lee 
braces,  and  weather  top-gallant  and  royal  braces  manned, 
command,  Haul  taut ! 

Shorten  sail  ! 

The  sails  are  clewed  up,  yards  clewed  down,  and  squared 
in  by  the  braces. 

Furl  the  top-gallant  sails  and  royals,  stow  the  fly- 
ing-jib. 

Next  command — 

Man  the  topsail  clew-jiggers  and  buntlines! 

Jib  dowhaul! 

At  this  command  the  men  stationed  there  lay  out  on 
the  lower  yards  to  overhaul  topsail  sheets,  and  a  few  hands 
are  sent  to  the  spanker  sheet. 

Stand  by  the  starboard  (or  port)  anchor! 

When  it  is  judged  that  the  ship  can  be  luffed  up  into  her 
berth,  command  the  helm — 

Hard  down  ! 

Haul  taut ! 

Let  go  the  jib  halliards  !    Haul  down  ! 

Clear  atvay  the  topsail  sheets !    Clew  up  ! 

The  spanker  sheet  is  now  hauled  over  till  the  boom  is 
amidships;  the  jib  is  hauled  down  snug,  and  the  topsails 
clewed  up.     Then — 

Man  the  weather  braces  !  Stand  by  the  topsail  halliards! 

Settle  atvay  the  topsail  halliards!    Square  away  ! 

At  this  command  the  topsail  halliards  are  settled  away 
roundly,  and  the  braces  hauled  in  to  the  square  marks. 

The  quartermaster  in  the  chains,  judging  by  his  lead,  will 

*  Thia  presupposee  the  light-yard  men  have  already  been  sent  into  the  tops^ 


iJ98  ANCHORING. 

report  when  headway  ceases;  as  soon  as  the  ship  com- 
mences going  astern,  Stand  clear  of  the  starboard  chain! 
Let  go  the  starboard  anchor  1  If  a  buoy  is  used,  firsts 
Stream  the  buoy! 

When  head  to  wind,  put  the  wheel  amidships  and  secure 
it,  and  brail  up  the  spanker. 

Let  her  take  the  chain  from  the  locker  if  she  will,  and  do 
not  pay  it  down  in  a  lump  under  the  forefoot.  If  the  wind 
is  so  light  that,  even  with  the  mizzen  topsail  set,  she  will 
not  take  the  chain,  you  must  wait  either  for  the  tide  or  a 
stronger  breeze  to  send  her  astern. 

The  anchor  being  down — 

Stations  for  furling  sail  ! 

Man  the  bunt-jiggers,  have  hands  by  the  clew-jiggers  and 
buntlines,  &c.,  and  proceed  to  furl.  Should  it  be  found, 
after  clewing  up,  that  the  ship  head  reaches  too  much,  and 
is  in  danger  of  louling  another  vessel,  sheet  home  and  hoist 
the  mizzen  topsail.  Should  this  prove  insufScient^  drop  the 
foresail. 


IN  EXPECTATION  OF  BEING  FOULED 

BY  ANOTHER  SHIP  DRIFTING  DOWN  FROM  AHEAD. 

Send  hands  aloft  to  drop  the  foresail,  screw  down  the 
forward  compressor,  unshackle  the  cable,  bend  on  a  hawser, 
and,  as  the  vessel  approaches,  slip,  and  give  her  a  wide 
berth.  A  head  sail  hoisted,  with  the  sheet  to  windward, 
may  assist  in  canting  your  vessel  clear  of  the  danger.  In  a 
fresh  breeze,  stand  by  to  veer  instead  of  unshackling. 

If  collision  is  imavoidable,  get  the  swinging  boom  along* 
side,  lower  the  quarter  boat  and  lower  deck  ports,  overhaul 
lower  lifts,  and  orace  the  yards  up  on  the  tack  opposite  to 
the  side  the  ship  is  on. 

If  a  vessel  gets  athwart  vour  hawse  in  a  strong  tide, 
probably  the  easiest  wav  to  clear  is  to  send  a  kedge  astern, 
set  taut  the  hawser,  and  wait  for  the  tide  to  turn.  When  it 
does,  you  will  swing  by  the  stern,  and  the  other  vessel  be 
drifted  clear  of  you. 

For  tending  ship  at  single  anchor,  see  Appendix  K. 


CHAPTER    XXI. 

THE  DECK.-11AKING  AND  TAKING  IN  SAIL. 

On  fi^ettine  clear  of  the  harbor,  the  first  lieutenant  causss 
everything  about  the  decks  to  be  secured  for  sea  :  the  boat- 
swain, upon  receiving  the  order,  secures  the  anchors,  and, 
if  a  long  passage  is  anticipated,  the  chains  are  unbent  and 
the  hawse-bucKlers  put  in.  If  the  chains  are  not  unbent 
the  hawse- pipes  are  closed  bv  means  of  Jackasses  (canvas 
bags  stuffed  with  oakum).  The  chains  after  being  cleaned 
are  paid  below.  Dry  and  stow  away  everything  used  in 
getting  under  way. 

If  tne  vessel  be  under  sail  alone,  the  anchors  and  chains 
are  kept  ready  for  use  imtil  a  good  offing  is  made. 

On  piping  down  from  getting  under  way  the  first  lieu- 
tenant  turns  the  deck  over  to  the  officer  having  the  watch, 
who  is  at  once  to  acquaint  himself  with  the  position  of  the 
ship,  her  condition,  and  all  orders  remaining  to  be  exe- 
cuted. 

Before  losing  sight  of  the  land,  the  navigator  takes  the 
departure,  puts  over  the  patent  log  and  sets  the  course, 
when  the  officer  of  the  deck  will  commence  heaving  the 
log  and  marking  the  log-book.  The  chafing^  gear  will  now 
be  put  on,  the  boats  topped  up  and  secured,  and  the  stud- 
ding-sail gear  will  be  rove,  if  not  done  before  leaving  port. 

The  Officer  of*  tfaie  Deck*  An  outline  of  the 
daily  routine  at  sea  will  be  found  in  the  internal  rules  and 
regulations  of  the  ship,  but  a  few  minor  details  may  be  here 
mentioned.  Let  it  be  supposed  that  an  officer  is  called  at 
3:50  A.M.  to  keep  the  morning  watch.  Ten  minutes  is  the 
usual  time  allowed  for  him  to  reach  the  deck.  Having 
received  ell  the  orders,  information,  &c.,  he  will,  on  the 
watch  bein^  reported  up,  and  the  wheel  and  lookouts  re- 
lieved, "reheve  the  watch,"  and  have  the  watch  on  deck 
mustered.  In  the  meanwhile  he  ** passes  the  course"  to  the 
man  at  the  wheel,  looks  at  the  compass  if  goin^  free  or 
under  steam,  or  at  the  sails  if  "full  and  by,"  ana  this  he 
should  frequently  repeat  during  the  watch.  After  the 
mustering  of  the  watch  it  is  well  to  make  a  rapid  survey 
of  the  deck,  to  see  that  the  yards  and  sheets  are  properly 
trimmed,  weather  lifts  and  weather  braces  taut ;  lights 
burning  brightly,  lookouts  properly  stationed,  and  to  give 
any  cautionary  orders  to  tne  officer  of  the  forecastle  he 

299 


300  THE  OFFICER  OF  THE  DECK. 

may  deem  expedient,  such  as  to  have  the  topgallant  clew- 
lines led  along,  and  keep  a  bright  lookout  ahead. 

Except  when  making  such  inspections,  or  when  obliged 
to  satisfy  himself  personally  of  any  fact,  the  oflScer  of  the 
deck  should  make  it  a  rule  to  stay  at  his  proper  station,  on 
the  bridge  or  horse-block.  He  should  observe  this  rule, 
especially  when  giving  orders,  instead  of  rushing  about,  as 
is  too  often  the  case,  to  assist  in  carrying  out  his  own  com- 
mands. 

The  captain  of  each  part  of  the  ship  should  be  supplied 
with  a  list  of  his  men.  Petty  officers  mav  generally  be 
relied  upon  to  muster  their  own  parts  and  to  report  ab- 
sentees, if  there  are  no  junior  officers  available  for  this 
duty. 

The  very  great  advantage  of  calling  the  watch  ten  or 
fifteen  minutes  before  eight  bells,  giving  the  men  time  to 
prepare  for  their  watch,  and  to  be  mustered  before  the  time 
for  relieving,  may  be  here  reiterated.  It  would  add  to  the 
health  and  comfort  of  the  crew,  to  the  safety  of  the  ship 
when  under  sail,  and  relieve^  the  mind  of  the  officer  of  the 
deck  of  the  anxiety  felt  during  that  painful  intern^gnum 
when  neither  watch  feels  it  incumbent  to  "man  the  main 
clew-garnets  and  buntlines,''  let  it  look  never  so  squally  to 
windward. 

The  habit  cannot  be  too  earnestly  recommended  to  the 
young  watch  officer  of  anticipating  various  emergencies 
and  casualties,  such  as  a  man  fallmg  overboard,  parting 
rigging,  &c.,  &c.,  and  determining  what  should  be  done  in 
eacn  event,  that  when  it  does  occur,  the  right  order  may 
burst  involuntarily  from  the  lips,  and  the  mind  be  fully  pre- 
pared for  the  necessary  evolution. 

The  orders  of  the  executive  officer  in  reference  to  wash- 
ing clothes  or  scrubbing  decks,  called  "morning  orders," 
and  usually  written  in  an  order  book,  are  put  in  execu- 
tion immeaiately  after  mustering  the  watch,  unless  trim- 
ming yards,  or  other  essential  duties,  or  want  of  light  pre- 
vent. If  clothes  are  to  be  washed,  the  command  is  (?iven 
to  "  lay  up  the  rigging  fore  and  aft"  and  "  sweep  dovm,'-  and 
the  boatswain's  mate  is  ordered  to  call  the  "watch  scrub 
and  wash  clothes."  A  certain  time  should  be  allowed  for 
washing — not  over  an  hour — and  the  clothes  should  be 
neatly  stopped  on  the  lines  so  as  to  lap,  each  piece,  by  an 
inch  or  two,  the  white  and  blue  separate,  the  former  always 
being  above  or  on  a  different  set  oi  lines,  that  they  may  not 
be  soiled  by  the  dripping  of  the  latter. 

At  sunrise  the  command  is  given,  Lay  in,  deck  lookouts! 
Lay  aloft  the  masthead  lookout!  The  lights  are  taken  in, 
forward  officers  called,  and  the  master-at-arms  directed  to 
turn  out  and  report  up  the  idlers. 

The  mates  of  the  decks  get  their  orders  from  the  officer 
of  the  deck.     If  the  main  deck  is  to  be  washed,  the  second 


THE  OFFICER  OF  THE  DECK.  301 

part  of  the  watch  is  sent  below.  But  if  under  sail,  an 
officer  should  be  cautious  not  to  allow  the  watch  to  become 
so  much  engaged,  or  the  running  rigging  so  encumbered, 
that  the  safls  may  not  be  readily  handled,  or  the  yards 
braced  in  anv  sudden  emergency. 

At  six  bells  the  boatswain  will  be  directed  to  ''call  all 
hands  and  pipe  the  hammocks  up,"  after  which  get  all  the 
sheets  home  and  sails  taut  up. 

If  on  a  wind,  proceed  as  loUows  : 

Get  a  jigger  on  the  main  tack,  slacking  the  weather  lift 
and  lee  brace,  and  the  sheet  if  necessary.  Then  haul  taut 
the  lift  and  brace,  haul  aft  the  sheet.  Now  get  jiggers 
on  the  weather,  then  the  lee  topsail  sheet,  getting  them 
home  alike;  overhauling  well  the  clew-lines  and  reef- 
tackles,  slacking  the  halliards  and  tending  the  topgallant 
sheets.  Then  clap  on  to  the  topsail  halliards,  heaving  off 
the  lee  brace  ana  tending  the  weather  one  and  the  top- 

fallant  sheets.  Get  the  topsail  up  to  a  taut  leech,  then  haul 
omethe  topgallant  sheets,  pull  up  on  the  halliards — always 
attending  the  braces  and  the  sheets  of  the  sail  next  above, 
and  then  get  the  royal  sheets  close  home  and  the  sail  up 
taut.  Proceed  similarlv  on  the  fore  and  mizzen,  haul  the 
heads  of  the  fore-and-aft  sails  chock  out,  and  then  the  sheet 
or  foot  out-haul  aft. 

See  the  head-sails  hoisted  with  a  taut  luff,  and  trim  aft 
the  sheets. 

If  free,  with  studding-sails  set,  get  the  lower  studding- 
sail  halliards  up,  then  trim  the  out-haul.  With  the  other 
studding-sails,  get  the  tacks  boom-ended,  halliards  chock 
up  and  sheets  trimmed,  in  the  order  named. 

In  trimming  studding-sails,  if  the  tack  of  the  sail  will 
not  reach  the  boom  end  when  the  halliards  are  up,  the  boom 
hasprobably  been  rigged  too  far  out. 

The  sails  being  trimmed,  put  the  tops  to  rights,  ham- 
mock cloths  and  Doom  cover  smoothed  over  and  stopped 
down,  bright-work  cleaned,  chains  swept  out,  peajackets 
put  in  the  bags  and  stowed  away,  and  rain  clothes  hung  on 
the  jackstays  between  the  launches. 

An  officer  should  never  leave  anything  to  be  done  by  hip 
relief  which  he  should  have  performed  himself. 

At  sunset  the  command  is  given,  Get  out  the  running 
lights!  Station  deck  lookouts!  and  Lay  down  from  the 
mast-head ! — the  side  lights  are  lighted  and  placed  in  posi- 
tion, in  the  light-boxes.  Send  aloft  the  mast-head  light  if 
under  steam. 

Half  an  hour  before  each  meal  the  ship's  cook  makes  his 
report  at  the  mast ;  before  breakfast  and  supper  that  "tea- 
water  is  ready  for  serving  out,"  and  at  11:30  brings  the 
dinner  for  inspection.  If  nothing  has  occurred  to  interfere 
with  the  regular  meal  hours  he  is  ordered  to  serve  out. 

Everything  affecting  the  health  and  comfort  of  the  crew 


302  MAKING   AND  TAKING  IN   SAIL. 

should  receive  the  earnest  attention  of  the  officers.  There 
are  minor  points  of  duty  which  no  rules  or  regulations  can 
reach,  and  which  must  be  left  to  the  thoughtfulness  and 
good  sense  of  the  officers  themselves.  Thus  a  considerate 
officer  will  anticipate  a  rain-squall,  and  ^et  washed  clothes 
or  scrubbed  hammocks  down  in  good  time.  He  will  not 
commence  an  all-hands  job  fifteen  minutes  before  twelve 
o'clock,  and  send  the  men  down  to  dinner  at  one  bell.  Boats 
and  working  parties  will  be  recalled  in  time  for  their  meals ; 
timely  preparation  will  be  made  for  rain  that  the  men  may 
not  be  exposed  to  it  unnecessarily,  and  a  dry  place  reserved 
for  the  watch  below. 


MAKING  AND  TAKING  IN  SAIL. 

Young  officers  should  make  themselves  familiar  with 
the  lead  of  the  running  rigging,  and  where  it  belays,  and  on 
first  getting  to  sea,  it  is  well  to  exercise  the  crew  at  man- 
ning the  ropes,  that  they  may  learn  their  lead  and  be 
enabled  to  find  them  on  the  darKest  night. 

To  Set  a  Foresail,  give  tne  command — 

Man  the  fore  tack  and  sheet  I 

At  this  command  the  men  jump  to  their  stations,  the 
fore  tack  and  sheet  are  manned,  one  hand  being  by  each 
clew-garnet,  and  the  buntlines  and  leechlines  let  go. 

Lay  down  on  the  fore  yard  and  overhaul  the  rigging! 

At  this  command,  one  or  two  of  the  topmen  lay  down, 
and  overhaul,  through  their  blocks,  the  buntlines  and  leech- 
lines. 

If  the  weather  is  moderate,  as  soon  as  the  officer  of  the 
deck  sees  that  the  men  are  at  the  stations,  he  commands — 

Clear  away  the  rigging  !   Haul  aboard  1 

At  this  the  clew-garnets  are.  let  go,  the  tack  hauled  for- 
ward, and  the  sheet  aft. 

rriie  ^fainsail  is  «et  in  the  same  manner,  substi- 
tuting main  for  fore;  and  to  get  the  tack  close  down,  it  is 
advisable,  if  the  yard  is  braced  sharp  up,  to  ease  off  the 
lee  main  brace,*  and  overhaul  the  weather  clew-garnet, 
weather  main-topsail  clewline  and  main  lift.  After  the 
tack  is  down,  brace  up  the  yard,  haul  taut  the  lift ;  reeve 
and  haul  the  bowline. 

When  the  yards  are  square,  and  the  wind  directly  aft, 
the  mainsail  is  never  set,  but  is  hauled  up  snugly  ;  with  the 
wind  quartering,  the  lee  clew  may  be  set  to  great  advan- 
tage. To  do  so,  Man  the  main  sheet!  Overhaul  the  main 
buntlines  and  leechlines !    When  ready  : 

Ease  down  the  lee  clew-garnet !    Haul  apt  ! 

The  weather  clew  is  kept  fast. 

*  Not  applicable  to  the  fore,  as  the  brace  has  more  of  a  horizontal  lead. 


IfAKING  AND  TAKING  IN  SAIL.  303 

To  set  the  Foresail  toefore  the  ypvin^^ 

Man  both  fore  sheets  ! 

The  rigging  being  let  go  and  overhauled  as  before^ 
command — 

Down  foresail  !  As  the'  sail  comes  down,  take  through 
the  slack  of  the  tacks ;  haul  taut  both  lifts,  haul  through 
the  slack  of  the  sheets. 

To  set  the  Courses  (by  the  wind),  command — 

Man  the  fore  and  main  tacks  ana  sheets  I 

Lay  dovm  on  the  lower  yards  to  overhaul  the  rigging! 

When  the  gear  is  reported  all  manned — 

Haul  taut  I  Clear  away  the  rigging !    Haul  aboabd  I 

To  take  in  a  Oorurse  in  modeirate 
Tveathei*.  If  a  foresail,  command,  Man  the  fore  clew- 
aamets  and  huntlines!  The  clew-garnets  and  buntlines 
oeing  manned,  men  stationed  at  the  tack,  sheet,  and  bow- 
line, conmiand — 

Haul  taut !    Up  foresail  J 

The  tack,  sheet,  and  bowline,  are  let  go,  the  clews  of  the 
sail  are  run  up  by  the  clew-garnets,  the  body  by  the  bm\t- 
lines ;  man  the  leechlines  and  haul  the  leeches  to  the  yard. 

In  a  ii*esh  lii^eeze,  or  gale  of  wind,  it  is  neces- 
sary, in  order  to  avoid  shaking  or  flapping  the  sail,  which 
may  split  it,  to  proceed  thus  :  If  you  wish  to  set  a  course, 
the  yard  being  braced  up,  everything  being  manned, 
conunand — 

Ease  down  the  lee  cletv-gamet !    Haul  aft  I 

Then  when  the  clew  is  sufficiently  aft  to  fill  the  sail — 

Ease  down  the  weather  cletv-gamet !    Haul  aboard  I 

To  take  it  in,  under  similar  circumstances,  the  men  being 
stationed,  command,  Ease  off  the  fore-tack  and  bowline  ! 
Haul  up  to  windward  I  Then,  Ease  off  the  sheet  I  Haul 
UP  TO  LBEWARD  !  Having  the  buntlines  well  manned,  run 
them  up  the  moment  the  sheet  is  started  ;  the  lee  clew  being 
the  first  set,  and  the  last  taken  in,  steadies  the  sail  during 
the  operation.* 

Setting  the  mainsail  when  bracing  up,  it  is  better  to  get 
the  tack  down  before  the  lee  brace  is  near  the  sharp-ap 
mark. 

On  setting  courses  by  the  wind,  before  hauling  aboard, 
check  the  lee  braces,  for  the  bunt  of  the  sails  may  nip  or  be 
jammed  between  the  yard  and  the  stay,  and  at  all  events, 
the  main  tack  will  come  down  better. 

nropH£Lili>3  are  the  first  sail  set  in  getting  under  way, 
when  cruising  under  sail,  and  the  last  taken  m,  in  coming 
to  anchor,  except  the  spanker.  At  sea  they  remain  con- 
stantly set,  are  reduced  by  reefing,  in  fresh  winds,  but 
never  taken  in  except  in  gales  of  wind,  or  for  the  purpose 

*  In  taking  in  a  course,  blowing  fresh,  haal  taut  the  lee  lift  before  starting 
tfaatMk. 


304  MAKING  AND  TAKING  IN  SAIL. 

of  repairing  or  unbending.  The  mizzen  topsail  is  an  excep- 
tion, inasmuch  as  it  is  often  settled  down  on  the  cap  or 
furled,  when  sailing  with  the  wind  directly  aft.  and  oiten 
taken  in  in  heavy  weather,  when  the  fore  and  main  are 
close  reefed. 

rFo  set  a.  rropsa.il.  The  yard  being  square  and 
on  the  cap,  command — 

Stand  by  to  lay  alofty  sail-loosers  of  the  fore  {main  or 
mizzen)  top-sail!  Lay  aloft  1  When  the  men  are  aloft, 
Lay  out  and  loose  ! 

The  top-gallant  studding-sail  booms  need  not  be  triced 
up.  The  men  lay  out  on  the  yard,  and  loose  the  sail  by 
casting  oflf  the  gaskets.    While  doing  which — 

Man  the  topsail  sheets  and  halliards f    Tend  the  braces! 

The  clew  lines  are  tended  and  buntlines  let  go,  and  over- 
hauled aloft,  the  gaskets  cast  off,  the  bunt- jigger  unhooked, 
and  the  men  on  the  yard  holding  up  the  san  oy  hand,  it  is 
reported  ready.  The  sheets  being  well  manned,  the  com- 
mand is  given,  Stand  by!  Let  fall  !  Sheet  home  !  Lay 
in  !  Lay  down  from  aloft  !  The  clews  of  the  sail  are 
hauled  out  to  the  lower  yard-arms  by  the  sheets,  until  the 
foot  of  the  sail  is  taut,  hands  easing  away  the  clewlines  as 
the  sheets  go  home.  *    Meanwhile  : 

Hoist  away  the  topsail  I 

The  yard  is  hoisted  by  the  halliards,  until  the  leeches  of 
the  sail  are  taut,  keeping  the  topsail  reef  tackles,  topgallant 
sheets  and  studding  sau  tacks,  and  the  topsa^  clewlines 
and  topmast  studding  sail  halliards  well  overhauled. 

HTo  take  in  a.  rFopsail,  as  in  coming  to  anchor. 
Man  the  topsail  clew-jiggers  and  buntlines!  Weather  braces! 
At  this  conunand,  the  clew-jiggers  and  buntlines  are 
manned;  hands  stationed  by  the  sheets,  halliards,  bowlines, 
and  braces;  the  latter  for  the  purpose  of  squaring  the  yards 
if  braced  up ;  have  a  hand  on  each  lower  yard-arm  to  render 
the  sheets  through  their  sheaves;  command,  Clear  away 
the  topsail  sheets,  Clew  up  !  The  clews  are  hauled  up  by 
the  clew-jiggers,  and  the  body  by  the  buntlines ;  when  the 
sail  is  up,  and  the  weather  brac^es  manned,  Settle  away  the 
topsail  halliards !  Square  away  i  The  yard  is  now  lowered 
on  the  cap  and  squared  in  at  the  same  time,  the  buntlines 
and  clew-iiggers  are  kept  some  distance  above  the  yard. 

To  Set  a  CloHe-H^eeied  Topsail.  Brace 
up  the  topsail  vard  sufficiently,  and  the  lower  yard  more 
than  the  topsail  yard.  Haul  taut  the  lee  topsail  brace,  then 
having  loosed  and  let  fall,  Man  the  topsail  sheets  !  Attend 
the  gear,  let  go  and  overhaul  the  buntlines,  Ea^e  down  the 
lee  clewline,  haul  home  the  lee  sheet  !  keeping  the  vessel 

*  In  setting  the  light  sails,  the  men  are  ordered  in  before  sheeting;  home,  to 
avoid  accidents  dae  to  the  motion  of  the  yards,  which  have  considerable  play. 

In  heavy  weather,  or  whenever  ther«  are  men  on  tlie  lower  yards,  it  would 
be  well  to  observe  the  same  rule  in  slieeting  home  the  topsails. 


MAKING   AND  TAKING   IN   SAIL.  305 

oflf  if  necessary;  then,  Ease  down  the  weather  clewline! 
Haul  home  the  weather  sheet!  Man  the  halliards  and 
sway  the  yard  clear  of  the  cap.  Trim  the  yards,  haul 
taut  the  weather-brace  and  haul  the  bowline.* 

To  HTake  in  a  Topsail  in  a  Grale.  Say  the 
fore  :  Man  the  fore-topsail  clewlines  and  buntlines,  weather 
fore-topsail  brace  I  The  weather  clewline  is  manned  best ; 
nands  oy  the  lee  brace,  sheets,  and  halliards  ;  when  ready, 
keep  the  ship  off  a  point,  ease  off  a  fathom  of  the  lee  sheet. 
Settle  away  the  halliards  I  Brace  in  and  clew  down  !  Ease 
away  the  weather  sheet!  Clew  up  to  windward  !  The 
weather  clewline  and  both  buntlines  are  run  up  ;  Ease  away 
the  lee  sheet !  Clew  up  to  leeward  1  The  weather  brace 
is  hauled  in  when  the  yard  is  clewed  down.  Point  the  yard 
to  the  wind,  steady  it  well,  and  furl  the  sail. 

To  take  in  a  close-reefed  topsail  with  the  wind  abaft  the 
beamy  haul  up  the  lee  clewline  first ;  brace  the  yard  in  by 
the  weather  brace  until  it  is  pointed  to  the  wind,  if  possible, 
before  laying  out  to  furl. 

In  taking  it  in  before  the  wind,  with  the  watch,  haul  up 
one  clew  at  a  time,  hauling  up  both  buntlines  as  before  ; 
brace  the  yard  sharp  up  and  shiver  the  sail ;  then  lay  out 
and  furl  it. 

In  furling  a  sail  in  a  gale,  secure  the  yard  well  before 
sending  the  men  out :  and  when  out,  render  them  all  the 
assistancepoBsible  witn  the  helm. 

To  Talie  in  and  Filial  tlie  IMizzen  Top- 
sail in  a  Grale.  Man  the  mizzen-topsail  clewlines  and 
buntlines^  lee  mizzen  topsail  brace!  Hands  by  the  sheets 
and  halhards,  weather  brace  and  bowline.  When  ready. 
Settle  away  the  halliards !  Clew  down  !  Hauling  in  on 
the  lee  brace  ;  Ease  away  the  sheets !  Clew  up  !  Tne  yard 
is  pointed  to  the  wind,  and  the  gear  hauled  close  up ;  Lay 
aloft  all  the  mizzen  topmen  ! 

Lay  out  and  Furl  the  mizzen  topsail  ! 

l^onble  TopnailH.  To  set  the  upper  topsail, 
when  the  clews  shackle  to  the  lower  topsail  yard.  Loose 
the  sail,  tend  the  braces,  and  hoist  the  yard  till  the  leeches 
are  taut. 

When  the  upper  topsail  is  fitted  with  short  sheets,  sheet 
home  before  hoisting.  The  upper  topsail  is  often  set  first 
in  getting  under  way. 

To  take  in  the  upper  topsail,  lower  the  yard,  haul  up  the 
buntlines,  and  furl  the  sail. 

To  set  the  lower  topsail,  sheet  home,  in  the  same  manner 
as  in  the  case  of  the  single  topsail. 

To  take  in  the  lower  topsail,  clew  up,  as  in  the  case  of  a 
single  topsail.  If  blowing  fresh  haul  up  the  weather  clew 
first. 

♦  In  all  cases  of  hoisting  a  square  sail  attend  the  sheets  of  the  sail  next 
above. 

26 


^OC)  MAKING   AND   TAKING   IN   SAIL. 

To  wet  a  nrop^a.llcLiit-ssLil.  Command,  Lay 
aloft  and  loose  the  fore  {main  or  nitzzen)  topgallant  sail! 
Man  the  topgallant  sheets  and  halliards!  While  the  sail 
loosers  are  loosing  the  sail,  the  sheets  and  the  halliards  are 
manned,  hands  being  by  the  clewlines  and  braces.  Overhaul 
the  royal  sheets  and  topgallant  studding  sail  halliards.  When 
ready.  Stand  by !  Let  fall  !  Lay  in  I  Lay  down  from 
ALOFT  I  Sheet  home  I  While  hauline  home  the  sheets,  if 
on  the  wind,  brace  up  the  yard  sumciently  to  shake  the 
sail ;  take  a  turn  with  the  weather  brace,  and  let  go  the  lee 
one.  If  before  the  wind,  let  go  both  braces ;  and  if  the  wind 
is  quartering,  the  lee  one.  Tend  the  braces !  Hoist  away  ! 
Hoist  the  sail  up  to  a  taut  leech.  Belay  the  haTiLIards  ! 
Trim  the  yard  to  the  wind,  set  taut  the  weather  brace, 
keemng  the  lee  one  a  little  slack. 

\l7o  rPa^ke  in  a.  rFopg-stllAnt-sAil.  Lay  aloft 
to  furl  the  fore  {main  or  mizzen)  topgallant  sail!  Man  the 
fore  topgallant  clewlines  I  Weather  fore-topgallant  bracBy 
When  the  clewlines  and  weather  brace  are  manned,  hands 
by  the  sheets,  halliards  and  lee  brace ;  if  in  a  moderate 
breeze,  command.  Haul  taut!  In  fore-topgallant  sail  ! 
The  sail  is  clewed  up,  halliards  let  go,  buntline  hauled 
up,  and  the  yard  braced  in  at  the  same  time.  In  a  fresh 
breeze,  command — 

Round  in  the  weather  brace!  Ease  away  the  lee  sheet 
and  halliards  I  Clew  down  !  Let  go  the  weather  sheet ! 
Clew  up  !  If  the  wind  is  aft,  or  on  the  quarter,  order. 
Let  go  the  halliards!  Clew  downI  Let  go  the  sheets! 
Clew  up  I  Squaring  the  yard  as  it  comes  down  bv  the 
braces,  and  starting  the  sheets  when  down.  The  sail  being 
clewed  up,  steady  the  yard  by  the  braces,  and  then  com- 
mand, Lay  out  and  furl  ! 

The  three  topgallant  sails  are  set  and  taken  in  in  the 
same  manner,  giving  the  command.  Lay  aloft  and  loose 
the  topgallant  sails!  and  Man  the  topgallant  clewlineSy 
&c.,  &c. 

In  taking  in  a  topgallant-sail  in  a  fresh  breeze,  ea,se  the 
lee  sheet,  but  do  not  let  it  go  until  the  yard  is  well  started 
in  and  down.  This  will  keep  the  yard  from  cockbilling  and 
make  it  easier  to  clew  down.  But  have  the  lee  clew  hauled 
up  before  the  weather  sheet  is  started. 

To  Set  ox*  Talie  Ixi  the  Hoyals.  Proceed 
as  with  the  topgallant-sails,  in  moderate  weather.  The 
flying  jib  generally  goes  with  the  royals,  and  the  following 

are  the  command :  *,     /t   -       .  -t . 

Aloft  and  loose  the  royals!    Clear  away  the  ftying-jtb ! 

When  ready — 

Let  fall,  sheet  home  !    Hoist  away  the  eoyals  and 

flying-jib!  ,       ,^     ^,  > 

To  take  them  in.  Aloft  to  furl  the  royals  !  Man  the  royal 


MAKING   AND   TAKING   IN   SAIL.  307 

cletvltnes,  flying-jib  downhaul!     Haul  taut!     In   royals, 

DOWN  FLYING  JIB  !      FURL  THE  ROYALS !      StOW  THE  FLYING- 
JIB ! 

If  the  royals  have  been  kept  on  too  long,  handle  them  in 
taken  in,  precisely  as  described  for  the  topgallant-sail, 
keeping  fast  the  weather  sheet  until  the  yara  is  down  ana 
the  lee  clew  hauled  up.  As  the  royal  has  no  buntline  to 
control  the  body  of  the  sail,  lay  the  yard  for  furling  so  as 
to  spill  the  sail,  bein^  careful  not  to  let  it  get  flat  aback, 
otherwise  it  will  be  blown  under  the  foot-rope  and  make  it 
difficult  to  lay  out  on  the  yard. 

When  the  flvine-jib  is  taken  in  under  similar  circimi- 
stances,  let  ^o  the  halliards,  but  do  not  start  the  sheet  till 
the  sail  is  about  half  wa;^  down,  then  keep  easing  off  till 
the  sail  is  down,  otherwise  it  is  likely  to  be  split.  Do 
not  haul  over  the  weather  sheet  until  the  sail  is  nearly 
stowed  and  the  men  on  the  boom  are  ready  to  receive  the 
clew. 

To  Set  a  Hea^d  Sail.  The  manner  of  setting 
and  taking  in  all  the  head  sails  is  the  same.  To  set  the  jib 
give  the  command,  Clear  away  the  jib!  Man  the  halliards! 
Have  a  hand  by  the  downhaul  to  clear  it  away,  and,  in  case 
of  the  fore-topmast  staysail  or  jib,  send  a  hand  out  to  light 
up  the  hanks.  When  ready,  Let  go  the  downhaul!  Hoist 
AWAY  !    When  up  taut,  trim  the  sheet. 

In  setting  a  jib^  the  sheet  should  not  be  kept  taut,  but 
eased,  to  let  the  sail  go  up  ;  and  observe,  at  the  conclusion, 
that  both  the  stay  and  the  §uys  are  taut. 

To  Take  it  In.  man  the  jib  downhaul  I  Have  a 
hand  at  the  halliards  and  sheets.  When  manned.  Mind 
your  weather  helm  !  (if  blowing  fresh).  Let  go  the  halliards  ! 
Haul  down  !  By  easing  off  the  sheet  as  the  halliards  are 
let  go.  the  pressure  of  tne  hanks  on  the  stay  is  relieved, 
and  tne  sail  comes  down  easily.  Lay  out  and  stow  the 
JIB !  When  stowed,  take  in  the  slack  of  the  halliards  and 
sheets. 

Tlie  Spanlier.  being  at  one  extremity  of  the 
lever,  governs  the  vessel  more  or  less  in  all  the  evolutions. 
It  serves  to  bring  her  to  the  wind,  or  to  prevent  her  from 
falling  off  ;  is  always  set  at  sea,  except  with  the  wind  aft 
or  well  on  the  quarter ;  and  in  coming  to  anchor,  is  the  last 
sail  taken  in,  as  it  is  used  to  bring  the  vessel  up  head  to 
wind,  after  tne  topsails  are  clewed  up. 

In  Setting-  tlie  Spanlier*,  top  the  boom  up  by 
both  topping-lifts  (if  two  are  used),  after  which  overhaul 
the  lee  one.  Man  the  spanker  outhauls  I  Have  hands  bv 
the  clew-rope,  head-downhaul  and  brails,  and  hands  aloft 
to  overhaul  them.  Let  qo  the  brails !  Haul  out  1  Slack 
the  weather  vang,  and  tnm  the  sheet. 

To  Take  it  In.    Man  the  spanker  brails  I    Head 


308  MAKING   AND   TAKING   IN   SAIL. 

dowuhaul  I  Have  tlio  loo  brails  woU  manned,  and  hands  to 
take  in  the  slack  of  the  weather  ones;  and  hands  by  the 
outhauls.  Jjet  go  the  outhanh!  Brail  up!  At  the  same 
time,  haul  up  the  clew  rope,  haul  the  boom  amidships  and 
crotch  it,  or  in  wearing,  haul  it  over  on  the  weather  quar- 
ter, ready  for  the  other  tack ;  steady  the  gaff  by  the  weather 
vang. 

To  Set  a  Spanlter  ox*  Ti*vsail  Blowiii«»- 
F'rewli.  Clear  away  the  spanker!  When  the  furling  lino 
is  cast  off,  Man  the  foot  outhaul!  Clear  away  the  brails, 
HAUL  OUT  !  easing  away  the  clewrope  and  braUs.  Having 
steadied  the  foot  of  the  sail,  Man  the  head  outhaul!  Clear 
away  the  downhaul,  haul  out  !  easing  off  the  weather  vang. 
Then  trim  aft  the  foot  outhaul. 

To  Talte  it  In  when  blowing.  Man  the  head 
downhaul  and  brails!  Lee  brails  best.  Clear  away  the 
head  outhaul !  Brail  up  !  checking  the  foot  outhaul  if 
necessary.  When  the  head  is  down,  ease  away  the  foot 
outhaul  and  brail  up  snug.  The  wind  being  now  out  of  the 
sail,  the  brails  may  oe  slacked  enough  to  haul  up  the  clew. 
Steady  the  gaff  and  boom  amidships. 

A  trysail  is  handled  in  a  similar  way. 

Sta.yssailH.  Set  between  the  fore  and  main  masts, 
are  the  main  topmast  and  topgallant  staysails  ;  the  first  is 
stowed,  when  not  set,  under  tne  fore-top,  and  the  other  in 
or  above  the  fore-top. 

There  may  be  also  mizzen  topmast  and  topgallant  stay- 
sails. 

They  are  set  like  the  head-sails,  the  sheets  leading  down 
on  deck,  and  belayed  in  the  lee  gangway. 

These  sails  are  only  used  in  light  weather,  with  the  wind 
free.    They  are  termed  Ufting  sails, 

Stnclding-  or*  Steering*  Sails,  in  light  or 
moderate  weather,  with  the  wind  free  or  aft,  are  used  with 
great  advantage,  to  increase  the  speed  of  a  vessel.  The 
weather  topmast  and  topgallant  studding-sails  may  be  set 
with  the  wind  one  point  free,  or  forming  an  angle  of  seven 
points  with  the  keel.  The  lower  studding-sail  can  only  be 
used  to  advantage  with  the  wind  abaft  the  beam.  With 
the  wind  aft  and  yards  square,  studdinjz  sails  are  set  on 
both  sides.  The  topgallant  studding  sau  is  generally  set 
first. 

Tlio  Topgrallant  Studdinsr-^^il*  At  sea, 
this  sail  is  kept  in  the  top,  stowed  up  ana  down  in  the  top- 
mast rigging.     To  set  it,  command — 

(ret  the fopqallant  at  Hit  .sail  ready  for  setting  ! 

Haul  taut  the  topgallant  lift.*  One  of  the  quarti^n- watch 
repairs  to  the  topsail  yard,  where  he  converts  the  boom 

*  It  is  observcM]  that  the  support  tlius  obtained  1b  trifling.  If.  through  neg- 
lect, the  lift  is  not  overhauled  again  after  the  studding-sail  has  been  taken  in, 
the  yard  itself  will  be  endanger^  if  the  topgallant  sail  has  to  come  in  qoicklj. 


MAKING   AND   TAKING  IN  SAIL.  309 

tricing-line  into  an  *' in-and-out  jigger,"  and  toggles  the 
heel  of  the  boom  to  a  bull's-eye,  which  traverses  on  the 
jack-stay  fitted  for  the  purpose,  or  there  may  be  a  quarter- 
strap.     (See  Rigging  Ship.) 

The  sail  is  cast  loose  in  the  top,  having  only  a  squilgee 
strap  around  it.  Fig.  459.  The  halliards  manned  on  deck, 
and  the  tack  in  the  top,  a  hand  by  the  sheet,  and  one  also  on 
the  yard  to  assist  to  ng  out  the  boom. 

Haul  taut !    Rig  out  !    Hoist  away  ! 

When  the  boom  is  suflSciently  out  (which  will  be  known 
hj  the  mark  on  it),  the  heel  is  secured,  keeping  it  on  the 
right  slue  for  the  tack.  As  the  sail  goes  up,  the  topmen 
taike  in  the  slack  of  the  tack.  When  it  is  above  the  topsail 
yard,  out  squilgee,  haul  out  the  tack,  run  up  the  halliards 
and  finally  trim  down  the  sheet. 

To  Talie  it  In.  Command,  Stand  by  to  take  in 
the  topgallant  stuji  sail  I  Man  the  sheet  and  downhaul,have 
a  hand  by  the  halliards,  by  the  tack,  and  on  the  topsail 
yard  to  rig  in  the  boom;  command,  Lower  away!  HAUii 
DOWN  !  Rig  in  !  Let  the  topmen  rouse  the  sail  well  abaft 
the  topgallant  sail,  keep  fast  the  tack  while  you  lower  the 
halliards,  or  the  sail  will  fly  forward  of  the  topgallant  sail, 
and  render  the  operation  more  difficult.  When  the  sail  is 
in,  take  the  jigger  off  the  topgallant  lift,  if  used. 

The  fore  and  main  are  generally  set  and  taken  in  to- 
gether. 

A  topgallant  studding-sail  is  fitted  with  a  downhaul  bent 
to  the  inner  end  of  the  j^ard,  and  leading  down  into  the  top : 
by  this  it  mav  be  easily  hauled  down  in  taking  in,  ana 
dipped  forward  when  necessary. 

The  Topmast  StiiLclcliiig"-sail«  To  set  it. 
Get  the  topmast  sturi'sail  ready  for  setting  I  Get  a  burton  on 
the  topsail  yard  and  haul  it  well  taut ;  the  upper  block  of  the 
burton  being  generally  taken  to  the  topmast  cap  to  give  a 
better  angle  ot  support ;  get  the  sail  out,  and  make  up  ready 
for  sending  aloft ;  overhaul  down  and  bend  on  the  halliards 
and  tack ;  have  one  squilgee  strap  around  the  sail,  and 
another  around  the  halbards  and  outer  yard-arm,  to  keep  it 
up  and  down  in  hoisting  ;  hook  the  in-and-out  jjigger  on  the 
lower  yard  for  rigging  out  the  boom.  Having  the  gear 
manned — 

Set  taut!    Rig  out  !    Hoist  away  ! 

When  the  sail  is  high  enough  above  the  yard  to  clear  the 
brace,  out  squilgee!  As  it  is  run  up  to  the  topsail  vard-arm, 
take  in  the  slacK  of  the  tack  and  light  the  downhaul  over 
the  brace-block.  Haul  the  tack  close  out,  hoist  the  sail  up 
taut,  in  the  top  trim  the  short  sheet  and  dip  the  downhaul 
and  deck  sheet.  As  soon  as  the  boom  is  out,  its  heel  is 
lashed  to  the  fore  yard,  and  the  in-and-out  jigger  shifted 
for  rigging  in. 

In-and-out  Jig-g-er.     A  gun-tackle  purchase  is 


310  MAKING   AND   TAKING   IN   SAIL. 

used  thus :  To  rig  out,  the  outer  tail-block  is  secured  to  the 
neck  of  the  boom-iron,  the  inner  one  to  the  heel  of  the 
studding-sail  boom;  the  fall  is  rove  through  a  leading 
block,  and  then  down  on  deck.  In  shifting  it  to  rig  in  the 
boom,  shift  the  inner  block  to  the  slings  of  the  yard, 
and  the  other  to  the  heel  of  the  boom,  fall  leading  as 
before. 

To  tcike  in  the  Topmast  Stixd-ding"- 
Hail*  Command,  3fan  the  topmast  stnn'sail  downhaul I 
or.  Stand  by  to  take  in,  &c.  Man  the  downhaul,  deck- 
sheet,  in-and-out-jigger ;  and  have  hands  by  the  halliards, 
tack,  and  short  sheet  in  the  top. 

Lower  away  I  haul  down,  rig  in  !  Lower  away  the 
halliards,  and  naul  the  sail  down  to  the  boom  by  the  aown- 
haul ;  then  let  go  the  tack  and  haul  down  on  the  downhaul 
and  sheet  togetner,  rigging  in  the  boom  at  the  same  time. 
Take  the  burton  off  the  topsail  yard!  Make  up  the  sail, 
hitch  the  halliards  to  the  clew  of  the  topsail;  stop  the 
bights  of  the  tack,  boom-brace  and  lower  studding-sait  hal- 
liards to  the  pacific  iron ;  having  the  tack  over  the  fore 
brace.  Stop  in  the  gear  along  the  fore  yard,  thence  down 
the  swifter,  bights  at  the  slings  of  the  yard  triced  up  by  a 
tncmg  line. 

The  downhaul  and  sheets  are  made  up  with  the  sail. 

A  fore  topmast  studding-sail  is  often  carried  when  run- 
ning before  a  fresh  breeze,  such  as  would  reduce  a  ship  to 
douole-reef ed  topsails  if  close-hauled ;  in  which  case  the 
boom  should  be*well  supported.  In  large  vessels  there  is 
a  brace  to  the  boom,  but,  in  addition,  to  take  the  upward 
strain,  the  lower  studding-sail  halliards  are  used  as  SLJumpery 
thus :    Toggle  them  above  the  boom,  bring  the  standing 

¥art  down,  and  set  it  up  securely  in  line  with  the  boom, 
'his  acts  as  a  martingale. 

A  main  topmast  studding-sail  is  carried,  in  some  vessels, 
with  the  wind  abaft  the  beam,  and  has  great  effect  in  in- 
creasing the  speed.    It  is  set  and  taken  in  like  the  fore. 

In  some  vessels  the  topmast  studding-sail  tack  is  brought 
in  along  the  yard,  and  the  boom  brace  fitted  with  a  short 
pendant  and  whip  purchase,  which  is  thought  to  be  a  proper 
method  for  a  large  vessel,  having  only  the  brace  to  attend 
to  in  trimming  the  yard ;  but  generally  the  brace  and  tack 
are  rove  through  the  sheaves  of  a  double-block  in  the  main 
riggings  and  both  belayed  close  together. 

To  net  a  T^o^^ver  Htudding'-SAil*  Com- 
mand, Oet  the  starboard  (or  port)  lower  stun'sail  ready  for 
setting !  Get  it  out  and  make  it  up  for  setting ;  overhaul 
down  the  outer  and  inner  halliards,  and  bend  them  on,  the 
the  former  to  the  yard,  and  the  latter  to  the  inner  head- 
earing  of  the  sail ;  overhaul  in  and  bend  on  the  outhaul  to 
the  clew;  pass  a  stop  around  the  sail,  and  secure  it  by  a 
double  squilgee,  the  tripping-line  from  it  leading  on  deck. 


MAKING  AND  TAKING   IN   SAIL,  311 

Haul  well  taut  the  fore  lift  and  brace.  Man  the  lower  boom 
topping-lift,  and  forward  guy,  and  have  a  hand  by  the  after 
guy.  Pull  well  up  on  the  inner  halliards.  Top  up  the  boom, 
and  at  the  command,  Rig  out  !  haul  forward  on  the  forward 
guy,  and  at  the  same  time  have  everything  manned  for 
setting  the  sail. 

Haul  taut !  Hoist  away,  haul  out  !  taking  in  the  slack 
of  the  outhaul  and  inner  halliards.  When  hjQf  way  up  be- 
tween the  deck  and  lower  yard,  haul  out  the  squilgee,  and 
as  the  sail  falls,  haul  out  on  the  outhaul,  and  hoist  the  sail 
up  taut  to  the  topmast  studding^-sail  boom ;  then  haul  out 
the  outhaul  and  pull  up  on  the  inner  halliards.  Reeve  the 
sheet  through  a  tnimble  or  block  on  the  goose-neck  of  the 
lower  boom,  and  haul  it  well  taut.  The  lower  boom  is 
trimmed  by  the  fore  yard,  so  that  the  sail  may  set,  as  nearly 
as  possible,  parallel  with  the  foresail. 

rPo  'take  In,  command,  Stand  by  to  take  in  the 
lower  stun^-sail !  Man  the  clewline,  sheets,  and  inner  hal- 
liards, have  hands  by  the  outer  halliards  and  outhaul,  Ease 
away  the  outhaul!  Clew  up  !  The  outhaul  being  let  go, 
the  clew  is  hauled  up  to  the  yard;  then,  Lower  atvay,  Haul 
in  !  Ease  oflf  the  outer  halliards,  and  haul  in  on  the  inner 
halliards,  sheet,  and  clewline.  When  the  sail  is  inboard 
and  over  the  forecastle.  Lower  away  the  inner  halliards ! 
The  sail  being  down,  make  it  up.  To  get  the  lower  boom 
alongside:  Man  the  after  guy  I  Tend  topping  lift  and 
forward  guy!  Set  taut!  Haul  aft!  get  the  boom  in  its 
place  and  trice  up  the  gear. 

To  Set  all  the  Studding- t^sailn  on  One 
Side.     Command — 

Get  the  starboard  (or  port)  stun^-sails  ready  for  setting  ! 

Preparations  are  made  as  described  with  the  addition 
of  topping  up  the  lower  boom  ready  for  rigging  out.  When 
the  officer  of  the  forecastle  reports — 

"All  ready  forward,  sir!"  command — 

Set  taut! 

Rig  out  !    Sway  to  hand  ! 

At  this  command,  the  booms  are  rigged  out  together; 
the  topgallant  studding-sails  swayed  aloft  and  just  clear  of 
the  topsail  brace-blocks,  the  topmast  studding-sail  above 
the  fore  brace-block,  and  the  inner  halliards  of  the  lower 
studding-sail  pulled  well  up.  The  men  then  shorten  in  on 
the  halliards,  when  command — 

Haul  taut !   Hoist  away  !    Fig,  4G0.     Out  squilgees  ! 

The  tacks  are  hauled  close  out  and  the  halliards  taut  up. 
Fig.  461. 

To  Take  thenn  In. 

Stand  by  to  take  in  all  the  starboard  (or  port)  sfuji'-sails! 

When  all  is  reported  ready — 

Haul  taut!  Ease  away  the  out-haul !  Clew  up  !  Lower 
away  ! 


312  MAKING  AND  TAKING  IN  SAIL. 

At  this,  the  lower  studding-sail  is  clewed  up,  the  topmast 
studding-sail  boom-ended,  and  the  topgallant  studding-sail 
started,  but  their  tacks  kept  fast. 

Haul  down  !    Rig  in  ! 

The  sails  and  booms  all  come  in  together. 

If  studding-sails  are  to  be  set  on  both  sides,  at  the  same 
time,  have  all  hands  called  to  *'make  sail,"  and  order. 
Starboard  watch,  starboard  side;  Port  watch,  port  side! 
..Then  command,  Sfaiid  by  to  set  sturV-snils  both  sides!  and 
proceed  as  in  setting-on  one  side,  taking  care  that  the  yards 
are  square,  and  the  lifts,  burtons,  and  braces,  well  taut. 

IlATidliiigr  Htii.ddiiis--Sa.ilR.  In  setting  stud- 
ding-sails in  a  strong  breeze,  iiyou  can  keep  the  ship  away 
until  they  are  becalmed,  you  will  get  them  up  and  well  set 
when  the  gear  would  not  otherwise  stand. 

In  bracing  forward,  studding-sail  tacks,  boom  braces, 
jumper  and  topping-lifts  require  careful  attention. 

In  bracing  in,  unless  the  boom  brace  be  manned,  the 
chances  will  be  in  favor  of  the  boom  going  anywhere  but  in 
a  line  with  the  yard. 

Preparatory  to  setting  studding-sails,  let  the  topgallant 
clewline  be  hauled  taut,  that  the  man  who  goes  out  on  the 
topsail-yard  may  have  something  to  hold  on  to ;  and  in 
hoisting  the  lower  studding-sail,  be  careful  that  the  yard  is 
not  brought  up  with  a  jerk  against  the  topmast  studding- 
sail  boom,  as  by  the  neglect  of  this  point,  the  bo<5m  is  often 
sprung.  After  the  sail  is  set,  the  topping-lift  should  be 
slacked  sufficiently  to  bring  the  outer  leech  taut. 

Topg-allaiit  Stii.ddinor-«aiIs«  In  taking  in 
topgallant  studding-sails,  ease  away  on  the  halliards  and 
haul  down  the  downhaul,  keeping  fast  the  tack  until  the 
yard  is  well  inside  the  leech  of  the  topgallant  sail,  when  you 
may  ease  off  the  tack,  and  by  hauling  down  on  the  sheet 
and  downhaul,  the  sail  comes  in  without  difficultv.  For 
should  the  tack  be  started  first,  the  sail  flies  forward  of  the 
topgallant  sail  and  causes  much  trouble. 

Topmast  Stiiddingr-Hails.  In  hauling  down, 
ease  away  the  tack  just  before  the  outer  arm  of  the  yard 
touches  tne  boom  end  :  and  if  the  tack  jambs,  which  is  not 
unf  requent,  rig  in  the  boom  at  once.  The  leverage  is  great, 
and  boom-irons  are  frequently  broken  in  this  way. 

In  dipping  the  main-topmast  studding-sail  before  the 
sail,  the  wind  will  be  just  enough  on  the  opposite  quarter  to 
glance  oflf  the  topsail  and  blow  the  inner  leech  aft.  If  the 
course  can  be  altered,  the  sail  may  readily  be  handled, 
otherwise  the  short  way  is  to  haul  aown,  stop  the  bowline 
in  on  the  main  yard,  and  set  the  studding-sail  before  all. 

l-jo^vei-  Stiiddiiig--sails.  Whenever  the  lower 
studding-sail  has  been  carried  with  the  yards  much  for- 
ward, get  a  good  pull  of  the  after-guy  before  starting  any- 
thing, else  the  lower  boom  will  fly  forward  when  the 
outhaul  is  let  go.  v 


MAKING   AND   TAKING   IN   SAIL.  313 

Should  the  lower  boom  get  under  the  bows,  and  the 
topmast  studding-sail  boom  be  in,  put  the  lower  halliards 
with  a  bowline  knot  round  the  lower  boom,  and  haul  them 
out  with  the  lower  outhaul ;  then,  with  these  and  the  top- 
ping-lift from  the  fore  yard,  it  may  be  got  up.  If  not, 
secure  the  heel,  disconnect  the  goose-neck,  and  whip  the 
spar  up  heel  foremost. 

Of  course,  if  the  ship  can  be  kept  away,  and  the  fore- 
yard  braced  in,  all  will  be  easier. 

The  operation  of  taking  in  a  lower  studding-sail  may  be 
CTeatly  facilitated  by  giving  the  ship  a  sufficiency  of  weather 
nelm  to  "touch"  the  inner  leech.  Luffing  under  such  cir- 
cumstances might  be  attended  with  loss  oi  booms. 

When  the  iib  is  drawing  (excepting  possibly  in  a  ship 
with  great  drift  from  the  head  booms  to  the  foremast),  the 
lower  studding-sail  cannot  be  doing  any  good  service. 

Sqixai^e  SailK,,  &e.  In  loosing  a  sail,  whether  it 
be  blowing  fresh  or  not,  the  yard-arm  and  outer  gaskets 
should  be  cast  oflf  firsty  for  otherwise  the  weight  of  the 
bunt  would  jamb  them,  and  render  cutting  necessary  to  get 
them  clear. 

In  taking  in  a  topsail,  the  weather  sheet  is  started  first, 
to  prevent  the  sail  from  flapping,  of  which  there  would  be 
danger  if  it  were  taken  in  the  opposite  way.  This  rule 
appues  equally  to  courses,  as  the  beliy  of  the  sail  thus  blows 
up  against  the  stays,  and  is  prevented  from  splitting.  Re- 
meinber  that  the  lee  lower  lift  should  be  hauled  well  taut 
before  starting  the  tack,  lest  the  sudden  upward  spring  of 
the  weather  yard-arm  should  endanger  the  lee  leecn  of  the 
topsail,  and  instead  of  letting  go,  ease  the  bowline  off  hand- 
somely with  the  tack. 

In  setting  either  courses  or  topsails,  in  blowing  weather, 
the  rule  seems  to  be  invariable  in  reference  to  sheeting 
home  to  leeward  first — the  reason  for  which  is  to  prevent 
the  sails  from  flapping  ;  and  if  the  wind  is  quartering,  the 
yard  should  be  well  braced  in  before  the  sails  are  set. 

In  hoisting  sails,  from  a  royal  to  a  close-reefed  topsail^ 
the  lee  brace  ought  invariably  to  be  let  go,  and  the  weather 
one  tended.  As  the  latter  is  eased  away,  and  the  sail 
hoisted^  the  yard  will  cant  of  itself,  till  the  leech  is  taut, 
which  18  the  indication  of  the  sail  being  up.  If  everything 
is  clear,  there  will  be  no  necessity  for  hauling  in  the  lee 
brace  while  hoisting. 

In  taking  in  a  royal  or  topgallant  sail,  the  lee  sheet  is 
started  first  and  clewed  up  to  spill  the  sail ;  for  when  blow- 
ing fresh,  if  the  contrary  practice  was  adopted  the  yard 
would  probably  fly  fore-and-aft,  part  the  brace  and  risK  the 
mast,  which  is  of  far  more  consequence  than  the  sail.  The 
weather  sh^et  must  be  eased  off  after  the  yard  is  clewed 
down,  which  can  be  done  better  by  hauling  in  on  the 
weather  brace  at  the  same  time.    Lay  the  yard  and  keep 


3U  MAKING   AND  TAKING  IN   SAIL. 

the  sail  well  spilled  with  the  helm  until  the  gaskets  are 
passed. 

If  before  the  wind,  keep  both  sheets  fast  until  the  yaiti 
is  down ;  then  clew  up  ana  brace  by. 

The  parrels  of  these  yards  are  generally  slack,  and  the 

Jards  should  be  bound  when  possible,  against  the  rigging, 
y  bracing  in. 

A  royal  carried  too  long  before,  or  a  studding-sail  carried 
too  long  near  the  wind,  cannot  do  the  least  good.  If  the 
"trimmer  "  is  consulted  while  carrying  a  press  of  lofty  sail 
before  the  wind,  the  ship  will  be  found  to  be  excessively  out 
of  trim  by  the  head.  iTear  the  wind,  the  topgallant  stud- 
ding-sail is  fore-and-aft,  bellying  to  leeward,  and  taking  the 
vrind  out  of  the  topgallant  sail. 

In  conclusion,  tne  following  general  principle  of  handling 
sails  may  be  stated  : 

In  taking  in  a  sail  of  any  kind,  endeavor  to  spill  it ;  the 
more  wind  it  holds  the  harder  it  will  be  to  manage. 

Letting  ^o  a  lee  sheet  spills  any  sail,  but  in  resorting  to 
this  method,  in  a  fresh  breeze,  the  sail  may  be  split,  and 
the  larger  the  sail  the  more  dangerous  it  is  to  allow  of  its 
shaking. 

To  relieve  a  ship  quickly  in  case  of  danger,  the  lee  sheet 
must  of  course  be  let  go,  even  at  the  expense  of  the  sail ;  but 
where  it  is  not  a  question  of  danger,  and  the  object  is  to 
obtain  prompt  and  complete  control  of  a  sail,  there  is  a  power- 
ful agent  available  for  the  purpose  of  becalming  canvas, 
and  thus  securing  its  easy  management.  This  agent  is  the 
hehn,  which  is  often  more  useful  than  any  clewlines  or 
buntlines,  and  more  efficacious  than  any  number  of  extra 
hands. 

With  the  wind /ori^^ard  of  the  heam^  for  instance,  taking 
in  any  square  sail  from  a  course  to  a  royal  is  rendered 
much  easier  by  a  few  spokes  of  lee  helm.  Similarly  with 
the  wind  abaft  the  beamy  a  topmast  or  lower  stun'-sail  is 
handled  with  comparative  ease  if  becalmed  by  a  like  amount 
of  tveather  helm. 

In  all  cases  of  making  or  taking  in  sail,  remember  the 
importance  of  looking  out  for  the  gear  tended,  as  well  as  for 
that  which  is  mannea. 


CHAPTER     XXII. 

WORKING   TO    WINDWARD. 

emninrO— TACKING  —  missing  stats  —  wearing  —  box-hauling  —  WBABXNe 

8H0BT  BOUND — CLUB-HAULING,  ETC. 


STEERING. 

In  general  a  ship^  trimming  by  the  head,  carries  a  taut 
■weather  helm.  If,  on  the  contrary,  she  is  too  much  by  the 
stem,  she  will  carry  a  lee  or  slack  helm. 

When  by  the  windy  a  tremulous  motion  in  the  cloths  of 
the  mainsail  will  always  indicate  that  the  ship  is  then  at 
the  desired  point  of  "full  and  by" — for  when  sailing  thus 
obliquely  to  the  breeze,  the  dog- vane  does  not  show  the  true 
direction  of  the  wind. 

When  steering  a  course,  much  will  depend  upon  the 
helmsman  anticipating,  or  checking  the  ship  in  her  inclina- 
tion to  yaw  to  starboard  or  to  port ;  nor  must  he  trust  too 
much  to  the  compass-card,  but  alternately  watch  the  card, 
and  the  motion  of  the  vessel's  head  passing  the  clouds,  the 
sea,  or  any  other  obiects  which  may  present  themselves  to 
view,  more  fixed  than  the  compass  itself.  In  blowing 
weather,  the  feel  of  the  helm  and  the  force  of  the  wind  are 
nice  criterions  to  judge  whether  the  vessel  be  falling  off  or 
coming  to.  As  the  vessel  comes  to  against  the  helm,  it  will 
appear  heavier,  and  the  wind  drawing  forward  will  seem 
stronger.  On  the  contrary,  as  she  goes  off,  and  gives  way 
to  the  power  of  the  helm,  it  eases  in  the  hand,  while  at  the 
same  time  the  wind  lessens  in  its  force  as  it  draws  more 
abaft.  To  an  attentive  and  nice  observer,  these  circum- 
stances, though  seemingly  trifling  in  themselves,  indicate 
the  motion  of  the  vessel  sooner  than  the  compass.  The 
stars  or  the  breaking  of  the  waves,  at  night,  may  also  assist 
to  prevent  yawing  tne  vessel  about. 

Use  as  little  helm — technically,  small  helm,  as  possible. 
This  rule  should  be  impressed  upon  beginners. 

315 


310  WORKING  TO  WINDWARD. 

The  leech  of  the  mainsail  is  always  best  to  steer  by 
when  blowing  fresh  ;  and  when  the  wind  is  very  light,  the 
main  royal.  It  frequently  occurs  with  an  old  sea  on,  in 
light  airs,  that  the  sails  all  flap  to  the  masts  with  every  roll, 
and  render  it  extremely  diflScult  to  tell  when  the  ship  is 
near  the  wind.  If,  under  these  circumstances,  the  officer 
of  the  deck  will  occasionally  walk  to  the  lee  side,  and  cast 
his  eye  up  on  the  fore  part,  or  front  of  the  light  sails,  he  can 
more  easily  tell  when  the  ship  is  near  the  wind,  as  the  dif- 
ference  sometimes  amounts  to  more  than  a  point  in  the 
course  which  the  ship  might  make. 

Oonniiig'  is  the  art  of  directing  the  helmsman  to 
steer  the  ship  on  her  proper  course  by  compass  or  by  the 
wind ;  the  person  who  performs  this  duty  is  generally  the 
quartermaster  or  pilot.  By  means  of  dial  plates  and  an- 
nunciators, worked  either  automatically  or  by  electricity, 
the  angle  of  the  rudder,  at  any  moment,  may  be  seen,  and 
any  change  can  be  communicated  to  the  man  at  the  wheel 
by  the  officer  on  the  bridge.  The  following  are  some  of  the 
terms  used  in  conning  ship  :  When  steering  by  compass  or 
landmarks,  and  it  is  desirable  that  the  vessel's  bows  should 
go  to  the  left,  or  to  port,  the  order  is  given.  Starboard  f 
Whereupon  the  helmsman  turns  the  spokes  of  the  wheel 
over  to  port,  or  in  the  same  direction  the  ship's  head  is  to 
go,  and  this  according  to  the  usual  method  of  arranging  the 
steering  gear,  has  the  effect  of  sending  the  tiller  to  star- 
board, ana  consequently  of  presenting  the  port  side  of  the 
rudder  to  the  action  of  the  water. 

Hard  a-starhoard!  means  to  heave  the  wheel  over,  so 
that  the  tiller  will  go  to  the  extreme  limit.  When  the 
vessel's  head  p|oints  in  the  right  direction,  the  order  is 
given.  Steady !  if  slightly  to  the  right  of  her  course,  needing 
to  go  very  little  to  the  left,  the  order  is  given,  Steady  a-star- 
board — that  is,  steady  as  she  goes,  but  a  little  to  starboard 
with  the  helm,  if  anything.  In  the  same  way  to  send  the 
ship's  head  to  starboard,  order :  Port,  Hard  a-jport.  Steady 
a-port.  The  terms  wheel  and  helm  are  used  inaiscrimi-' 
nately. 

Meet  her!  When  the  ship's  head  flies  to  starboard  or 
port  in  obedience  to  the  helm,  then,  as  she  approaches  her 
course  the  wheel  is  hove,  spoke  by  spoke,  the  opposite  way, 
to  check  her  gradually  that  her  head  may  not  pass  the  de- 
sired point. 

Should  the  ship  be  standing  along  on  a  bowline,  and  the 
quartermaster  i)erceive  a  cloth  or  two  of  the  main-topsail  to 
be  lifting,  he  cries  out,  No  higher  !  by  which  he  means  that 
the  ship  is  not  only  too  high,  or  too  near  the  wind,  but  that 
she  should  go  off  a  little.  Whereupon  the  helmsman  gives 
her  a  spoke  or  so,  of  the  weather  wheel.    On  the  contrary. 


WORKING  TO  WINDWARD.  317 

should  the  quartermaster  observe  that  the  vessel  was  not 
quite  near  enough,  he  would  say,  Nothing  off!  meaning  to 
let  her  come  to  the  wind,  when  the  helmsman  must  ease 
the  wheel  and  permit  her  to  come  up.  When  the  ship  is 
a  Rood  full  and  by,  he  sajs,  Very  ivell  thus!  Again,  he 
orders,  Luff !  Let  her  luff  I  when  the